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Cyanobacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437774/bacterial-community-dynamics-and-functional-variation-during-the-long-term-decomposition-of-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-vitro
#1
Limei Shi, Yaxin Huang, Min Zhang, Yang Yu, Yaping Lu, Fanxiang Kong
Cyanobacterial blooms drastically influence carbon and nutrient cycling in eutrophic freshwater lakes. To understand the mineralization process of cyanobacteria-derived particulate organic matter (CyanPOM), the aerobic degradation of cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. was investigated over a 95-day microcosm experiment. Approximately 91%, 95% and 83% of the initial particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), and particulate organic phosphorus (POP) were decomposed, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436942/diversity-and-ecological-adaptations-in-palaeogene-lichens
#2
Ulla Kaasalainen, Alexander R Schmidt, Jouko Rikkinen
Lichens are highly specialized symbioses between heterotrophic fungi and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria. The mycobionts of many lichens produce morphologically complex thalli to house their photobionts. Lichens play important roles in ecosystems and have been used as indicators of environmental change. Here we report the finding of 152 new fossil lichens from European Palaeogene amber, and hence increase the total number of known fossil lichens from 15 to 167. Most of the fossils represent extant lineages of the Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-symbiotic class of Ascomycota...
April 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433693/cyanotoxins-which-detection-technique-for-an-optimum-risk-assessment
#3
Virginie Gaget, Melody Lau, Barbara Sendall, Suzanne Froscio, Andrew R Humpage
The presence of toxigenic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in drinking water reservoirs poses a risk to human and animal health worldwide. Guidelines and health alert levels have been issued in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines for three major toxins, which are therefore the subject of routine monitoring: microcystin, cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin. While it is agreed that these toxic compounds should be monitored closely, the routine surveillance of these bioactive chemicals can be done in various ways and deciding which technique to use can therefore be challenging...
April 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430539/metabolic-pathway-rewiring-in-engineered-cyanobacteria-for-solar-to-chemical-and-solar-to-fuel-production-from-co2
#4
Han Min Woo
Photoautotrophic cyanobacteria have been developed to convert CO2 to valuable chemicals and fuels as solar-to-chemical (S2C) and solar-to-fuel (S2F) platforms. Here, I describe the rewiring of the metabolic pathways in cyanobacteria to better understand the endogenous carbon flux and to enhance the yield of heterologous products. The plasticity of the cyanobacterial metabolism has been proposed to be advantageous for the development of S2C and S2F processes. The rewiring of the sugar catabolism and of the phosphoketolase pathway in the central cyanobacterial metabolism allowed for an enhancement in the level of target products by redirecting the carbon fluxes...
April 21, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430105/switching-of-metabolic-programs-in-response-to-light-availability-is-an-essential-function-of-the-cyanobacterial-circadian-output-pathway
#5
Anna M Puszynska, Erin K O'Shea
The transcription factor RpaA is the master regulator of circadian transcription in cyanobacteria, driving genome-wide oscillations in mRNA abundance. Deletion of rpaA has no effect on viability in constant light conditions, but renders cells inviable in cycling conditions when light and dark periods alternate. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this viability defect, and demonstrate that the rpaA(-) strain cannot maintain appropriate energy status at night, does not accumulate carbon reserves during the day, and is defective in transcription of genes crucial for utilization of carbohydrate stores at night...
April 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429526/sll1783-a-monooxygenase-associated-with-polysaccharide-processing-in-the-unicellular-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-pcc-6803
#6
Hélder Miranda, Peter Immerzeel, Lorenz Gerber, Katarina Hörnaeus, Sara Bergström Lind, Bagmi Pattanaik, Pia Lindberg, Fikret Mamedov, Peter Lindblad
Cyanobacteria play a pivotal role as the primary producer in many aquatic ecosystems. The knowledge on the interacting processes of cyanobacteria with its environment - abiotic and biotic factors - is still very limited. Many potential exocytoplasmic proteins in the model unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 have unknown functions and their study is essential to improve our understanding of this photosynthetic organism and its potential for biotechnology use. Here we characterize a deletion mutant of Synechocystis PCC 6803, ∆sll1783, a strain that showed a remarkably high light resistance which is related with its lower thylakoid membrane formation...
April 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428958/debromoaplysiatoxin-as-the-causative-agent-of-dermatitis-in-a-dog-after-exposure-to-freshwater-in-california
#7
Birgit Puschner, Adrienne C Bautista, Chris Wong
Contamination of recreational waters with cyanobacterial toxins continues to increase and presents a risk to animals and humans. Although cases of acute hepato- and neurotoxicoses in dogs following cyanotoxin exposure exist, no reports of skin-related reactions in dogs exist. A 5-year-old female spayed 34 kg Bracco Italiano was initially presented for rapid onset of severe pruritus and urticaria. Marked excoriation and erythema were noted over the chest and neck, while urticaria was noted in the inguinal regions and ventral abdomen...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428819/lipid-production-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-for-regulation-of-accd-gene-in-cyanobacteria-under-different-n-and-p-regimes
#8
Roshan Kumar, Koushik Biswas, Puneet Kumar Singh, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Sanniyasi Elumalai, Pratyoosh Shukla, Sunil Pabbi
BACKGROUND: Microalgae grown under different nutrient deficient conditions present a good source of natural lipids with applications for several types of biofuels. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene can further provide an insight to the mechanisms leading to enhanced lipid production under such stresses. In this study, two nutrients viz. nitrogen and phosphorus were modulated to see its effect on lipid productivity in selected cyanobacteria and its correlation with Accase followed by molecular dynamics simulation...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428249/crystal-structure-and-redox-properties-of-a-novel-cyanobacterial-heme-protein-with-a-his-cys-heme-axial-ligation-and-a-per-arnt-sim-pas-like-domain
#9
Taiki Motomura, Michihiro Suga, Rainer Hienerwadel, Akiko Nakagawa, Thanh-Lan Lai, Wolfgang Nitschke, Takahiro Kuma, Miwa Sugiura, Alain Boussac, Jain-Ren Shen
Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-induced water oxidation leading to the generation of dioxygen indispensable for sustaining aerobic life on Earth. The PSII reaction center is composed of D1 and D2 proteins encoded by the psbA and psbD genes, respectively. In cyanobacteria, different psbA genes are present in the genome. The thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus contains 3 psbA genes, psbA1, psbA2 and psbA3 and a new c-type heme protein, Tll0287, was found to be expressed in a strain expressing the psbA2 gene only, but the structure and function of Tll0287 are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428069/assessment-of-non-derivatized-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-neurotoxin-in-free-form-in-urine-of-patients-with-nonspecific-neurological-symptoms
#10
L Bláhová, J Kohoutek, E Kadlecová, L Kozáková, L Bláha
The beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid discussed to be produced by cyanobacteria forming harmful blooms. Since BMAA is suspected etiological agent in neurodegenerative diseases, there is a need to study and validate whether and in what concentrations can BMAA be present in human tissues. The aim of the present study was to validate analytical and extraction procedures for quantification of non-derivatized BMAA in the urine using liquid chromatography and commercial ELISA Kit...
April 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427573/spatial-and-temporal-variations-reveal-the-response-of-zooplankton-to-cyanobacteria
#11
Junmei Jia, Wenqing Shi, Qiuwen Chen, Torben L Lauridsen
The effects of cyanobacteria on zooplankton abundance, structure and diversity were investigated, based on a systematic study on spatial and temporal variations of cyanobacteria and zooplankton in Lake Taihu from 1998 to 2007. It was found that similar increasing trends of cyanobacteria/phytoplankton ratios were accompanied by different trends in biomass, composition and biodiversity of zooplankton in different regions of the lake; the cladocerans benefitted from the increase in cyanobacteria; however, rotifers and protozoans were negatively affected by cyanobacteria...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427571/targeted-deep-sequencing-reveals-high-diversity-and-variable-dominance-of-bloom-forming-cyanobacteria-in-eutrophic-lakes
#12
Yongguang Jiang, Peng Xiao, Yang Liu, Jiangxin Wang, Renhui Li
Cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic lakes are severe environmental problems worldwide. To characterize the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of cyanobacterial blooms, a high-throughput method is necessary for the specific detection of cyanobacteria. In this study, the cyanobacterial composition of three eutrophic waters in China (Taihu Lake, Dongqian Lake, and Dongzhen Reservoir) was determined by pyrosequencing the cpcBA intergenic spacer (cpcBA-IGS) of cyanobacteria. A total of 2585 OTUs were obtained from the normalized cpcBA-IGS sequence dataset at a distance of 0...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425950/diversity-analysis-and-bioresource-characterization-of-halophilic-bacteria-isolated-from-a-south-african-saltpan
#13
Ramganesh Selvarajan, Timothy Sibanda, Memory Tekere, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Stephen Meddows-Taylor
Though intensive research has been channeled towards the biotechnological applications of halophiles and other extremophilic microbes, these studies have not been, by any means, exhaustive. Saline environments still offer a vast diversity of microbes with potential to produce an array of natural products which can only be unlocked by concerted research efforts. In this study, a combination of culture and molecular approaches were employed to characterize halophilic bacteria from saltpan water samples and profile their potential biotechnological applications...
April 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423343/chitosan-as-coagulant-on-cyanobacteria-in-lake-restoration-management-may-cause-rapid-cell-lysis
#14
Maíra Mucci, Natalia Pessoa Noyma, Leonardo de Magalhães, Marcela Miranda, Frank van Oosterhout, Iamê Alves Guedes, Vera L M Huszar, Marcelo Manzi Marinho, Miquel Lürling
Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show that chitosan may rapidly compromise membrane integrity and kill certain cyanobacteria leading to release of cell contents in the water. A strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and one strain of Planktothrix agardhii were most sensitive...
April 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423314/cyanobacteria-maintain-constant-protein-concentration-despite-genome-copy-number-variation
#15
Xiao-Yu Zheng, Erin K O'Shea
The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has multiple copies of its single chromosome, and the copy number varies in individual cells, providing an ideal system to study the effect of genome copy-number variation on cell size and gene expression. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging, we found that protein concentration remained constant across individual cells regardless of genome copy number. Cell volume and the total protein amount from a single gene were both positively, linearly correlated with genome copy number, suggesting that changes in cell volume play an important role in buffering genome copy-number variance...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421438/analysis-of-fatty-acid-composition-revealed-differences-in-the-diets-of-tadpoles-of-two-amphibian-species
#16
Yu Yu Dgebuadze, N N Sushchik, I V Bashinskiy, O N Makhutova, G S Kalacheva, V V Osipov, M I Gladyshev
The study of the composition of fatty acid markers of tadpoles of cohabiting amphibian species for the first time revealed differences in their diets: the moor frog Rana arvalis prefers bacteria not associated with plant detritus, whereas the diet of the common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus is based on cyanobacteria, green algae, diatoms, and possibly higher plants. Major differences in the fatty acid composition are determined by the difference in the percentage of eicosapentaenoic and myristic acids.
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419973/antibacterial-antifungal-and-antimycobacterial-compounds-from-cyanobacteria
#17
REVIEW
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Infections from multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain progressively intractable. The search of effective antimicrobials from other possible non-conventional sources against MDR pathogenic bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria is call of the day. This review considers 121 cyanobacterial compounds or cyano-compounds with antimicrobial activities. Chemical structures of cyano-compounds were retrieved from ChemSpider and PubChem databases and were visualized by the software ChemDraw Ultra...
April 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419829/characterization-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-produced-by-synechocystis-salina-from-digestate-supernatant
#18
Adriana Kovalcik, Katharina Meixner, Matthias Mihalic, Wolfgang Zeilinger, Ines Fritz, Werner Fuchs, Pavel Kucharczyk, Franz Stelzer, Bernhard Drosg
The current commercial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is based on heterotrophic bacteria, using organic carbon sources from crops. To avoid the competition with food and feed production, cyanobacteria, metabolising PHA from carbon dioxide can be used. This research focuses on the investigation of the thermal and rheological properties of PHA polymers accumulated by Synechocystis salina, which had been cultivated in digestate supernatant and a mineral medium. The dried bacterial cells had a polymer content of 5...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419460/land-plants-drive-photorespiration-as-higher-electron-sink-comparative-study-of-post-illumination-transient-o2-uptake-rates-from-liverworts-to-angiosperms-through-ferns-and-gymnosperms
#19
Hitomi Hanawa, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Kana Nohira, Daisuke Takagi, Ginga Shimakawa, Takehiro Sejima, Kei-Ichiro Shaku, Amane Makino, Chikahiro Miyake
In higher plants, the electron-sink capacity of photorespiration contributes to alleviation of photoinhibition by dissipating excess energy under conditions when photosynthesis is limited. We addressed the question at what point in the evolution of photosynthetic organisms photorespiration began to function as electron sink and replaced the flavodiiron proteins which catalyze the reduction of O2 at photosystem I in cyanobacteria. Algae do not have a higher activity of photorespiration when CO2 assimilation is limited, and it can therefore not act as an electron sink...
April 17, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419380/%C3%AE-carboxysome-bioinformatics-identification-and-evolution-of-new-bacterial-microcompartment-protein-gene-classes-and-core-locus-constraints
#20
Manuel Sommer, Fei Cai, Matthew Melnicki, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) that enhance CO2 fixation in all cyanobacteria. Structurally, carboxysome shell proteins are classified according to the type of oligomer formed: hexameric (BMC-H), trimeric (BMC-T) and pentameric (BMC-P) proteins. To understand the forces driving the evolution of the carboxysome shell, we conducted a bioinformatic study of genes encoding β-carboxysome shell proteins, taking advantage of the recent large increase in sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. In addition to the four well-established BMC-H (CcmK1-4) classes, our analysis reveals two new CcmK classes, which we name CcmK5 and CcmK6...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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