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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545210/response-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-bccusp-232-to-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-straw-degradation-extract-and-fractions
#1
Gustavo Franciscatti Mecina, Anne Lígia Dokkedal, Luiz Leonardo Saldanha, Mathias Ahii Chia, Micheline Kézia Cordeiro-Araújo, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva
The eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems is a serious environmental problem that leads to increased frequency of cyanobacterial blooms and concentrations of cyanotoxins. These changes in aquatic chemistry can negatively affect animal and human health. Environment-friendly methods are needed to control bloom forming cyanobacteria. We investigated the effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) straw degradation extract and its fractions on the growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and microcystins content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing BCCUSP232...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544902/extraction-and-applications-of-cyanotoxins-and-other-cyanobacterial-secondary-metabolites
#2
REVIEW
Fatima Haque, Sara Banayan, Josephine Yee, Yi Wai Chiang
The rapid proliferation of cyanobacteria in bodies of water has caused cyanobacterial blooms, which have become an increasing cause of concern, largely due to the presence of toxic secondary metabolites (or cyanotoxins). Cyanotoxins are the toxins produced by cyanobacteria that may be harmful to surrounding wildlife. They include hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatotoxins, and are classified based on the organs they affect. There are also non-toxic secondary metabolites that include chelators and UV-absorbing compounds...
May 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543536/cyanobacteria-as-efficient-producers-of-mycosporine-like-amino-acids
#3
REVIEW
Shikha Jain, Ganshyam Prajapat, Mustari Abrar, Lalita Ledwani, Anoop Singh, Akhil Agrawal
Mycosporine-like amino acids are the most common group of transparent ultraviolet radiation absorbing intracellular secondary metabolites. These molecules absorb light in the range of ultraviolet-A and -B with a maximum absorbance between 310 and 362 nm. Cyanobacteria might have faced the most deleterious ultraviolet radiation, which leads to an evolution of ultraviolet protecting mycosporine-like amino acids for efficient selection in the environment. In the last 30 years, scientists have investigated various cyanobacteria for novel mycosporine-like amino acids, applying different induction techniques...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542288/structural-models-of-the-different-trimers-present-in-the-core-of-phycobilisomes-from-gracilaria-chilensis-based-on-crystal-structures-and-sequences
#4
Jorge Dagnino-Leone, Maximiliano Figueroa, Claudia Mella, María Alejandra Vorphal, Frédéric Kerff, Aleikar José Vásquez, Marta Bunster, José Martínez-Oyanedel
Phycobilisomes (PBS) are accessory light harvesting protein complexes that directionally transfer energy towards photosystems. Phycobilisomes are organized in a central core and rods radiating from it. Components of phycobilisomes in Gracilaria chilensis (Gch) are Phycobiliproteins (PBPs), Phycoerythrin (PE), and Phycocyanin (PC) in the rods, while Allophycocyanin (APC) is found in the core, and linker proteins (L). The function of such complexes depends on the structure of each component and their interaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541699/kohamamides-a-b-and-c-cyclic-depsipeptides-from-an-okeania-sp-marine-cyanobacterium
#5
Arihiro Iwasaki, Ikuma Shiota, Shimpei Sumimoto, Teruhiko Matsubara, Toshinori Sato, Kiyotake Suenaga
Kohamamides A, B, and C (1-3), new cyclic depsipeptides that belong to the kulolide superfamily, were isolated from an Okeania sp. marine cyanobacterium. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and degradation reactions. Kohamamide B (2) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against HL60 cells. Although many natural products in the kulolide superfamily have been isolated from cyanobacteria collected in various parts of the world, kohamamides 1-3 are the first members to be isolated from the East Asian marine environment...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540925/microorganisms-and-ocean-global-change
#6
REVIEW
David A Hutchins, Feixue Fu
The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that drive the pelagic ocean's biogeochemical cycles are currently facing an unprecedented set of comprehensive anthropogenic changes. Nearly every important control on marine microbial physiology is currently in flux, including seawater pH, pCO2, temperature, redox chemistry, irradiance and nutrient availability. Here, we examine how microorganisms with key roles in the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles may respond to these changes in the Earth's largest ecosystem...
May 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540663/bmaa-and-neurodegenerative-illness
#7
Paul Alan Cox, Richard M Kostrzewa, Gilles J Guillemin
The cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) now appears to be a cause of Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Its production by cyanobacteria throughout the world combined with multiple mechanisms of BMAA neurotoxicity, particularly to vulnerable subpopulations of motor neurons, has significantly increased interest in investigating exposure to this non-protein amino acid as a possible risk factor for other forms of neurodegenerative illness. We here provide a brief overview of BMAA studies and provide an introduction to this collection of scientific manuscripts in this special issue on BMAA...
May 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536564/a-metagenomic-approach-to-cyanobacterial-genomics
#8
REVIEW
Danillo O Alvarenga, Marli F Fiore, Alessandro M Varani
Cyanobacteria, or oxyphotobacteria, are primary producers that establish ecological interactions with a wide variety of organisms. Although their associations with eukaryotes have received most attention, interactions with bacterial and archaeal symbionts have also been occurring for billions of years. Due to these associations, obtaining axenic cultures of cyanobacteria is usually difficult, and most isolation efforts result in unicyanobacterial cultures containing a number of associated microbes, hence composing a microbial consortium...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535846/physical-contact-and-carbon-transfer-between-a-lichen-forming-trebouxia-alga-and-a-novel-alphaproteobacterium
#9
Mieko Kono, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yoshihito Ohmura, Yoko Satta, Yohey Terai
Recent progress in molecular techniques has begun to alter traditional recognition of lichens as symbiotic organisms comprised of a fungus and photosynthetic partners (green algae and/or cyanobacteria). Diverse organisms, especially various non-photosynthetic bacteria, are now indicated to be integral components of lichen symbiosis. Although lichen-associated bacteria are inferred to have functions that could support the symbiosis, little is known about their physical and nutritional interaction with fungi and algae...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535339/ecophysiological-examination-of-the-lake-erie-microcystis-bloom-in-2014-linkages-between-biology-and-the-water-supply-shutdown-of-toledo-ohio
#10
Morgan Michelle Steffen, Timothy W Davis, Robert Michael McKay, George S Bullerjahn, Lauren E Krausfeldt, Joshua M A Stough, Michelle L Neitzey, Naomi E Gilbert, Gregory L Boyer, Thomas H Johengen, Duane C Gossiaux, Ashley M Burtner, Danna Palladino, Mark Rowe, Gregory J Dick, Kevin Meyer, Shawn Levy, Braden Boone, Richard Stumpf, Timothy Wynne, Paul V Zimba, Danielle B Gutierrez, Steven W Wilhelm
Annual cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis have occurred in western Lake Erie (USA/Canada) during summer months since 1995. The production of toxins by bloom-forming cyanobacteria can lead to drinking water crises, such as the one experienced by the city of Toledo in August of 2014, when the city was rendered without drinking water for > 2 days. It is important to understand the conditions and environmental cues that were driving this specific bloom to provide a scientific framework for management of future bloom events...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534879/epibionts-dominate-metabolic-functional-potential-of-trichodesmium-colonies-from-the-oligotrophic-ocean
#11
Kyle R Frischkorn, Mónica Rouco, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Sonya T Dyhrman
Trichodesmium is a genus of marine diazotrophic colonial cyanobacteria that exerts a profound influence on global biogeochemistry, by injecting 'new' nitrogen into the low nutrient systems where it occurs. Colonies of Trichodesmium ubiquitously contain a diverse assemblage of epibiotic microorganisms, constituting a microbiome on the Trichodesmium host. Metagenome sequences from Trichodesmium colonies were analyzed along a resource gradient in the western North Atlantic to examine microbiome community structure, functional diversity and metabolic contributions to the holobiont...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533065/co-overexpression-of-response-regulator-genes-slr1037-and-sll0039-improves-tolerance-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-to-1-butanol
#12
Xinyan Gao, Tao Sun, Lina Wu, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
In this study, two response regulator (RR) encoding genes slr1037 as well as sll0039 were co-overexpressed in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by metabolic engineering and the 1-butanol tolerance was successfully improved by 133%. Aiming to explore the possible mechanisms for the enhancing 1-butanol tolerance, a quantitative iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS proteomics approach was then employed, identifying 216 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated proteins compared to wild type after 1-butanol treatment. This study mapped the potential target genes regulated by Slr1037 and Sll0039 and demonstrated the feasibility of engineering response regulators for modifying the biofuel tolerance in cyanobacteria...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531947/shifts-in-the-relative-abundance-of-bacteria-after-wine-lees-derived-biochar-intervention-in-multi-metal-contaminated-paddy-soil
#13
Min Xu, Hongxia Xia, Jun Wu, Gang Yang, Xiaohong Zhang, Hong Peng, Xiaoyu Yu, Li Li, Hong Xiao, Hui Qi
The impact of biochar application on soil ecological functions depends on the diversity of soil conditions and of the feedstocks from which biochar is obtained. Moreover, little information is available on the effect of biochar on dynamic changes in microorganisms with the development of rice plants in multi-metal-contaminated paddy soil amended with wine-lees-derived biochar. In this paper, biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of wine lees at 600°C was used to investigate the potential role of biochar in maintaining soil ecological functions, with consideration of the alteration of the microbial population over periods of rice growth...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531262/biogeography-of-cryoconite-bacterial-communities-on-glaciers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#14
Yongqin Liu, Trista J Vick-Majors, John C Priscu, Tandong Yao, Shichang Kang, Keshao Liu, Ziyuang Cong, Jingbo Xiong, Yang Li
Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry, and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531121/a-qpcr-based-tool-to-diagnose-the-presence-of-harmful-cyanobacteria-and-cyanotoxins-in-drinking-water-sources
#15
Yi-Ting Chiu, Yi-Hsuan Chen, Ting-Shaun Wang, Hung-Kai Yen, Tsair-Fuh Lin
Harmful cyanobacteria have been an important concern for drinking water quality for quite some time, as they may produce cyanotoxins and odorants. Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis are two common harmful cyanobacterial genera detected in freshwater lakes and reservoirs, with microcystins (MCs) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) as their important metabolites, respectively. In this study, two sets of duplex qPCR systems were developed, one for quantifying potentially-toxigenic Microcystis and Microcystis, and the other one for cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacteria and Cylindrospermopsis...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529503/response-of-methanogenic-microbial-communities-to-desiccation-stress-in-flooded-and-rain-fed-paddy-soil-from-thailand
#16
Andreas Reim, Marcela Hernández, Melanie Klose, Amnat Chidthaisong, Monthira Yuttitham, Ralf Conrad
Rice paddies in central Thailand are flooded either by irrigation (irrigated rice) or by rain (rain-fed rice). The paddy soils and their microbial communities thus experience permanent or arbitrary submergence, respectively. Since methane production depends on anaerobic conditions, we hypothesized that structure and function of the methanogenic microbial communities are different in irrigated and rain-fed paddies and react differently upon desiccation stress. We determined rates and relative proportions of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogenesis before and after short-term drying of soil samples from replicate fields...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528945/the-chemical-profile-and-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-extracellular-wollea-saccata-biopolymer
#17
Martina Šutovská, Michaela Kočmálová, Lenka Pappová, Soňa Fraňová, Andrej Chyba, Jiří Kopecký, Jaromír Lukavský, Vladislav Cepák, Peter Capek
Microalgae organisms are of interest for many biotechnology applications due to the production of a wide range of biologically active compounds. Incubation of W. saccata in a large scale afforded a mucilaginous, high molecular weight biopolymer composed of carbohydrate, protein and phenolic compounds. Sugar moiety was rich in hexoses (60%) and 6-deoxyhexoses (31%), while only 9% of pentoses was identified. Methylation analysis revealed about 40 types of methylated sugar derivatives, suggesting a very complex structure of Wollea biopolymer...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528816/vertical-transmission-of-microcystins-to-nile-crocodile-crocodylus-niloticus-eggs
#18
Alukhethi Singo, Jan G Myburgh, Peter N Laver, Elizabeth A Venter, Gezina C H Ferreira, Gertruida M Rösemann, Christo J Botha
Cyanobacteria or blue green algae are known for their extensive and highly visible blooms in eutrophic, stagnant freshwater bodies. Climate change and global warming have also contributed to a rise in toxic cyanobacterial blooms. One of the most important cyanobacteria is Microcystis aeruginosa, which can synthesize various microcystins that can affect the health of terrestrial and aquatic animals. Commercial Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) farming in South Africa is based on keeping breeders (adult males and females) in big dams on farms (captive-bred approach)...
May 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528426/building-a-bio-based-industry-in-the-middle-east-through-harnessing-the-potential-of-the-red-sea-biodiversity
#19
REVIEW
Jens Nielsen, John Archer, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic, Takashi Gojobori, Ivan Mijakovic
The incentive for developing microbial cell factories for production of fuels and chemicals comes from the ability of microbes to deliver these valuable compounds at a reduced cost and with a smaller environmental impact compared to the analogous chemical synthesis. Another crucial advantage of microbes is their great biological diversity, which offers a much larger "catalog" of molecules than the one obtainable by chemical synthesis. Adaptation to different environments is one of the important drives behind microbial diversity...
May 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527741/reeling-in-the-damages-harmful-algal-blooms-impact-on-lake-erie-s-recreational-fishing-industry
#20
David Wolf, Will Georgic, H Allen Klaiber
Lake Erie is one of the most valuable natural resources in the United States, providing billions of dollars in benefits each year to recreationalists, homeowners and local governments. The ecosystem services provided by Lake Erie, however, are under threat due to harmful algal blooms. This paper provides recreational damage estimates using spatially and temporally varying algae measures and monthly fishing permit sales collected between 2011 and 2014. Results indicate that fishing license sales drop between 10% and 13% when algal conditions surpass the World Health's Organization's moderate health risk advisory threshold of 20,000 cyanobacteria cells/mL...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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