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Ji-Yeon Roh, Hyun-Jeong Eom, Jinhee Choi
In the present study, toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated in the nematode, Caenohabditis elegans focusing on the upstream signaling pathway responsible for regulating oxidative stress, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in AgNPs exposed C.elegans, suggesting oxidative stress as an important mechanism in the toxicity of AgNPs towards C. elegans. Expression of genes in MAPK signaling pathways increased by AgNPs exposure in less than 2-fold compared to the control in wildtype C...
March 2012: Toxicological Research
Richard Nass, Kalpana M Merchant, Timothy Ryan
It has been over forty years since dopamine neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra and Lewy body formation within surviving cells were described as the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although research in the intervening decades particularly in the last twenty-five years has yielded a variety of robust animal models and invaluable mechanistic insights into PD-associated neuronal dysfunction and cell death, therapeutic agents have not been forthcoming to alter the course of PD. Recently, the screening of experimental therapeutics for PD has been pursued through the use of genetically tractable models, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
December 2008: Molecular Interventions
Andrew Grimson, Sean O'Connor, Carrie Loushin Newman, Philip Anderson
Eukaryotic messenger RNAs containing premature stop codons are selectively and rapidly degraded, a phenomenon termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Previous studies with both Caenohabditis elegans and mammalian cells indicate that SMG-2/human UPF1, a central regulator of NMD, is phosphorylated in an SMG-1-dependent manner. We report here that smg-1, which is required for NMD in C. elegans, encodes a protein kinase of the phosphatidylinositol kinase superfamily of protein kinases. We identify null alleles of smg-1 and demonstrate that SMG-1 kinase activity is required in vivo for NMD and in vitro for SMG-2 phosphorylation...
September 2004: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Yingmiao Liu, Scott Kuersten, Tao Huang, Alison Larsen, Margaret MacMorris, Thomas Blumenthal
Polycistronic pre-mRNAs from Caenohabditis elegans operons are processed by internal cleavage and polyadenylation to create 3' ends of mature mRNAs. This is accompanied by trans-splicing with SL2 approximately 100 nucleotides downstream of the 3' end formation sites to create the 5' ends of downstream mRNAs. SL2 trans-splicing depends on a U-rich element (Ur), located approximately 70 nucleotides upstream of the trans-splice site in the intercistronic region (ICR), as well as a functional 3' end formation signal...
June 2003: RNA
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