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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930818/pyridine-nucleotide-transhydrogenase-pntab-is-essential-for-optimal-growth-and-photosynthetic-integrity-under-low-light-mixotrophic-conditions-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#1
Jari Kämäräinen, Tuomas Huokko, Sanna Kreula, Patrik R Jones, Eva-Mari Aro, Pauli Kallio
Pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (PntAB) is an integral membrane protein complex participating in the regulation of NAD(P)(+) :NAD(P)H redox homeostasis in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In the present study we addressed the function and biological role of PntAB in oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacteria capable of both autotrophic and heterotrophic growth, with support from structural three-dimensional (3D)-modeling. The pntA gene encoding the α subunit of heteromultimeric PntAB in Synechocystis sp...
December 8, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922601/the-effect-of-extrinsic-mortality-on-genome-size-evolution-in-prokaryotes
#2
Piotr Bentkowski, Cock van Oosterhout, Ben Ashby, Thomas Mock
Mortality has a significant role in prokaryotic ecology and evolution, yet the impact of variations in extrinsic mortality on prokaryotic genome evolution has received little attention. We used both mathematical and agent-based models to reveal how variations in extrinsic mortality affect prokaryotic genome evolution. Our results suggest that the genome size of bacteria increases with increased mortality. A high extrinsic mortality increases the pool of free resources and shortens life expectancy, which selects for faster reproduction, a phenotype we called 'scramblers'...
December 6, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916886/cyanobacteria-as-chassis-for-industrial-biotechnology-progress-and-prospects
#3
REVIEW
Lamya Al-Haj, Yuen Tin Lui, Raeid M M Abed, Mohamed A Gomaa, Saul Purton
Cyanobacteria hold significant potential as industrial biotechnology (IB) platforms for the production of a wide variety of bio-products ranging from biofuels such as hydrogen, alcohols and isoprenoids, to high-value bioactive and recombinant proteins. Underpinning this technology, are the recent advances in cyanobacterial "omics" research, the development of improved genetic engineering tools for key species, and the emerging field of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. These approaches enabled the development of elaborate metabolic engineering programs aimed at creating designer strains tailored for different IB applications...
November 30, 2016: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916300/seasonal-induced-changes-in-spinach-rhizosphere-microbial-community-structure-with-varying-salinity-and-drought
#4
A Mark Ibekwe, Selda Ors, Jorge F S Ferreira, Xuan Liu, Donald L Suarez
Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913024/impact-of-wastewater-treatment-plant-discharge-on-the-contamination-of-river-biofilms-by-pharmaceuticals-and-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Elodie Aubertheau, Thibault Stalder, Leslie Mondamert, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Dagot, Jérôme Labanowski
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of pharmaceutical residue in surface water. Epilithic biofilms were collected downstream from 12 WWTPs of various types and capacities to study the impacts of their discharge through the changes in biofilm composition (compared to a corresponding upstream biofilm) in terms of pharmaceutical concentrations and bacterial community modifications (microbial diversity and resistance integrons). The biofilm is a promising indicator to evaluate the impacts of WWTPs on the surrounding aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912128/time-to-grow-circadian-regulation-of-growth-and-metabolism-in-photosynthetic-organisms
#6
REVIEW
Santiago Mora-García, María José de Leone, Marcelo Yanovsky
Circadian clocks are molecular devices that help adjust organisms to periodic environmental changes. Although formally described as self-sustaining oscillators that are synchronized by external cues and produce defined outputs, it is increasingly clear that physiological processes not only are regulated by, but also regulate the function of the clock. We discuss three recent examples of the intimate relationships between the function of the clock, growth and metabolism in photosynthetic organisms: the daily tracking of sun by sunflowers, the fine computations plants and cyanobacteria perform to manage carbon reserves and prevent starvation, and the changes in clock parameters that went along with domestication of tomato...
November 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912017/cyanobacteria-facilitate-parasite-epidemics-in-daphnia
#7
C Tellenbach, N Tardent, F Pomati, B Keller, N G Hairston, J Wolinska, P Spaak
The seasonal dominance of cyanobacteria in the phytoplankton community of lake ecosystems can have severe implications for higher trophic levels. For herbivorous zooplankton such as Daphnia, cyanobacteria have poor nutritional value and some species can produce toxins affecting zooplankton survival and reproduction. Here we present another, hitherto largely unexplored aspect of cyanobacteria, namely that they can increase Daphnia susceptibility to parasites. In a 12-yr monthly time-series analysis of the Daphnia community in Greifensee (Switzerland), we observed that cyanobacteria density correlated significantly with the epidemics of a common gut parasite of Daphnia, Caullerya mesnili, regardless of what cyanobacteria species was present or whether it was colonial or filamentous...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911807/enhanced-limonene-production-in-cyanobacteria-reveals-photosynthesis-limitations
#8
Xin Wang, Wei Liu, Changpeng Xin, Yi Zheng, Yanbing Cheng, Su Sun, Runze Li, Xin-Guang Zhu, Susie Y Dai, Peter M Rentzepis, Joshua S Yuan
Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911078/laboratory-grown-subaerial-biofilms-on-granite-application-to-the-study-of-bioreceptivity
#9
Daniel Vázquez-Nion, Benita Silva, Federica Troiano, Beatriz Prieto
Simulated environmental colonisation of granite was induced under laboratory conditions in order to develop an experimental protocol for studying bioreceptivity. The experimental set-up proved suitable for producing subaerial biofilms by inoculating granite blocks with planktonic multi-species phototrophic cultures derived from natural biofilms. The ability of four different cultures to form biofilms was monitored over a three-month growth period via colour measurements, quantification of photosynthetic pigments and EPS, and CLSM observations...
December 2, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910631/a-simple-approach-to-spectrally-resolved-fluorescence-and-bright-field-microscopy-over-select-regions-of-interest
#10
Peter D Dahlberg, Christopher T Boughter, Nabil F Faruk, Lu Hong, Young Hoon Koh, Matthew A Reyer, Alon Shaiber, Aiman Sherani, Jiacheng Zhang, Justin E Jureller, Adam T Hammond
A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909777/quantitative-determination-of-the-neurotoxin-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-by-capillary-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Elliott S Kerrin, Robert L White, Michael A Quilliam
Recent reports of the widespread occurrence of the neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in cyanobacteria and particularly seafood have raised concerns for public health. LC-MS/MS is currently the analytical method of choice for BMAA determinations but incomplete separation of isomeric and isobaric compounds, matrix suppression and conjugated forms are plausible limitations. In this study, capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with MS/MS has been developed as an alternative method for the quantitative determination of free BMAA...
December 1, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909431/the-microbiota-of-recreational-freshwaters-and-the-implications-for-environmental-and-public-health
#12
Chang Soo Lee, Minseok Kim, Cheonghoon Lee, Zhongtang Yu, Jiyoung Lee
The microbial communities in recreational freshwaters play important roles in both environmental and public health perspectives. In this study, the bacterial community structure and its associations with freshwater environments were investigated by analyzing the summertime microbiomes of three beach waters in Ohio (East Fork, Delaware, and Madison lakes) together with environmental and microbial water quality parameters. From the swimming season of 2009, 21 water samples were collected from the three freshwater beaches...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909430/bacterial-active-community-cycling-in-response-to-solar-radiation-and-their-influence-on-nutrient-changes-in-a-high-altitude-wetland
#13
Verónica Molina, Klaudia Hernández, Cristina Dorador, Yoanna Eissler, Martha Hengst, Vilma Pérez, Chris Harrod
Microbial communities inhabiting high-altitude spring ecosystems are subjected to extreme changes in solar irradiance and temperature throughout the diel cycle. Here, using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing (cDNA) we determined the composition of actively transcribing bacteria from spring waters experimentally exposed through the day (morning, noon, and afternoon) to variable levels of solar radiation and light quality, and evaluated their influence on nutrient recycling. Solar irradiance, temperature, and changes in nutrient dynamics were associated with changes in the active bacterial community structure, predominantly by Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and 35 other Phyla, including the recently described Candidate Phyla Radiation (e...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909300/cyanobacterial-photoprotection-by-the-orange-carotenoid-protein
#14
REVIEW
Diana Kirilovsky, Cheryl A Kerfeld
In photosynthetic organisms, the production of dangerous oxygen species is stimulated under high irradiance. To cope with this stress, these organisms have evolved photoprotective mechanisms. One type of mechanism functions to decrease the energy arriving at the photochemical centres by increasing thermal dissipation at the level of antennae. In cyanobacteria, the trigger for this mechanism is the photoactivation of a soluble carotenoid protein, the orange carotenoid protein (OCP), which is a structurally and functionally modular protein...
December 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907245/biodegradation-of-the-aminopolyphosphonate-dtpmp-by-the-cyanobacterium-anabaena-variabilis-proceeds-via-a-c-p-lyase-independent-pathway
#15
Damian Drzyzga, Giuseppe Forlani, Jochen Vermander, Paweł Kafarski, Jacek Lipok
Cyanobacteria, the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, play a major role in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus global cycling. Under conditions of increased P availability and nutrient loading, some cyanobacteria are capable of blooming, rapidly multiplying and possibly altering the ecological structure of the ecosystem. Because of their ability of using non-conventional P sources, these microalgae can be used for bioremediation purposes. Under this perspective, the metabolization of the polyphosphonate diethylenetriaminepenta(methylenephosphonic) acid (DTPMP) by the strain CCALA 007 of Anabaena variabilis was investigated using (31) P NMR analysis...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904937/separation-of-cyclic-lipopeptide-puwainaphycins-from-cyanobacteria-by-countercurrent-chromatography-combined-with-polymeric-resins-and-hplc
#16
José Cheel, Petra Urajová, Jan Hájek, Pavel Hrouzek, Marek Kuzma, Elodie Bouju, Karine Faure, Jiří Kopecký
Puwainaphycins are a recently described group of β-amino fatty acid cyclic lipopeptides of cyanobacterial origin that possess interesting biological activities. Therefore, the development of an efficient method for their isolation from natural sources is necessary. Following the consecutive adsorption of the crude extract on Amberlite XAD-16 and XAD-7 resins, countercurrent chromatography (CCC) was applied to separate seven puwainaphycin variants from a soil cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermum alatosporum CCALA 988)...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903612/the-role-of-4u-as-an-extended-translation-termination-signal-in-bacteria
#17
Yulong Wei, Xuhua Xia
Termination efficiency of stop codons depends on the first 3' flanking (+4) base in bacteria and eukaryotes. In both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, termination read-through is reduced in the presence of +4U; however, the molecular mechanism underlying +4U function is poorly understood. Here, we perform comparative genomics analysis on 25 bacterial species (covering Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetae) with bioinformatics approaches to examine the influence of +4U in bacterial translation termination by contrasting between highly and lowly expressed genes (HEGs and LEGs)...
November 30, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902440/synechococcus-diversity-along-a-trophic-gradient-in-the-osterseen-lake-district-bavaria
#18
Joachim Ruber, Franziska Bauer, Andrew Millard, Uta Raeder, Jürgen Geist, Katrin Zwirglmaier
Picocyanobacteria are important primary producers in freshwater, however there is still a knowledge gap regarding their diversity at the strain level. For this reason, the microbial diversity of four lakes with different trophic states was investigated by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene using universal primers. The study was performed in selected lakes of the Osterseen Lake District, Germany, from 2012 to 2014 (Lake Schiffhuettensee: eutrophic; Lake Ostersee: meso-oligotrophic; Lake Groebensee: oligotrophic; Lake Lustsee: oligotrophic)...
November 1, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902306/description-of-gloeomargarita-lithophora-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-thylakoid-bearing-basal-branching-cyanobacterium-with-intracellular-carbonates-and-proposal-for-gloeomargaritales-ord-nov
#19
David Moreira, Rosaluz Tavera, Karim Benzerara, Fériel Skouri-Panet, Estelle Couradeau, Emmanuelle Gérard, Céline Loussert Fonta, Eberto Novelo, Yvan Zivanovic, Purificación López-García
A unicellular cyanobacterium, strain Alchichica-D10, was isolated from microbialites of the alkaline Lake Alchichica, Mexico. The cells were short rods (3.9 ± 0.6 μm in length and 1.1 ± 0.1 μm in width) forming biofilms of intense emerald green color. They exhibited red autofluorescence under UV light excitation. UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that they contain chlorophyll a and phycocyanin, and electron microscopy showed the presence of thylakoids. The strain grew within a temperature range of 15-30 °C...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899668/cyanobase-%C3%A2-a-large-scale-update-on-its-20th-anniversary
#20
Takatomo Fujisawa, Rei Narikawa, Shin-Ichi Maeda, Satoru Watanabe, Yu Kanesaki, Koichi Kobayashi, Jiro Nomata, Mitsumasa Hanaoka, Mai Watanabe, Shigeki Ehira, Eiji Suzuki, Koichiro Awai, Yasukazu Nakamura
The first ever cyanobacterial genome sequence was determined two decades ago and CyanoBase (http://genome.microbedb.jp/cyanobase), the first database for cyanobacteria was simultaneously developed to allow this genomic information to be used more efficiently. Since then, CyanoBase has constantly been extended and has received several updates. Here, we describe a new large-scale update of the database, which coincides with its 20th anniversary. We have expanded the number of cyanobacterial genomic sequences from 39 to 376 species, which consists of 86 complete and 290 draft genomes...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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