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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088091/solar-to-chemical-and-solar-to-fuel-production-from-co2-by-metabolically-engineered-microorganisms
#1
REVIEW
Han Min Woo
Recent development of carbon capture utilization (CCU) for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are reviewed. In the case of CO2 utilization, I describe development of solar-to-chemical and solar-to-fuel technology that refers to the use of solar energy to convert CO2 to desired chemicals and fuels. Photoautotrophic cyanobacterial platforms have been extensively developed on this principle, producing a diverse range of alcohols, organic acids, and isoprenoids directly from CO2. Recent breakthroughs in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria were reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#2
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078904/malonyl-coa-pathway-a-promising-route-for-3-hydroxypropionate-biosynthesis
#3
Changshui Liu, Yamei Ding, Mo Xian, Min Liu, Huizhou Liu, Qingjun Ma, Guang Zhao
3-Hydroxypropionate (3HP) is an attractive platform chemical, serving as a precursor to a variety of commodity chemicals like acrylate and acrylamide, as well as a monomer of a biodegradable plastic. To establish a sustainable way to produce these commercially important chemicals and materials, fermentative production of 3HP is widely investigated in recent years. It is reported that 3HP can be produced from several intermediates, such as glycerol, malonyl-CoA, and β-alanine. Among all these biosynthetic routes, the malonyl-CoA pathway has some distinct advantages, including a broad feedstock spectrum, thermodynamic feasibility, and redox neutrality...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078551/the-proteolysis-adaptor-nbla-binds-to-the-n-terminus-of-%C3%AE-phycocyanin-implications-for-the-mechanism-of-phycobilisome-degradation
#4
Amelia Y Nguyen, William P Bricker, Hao Zhang, Daniel A Weisz, Michael L Gross, Himadri B Pakrasi
Phycobilisome (PBS) complexes are massive light-harvesting apparati in cyanobacteria that capture and funnel light energy to the photosystem. PBS complexes are dynamically degraded during nutrient deprivation, which causes severe chlorosis, and resynthesized during nutrient repletion. PBS degradation occurs rapidly after nutrient step down, and is specifically triggered by non-bleaching protein A (NblA), a small proteolysis adaptor that facilitates interactions between a Clp chaperone and phycobiliproteins...
January 11, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077273/reevaluating-the-mechanism-of-excitation-energy-regulation-in-iron-starved-cyanobacteria
#5
Hui-Yuan S Chen, Michelle Liberton, Himadri B Pakrasi, Dariusz M Niedzwiedzki
This paper presents spectroscopic investigation of IsiA, a chlorophyll a-binding membrane protein produced by cyanobacteria grown in iron-deficient environments. IsiA, if associated with photosystem I, supports photosystem I in light harvesting by efficiently transferring excitation energy. However, if separated from photosystem I, IsiA exhibits considerable excitation quenching observed as a substantial reduction of protein-bound chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime. Previous spectroscopic studies suggested that carotenoids are involved in excitation energy dissipation and in addition play a second role in this antenna complex by supporting chlorophyll a in light harvesting by absorbing in the spectral range inaccessible for chlorophyll a and transferring excitation to chlorophylls...
January 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075577/reversible-unfolding-and-folding-of-the-metalloprotein-ferredoxin-revealed-by-single-molecule-atomic-force-microscopy
#6
Hai Lei, Yabin Guo, Xiaodong Hu, Chunguang Hu, Xiaotang Hu, Hongbin Li
Plant type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins function primarily as electron transfer proteins in photosynthesis. Studying the unfolding-folding of ferredoxins in vitro is challenging, since the unfolding of ferredoxin is often irreversible due to the loss or disintegration of the iron-sulfur cluster. Additionally, the in vivo folding of holo-ferredoxin requires ferredoxin biogenesis proteins. Here we employed atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force microscopy and protein engineering techniques to directly study the mechanical unfolding and refolding of a plant type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from cyanobacteria Anabaena...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074411/biomass-and-terpenoids-produced-by-mutant-strains-of-arthrospira-under-low-temperature-and-light-conditions
#7
Jian Guan, Songdong Shen, Hao Wu, Xin Liu, Weijie Shen, Yuan He, R Duan
The filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira is commercially produced and is a functional, high-value, health food. We identified 5 low temperature and low light intensity tolerant strains of Arthrospira sp. (GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1, GMPC1, and GMPC3) using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and low temperature screening. The 5 Arthrospira strains grew rapidly below 14 °C, 43.75 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and performed breed conservation at 2.5 °C, 8.75 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). We used morphological identification and molecular genetic analysis to identify GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1 and GMPC1 as Arthrospira platensis, while GMPC3 was identified as Arthrospira maxima...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074036/redox-crisis-underlies-conditional-light-dark-lethality-in-cyanobacterial-mutants-that-lack-the-circadian-regulator-rpaa
#8
Spencer Diamond, Benjamin E Rubin, Ryan K Shultzaberger, You Chen, Chase D Barber, Susan S Golden
Cyanobacteria evolved a robust circadian clock, which has a profound influence on fitness and metabolism under daily light-dark (LD) cycles. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a functional clock is not required for diurnal growth, but mutants defective for the response regulator that mediates transcriptional rhythms in the wild-type, regulator of phycobilisome association A (RpaA), cannot be cultured under LD conditions. We found that rpaA-null mutants are inviable after several hours in the dark and compared the metabolomes of wild-type and rpaA-null strains to identify the source of lethality...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073912/auxiliary-metabolic-genes-distinct-features-of-cyanophage-encoded-t-type-phycobiliprotein-lyase-%C3%AE-cpet
#9
Raphael Gasper, Julia Schwach, Jana Hartmann, Andrea Holtkamp, Jessica Wiethaus, Natascha Riedel, Eckhard Hofmann, Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel
Auxiliary metabolic genes (AMG) are commonly found in the genomes of phages that infect cyanobacteria and increase cyanophage's fitness. AMGs are often homologs of host genes, and also typically related to photosynthesis. For example, the θcpeT gene in the cyanophage P-HM1 encodes a putative phycobiliprotein lyase related to cyanobacterial T-type lyases, which facilitate attachment of linear tetrapyrrole chromophores to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein β-subunits, suggesting that θCpeT may also help assemble light-harvesting phycobiliproteins during infection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073560/an-alternative-explanation-for-cyanobacterial-scum-formation-and-persistence-by-oxygenic-photosynthesis
#10
E Aparicio Medrano, R E Uittenbogaard, B J H van de Wiel, L M Dionisio Pires, H J H Clercx
The cause of persistent cyanobacteria scum formation in lakes is an unresolved subject. Scum refers to the event in which cyanobacteria are at the water surface of a lake. Factors like low turbulence levels, long day-light, high water temperatures and the buoyant capacity of cyanobacterial cells play a role in the occurrence of scums. However, they do not explain why scums are observed at periods during the day when according to theory they should have disappeared into the deeper water layers. In this study, we present an alternative explanation...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073559/characterization-of-total-retinoid-like-activity-of-compounds-produced-by-three-common-phytoplankton-species
#11
Eliška Sychrová, Jana Priebojová, Marie Smutná, Kateřina Nováková, Jiří Kohoutek, Klára Hilscherová
Phytoplankton can produce various bioactive metabolites, which may affect other organisms in the aquatic environment. This study provides the first information on the total retinoid-like activity associated with both intracellular and extracellular metabolites produced by selected phytoplankton species that could play a role in teratogenic effects and developmental disruption in exposed organisms. The studied species included a coccoid cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), a filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) and a green alga (Desmodesmus quadricauda), all of which commonly occur in freshwater bodies in Europe...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073556/the-role-of-heterocytes-in-the-physiology-and-ecology-of-bloom-forming-harmful-cyanobacteria
#12
Lilen Yema, Elena Litchman, Paula de Tezanos Pinto
Dolichospermum flos-aquae and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii are two cyanobacteria species which cause harmful blooms around the world. Both these species share the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen in heterocytes (cell where fixation occurs). While Dolichospermum can express heterocytes at rather regular intervals across the filament, Cylindrospermopsis can only express heterocytes at the end of the filament. The aim of this study was to experimentally assess the role of heterocyte position in the eco-physiological responses of these bloom forming cyanobacteria...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073554/an-overview-of-cyanobacterial-bloom-occurrences-and-research-in-africa-over-the-last-decade
#13
REVIEW
L L Ndlela, P J Oberholster, J H Van Wyk, P H Cheng
Cyanobacterial blooms are a current cause for concern globally, with vital water sources experiencing frequent and increasingly toxic blooms in the past decade. These increases are resultant of both anthropogenic and natural factors, with climate change being the central concern. Of the more affected parts of the world, Africa has been considered particularly vulnerable due to its historical predisposition and lag in social economic development. This review collectively assesses the available information on cyanobacterial blooms in Africa as well as any visible trends associated with reported occurrences over the last decade...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073551/the-common-bloom-forming-cyanobacterium-microcystis-is-prone-to-a-wide-array-of-microbial-antagonists
#14
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Wichelen, Pieter Vanormelingen, Geoffrey A Codd, Wim Vyverman
Many degraded waterbodies around the world are subject to strong proliferations of cyanobacteria - notorious for their toxicity, high biomass build-up and negative impacts on aquatic food webs - the presence of which puts serious limits on the human use of affected water bodies. Cyanobacterial blooms are largely regarded as trophic dead ends since they are a relatively poor food source for zooplankton. As a consequence, their population dynamics are generally attributed to changes in abiotic conditions (bottom-up control)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073548/cyanobacteria-and-cyanotoxins-in-fishponds-and-their-effects-on-fish-tissue
#15
Damjana Drobac, Nada Tokodi, Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Gordana Subakov-Simić, Tamara Dulić, Tamara Važić, Sonja Nybom, Jussi Meriluoto, Geoffrey A Codd, Zorica Svirčev
Cyanobacteria can produce toxic metabolites known as cyanotoxins. Common and frequently investigated cyanotoxins include microcystins (MCs), nodularin (NOD) and saxitoxins (STXs). During the summer of 2011 extensive cyanobacterial growth was found in several fishponds in Serbia. Sampling of the water and fish (common carp, Cyprinus carpio) was performed. Water samples from 13 fishponds were found to contain saxitoxin, microcystin, and/or nodularin. LC-MS/MS showed that MC-RR was present in samples of fish muscle tissue...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073544/corrigendum-to-cyanobacteria-and-cyanotoxins-in-fishponds-and-their-effects-on-fish-tissue-harmful-algae-55-2016-66-76
#16
Damjana Drobac, Nada Tokodi, Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Gordana Subakov-Simić, Tamara Dulić, Tamara Važić, Sonja Nybom, Jussi Meriluoto, Geoffrey A Codd, Zorica Svirčev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073540/phylogenetic-structure-of-bacterial-assemblages-co-occurring-with-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-bloom
#17
Silvana Vanucci, Flavio Guidi, Rossella Pistocchi, Richard A Long
Extensive blooms of the toxic epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata are being reported with increasing frequency and spatial distribution in temperate coastal regions including the Mediterranean. These blooms are of human and environmental health concern due to the production of isobaric palytoxin and a wide range of ovatoxins by Ostreopsis cf. ovata. Bacterial-microalgal interactions are important regulators in algal bloom dynamics and potentially toxin dynamics. This study investigated the bacterial assemblages co-occurring with O...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073531/effects-of-the-bloom-of-harmful-benthic-dinoflagellate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-on-the-microphytobenthos-community-in-the-northern-adriatic-sea
#18
Stefano Accoroni, Tiziana Romagnoli, Salvatore Pichierri, Cecilia Totti
Composition and temporal variation of the microphytobenthos communities of the Conero Riviera (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated in the course of an annual cycle, focusing on their relationships with blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata. Sampling was carried out from March 2009 to March 2010 on undisturbed benthic substrata (macroalgae and pebbles). Samples for the study of microphytobenthos were collected with a monthly frequency, while those for the study of Ostreopsis bloom weekly...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073525/delineation-of-the-role-of-nutrient-variability-and-dreissenids-mollusca-bivalvia-on-phytoplankton-dynamics-in-the-bay-of-quinte-ontario-canada
#19
Yuko Shimoda, Sue B Watson, Michelle E Palmer, Marten A Koops, Shan Mugalingam, Andrew Morley, George B Arhonditsis
The Bay of Quinte, a Z-shaped embayment at the northeastern end of Lake Ontario, has a long history of eutrophication problems primarily manifested as spatially extensive algal blooms and predominance of toxic cyanobacteria. The purpose of this study was to identify the structural changes of the phytoplankton community induced by two environmental alterations: point-source phosphorus (P) loading reduction in the late 1970s and establishment of dreissenid mussels in the mid-1990s. A combination of statistical techniques was used to draw inference about compositional shifts of the phytoplankton assemblage, the consistency of the seasonal succession patterns along with the mechanisms underlying the algal biovolume variability in the Bay of Quinte over the past three decades...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073508/mixotrophic-ability-of-the-phototrophic-dinoflagellates-alexandrium-andersonii-a-affine-and-a-fraterculus
#20
Kyung Ha Lee, Hae Jin Jeong, Ji Eun Kwon, Hee Chang Kang, Ji Hye Kim, Se Hyeon Jang, Jae Yeon Park, Eun Young Yoon, Jae Seong Kim
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. have received much attention due to their harmful effects on diverse marine organisms, including commercially important species. For minimizing loss due to red tides or blooms of Alexandrium spp., it is very important to understand the eco-physiology of each Alexandrium species and to predict its population dynamics. Its trophic mode (i.e., exclusively autotrophic or mixotrophic) is one of the most critical parameters in establishing prediction models. However, among the 35 Alexandrium species so far described, only six Alexandrium species have been revealed to be mixotrophic...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
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