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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#1
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#2
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346922/epigenetics-in-gastrointestinal-health-and-disease-spotlight-on-dna-methylation-in-the-intestinal-epithelium
#3
Matthias Zilbauer, Judith Kraiczy
Epigenetics can be defined as stable, potentially heritable changes in cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. DNA methylation is amongst the most intensely studied epigenetic mechanisms and has been shown to play a major role in regulating fundamental aspects of cell biology including cellular differentiation, organ development, and cell type-specific gene expression. Importantly, it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic mechanisms operate at the interface between the genetic code and our environment and are able to mediate environmental changes into stable phenotypic alterations...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346770/a-core-outcome-set-for-localised-prostate-cancer-effectiveness-trials
#4
Steven MacLennan, Paula R Williamson, Hanneke Bekema, Marion Campbell, Craig Ramsay, James N'Dow, Sara MacLennan, Luke Vale, Philipp Dahm, Nicolas Mottet, Thomas Lam, Paul Abel, Hashim U Ahmed, Gary Akehurst, Robert Almquist, Karl Beck, David Budd, Steven Canfield, James Catto, Philip Cornford, William Cross, Alexander Ewen, Judith Grant, Rakesh Heer, David Hurst, Rob Jones, Roger Kockelbergh, Andrew Mackie, Graham MacDonald, Alan McNeill, Malcolm Mason, Sam McClinton, Duncan McLaren, Hugh Mostafid, Ian Pearce, Linda Pennet, Justine Royle, Hans Schreuder, Grant D Stewart, Henk van der Poel, Kevin Wardlaw, Thomas Wiegel
OBJECTIVE: To develop a core outcome set (COS) applicable for effectiveness trials of all interventions for localised prostate cancer. BACKGROUND: Many treatments exist for localised prostate cancer, although it is unclear which offers the optimal therapeutic ratio. This is confounded by inconsistencies in the selection, definition, measurement and reporting of outcomes in clinical trials. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A list of 79 outcomes was derived from a systematic review of published localised prostate cancer effectiveness studies and semi-structured interviews with 15 prostate cancer patients...
March 27, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346581/home-based-hypnotherapy-self-exercises-vs-individual-hypnotherapy-with-a-therapist-for-treatment-of-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome-functional-abdominal-pain-or-functional-abdominal-pain-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Juliette M T M Rutten, Arine M Vlieger, Carla Frankenhuis, Elvira K George, Michael Groeneweg, Obbe F Norbruis, Walther Tjon A Ten, Herbert M van Wering, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Maruschka P Merkus, Marc A Benninga
Importance: Individual gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) is effective in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAP[S]). It is, however, unavailable to many children. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of HT by means of home-based self-exercises using a CD with that of individual HT (iHT) performed by qualified therapists. Design, Setting, and Participants: This noninferiority randomized clinical trial with a follow-up of 1 year after the end of treatment was conducted from July 15, 2011, through June 24, 2013, at 9 secondary and tertiary care centers throughout the Netherlands...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346274/the-effect-of-disease-activity-on-birth-outcomes-in-a-nationwide-cohort-of-women-with-moderate-to-severe-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Heidi Kammerlander, Jan Nielsen, Jens Kjeldsen, Torben Knudsen, Sonia Friedman, Bente Nørgård
BACKGROUND: Active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during conception and pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Former studies have examined heterogeneous groups of women with varying degrees of IBD severity. We aimed to examine the effect of active IBD on birth outcomes in a more homogeneous group of women with a moderate to severe disease course. Since in Denmark, moderate to severe IBD is an indication for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, we examined all women who used anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy during pregnancy...
March 24, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346037/prognostic-significance-of-granulomas-in-children-with-crohn-s-disease
#7
Benjamin Rothschild, Firas Rinawi, Yonatan Herman, Osnat Nir, Raanan Shamir, Amit Assa
OBJECTIVES: Granulomas have long been considered the histological hallmark of Crohn's disease (CD). Currently, there is considerable dispute with regards to their prognostic implications. We aimed to determine the effect of granulomas on phenotypic features and disease's long-term outcomes in a large cohort of pediatric CD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of pediatric CD patients diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346031/chromogranin-a-cell-density-in-the-large-intestine-of-asian-and-european-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Magdy El-Salhy, Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Sutep Gonlachanvit
OBJECTIVE: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asia show distinctive differences from those in the western world. The gastrointestinal endocrine cells appear to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present study aimed at studying the density of chromogranin A (CgA) cells in the large intestine of Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. METHODS: Thirty Thai IBS patients and 20 control subjects, and 47 Norwegian IBS patients and 20 control subjects were included...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346012/lymphangiogenesis-fuel-smoke-or-extinguisher-of-inflammation-s-fire
#9
Gabriella R Abouelkheir, Bradley D Upchurch, Joseph M Rutkowski
Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in fluid clearance and immune cell trafficking from the periphery make these results seemingly obvious as a mechanism of alleviating locally inflamed environments: the lymphatics are simply providing a drain...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345807/low-fodmap-in-2017-lessons-learned-from-clinical-trials-and-mechanistic-studies
#10
REVIEW
S Eswaran
Given the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the suboptimal response to most therapeutic approaches, there has been increasing interest in and adoption of dietary treatment strategies, such as the low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, & Mono-Saccharides and Polyols (FODMAP) diet. FODMAPs are a diverse group of carbohydrates that exert effects in the gastrointestinal tract not only via fermentation but likely via alterations in the microbiota, metabolome, permeability, and intestinal immunity as well. Clinical evidence for efficacy of this diet is mounting, but there are significant questions regarding short- and long-term safety and effects on the microbiota and nutrition that remain unanswered...
April 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345530/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-methods-of-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-diseases
#11
Klaudia Juszczuk, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Clostridium difficile is a serious epidemiological problem and particularly dangerous microorganism causing hospital infections. Currently, the treatment of C. difficile infections is the use of metronidazole or vancomycin. However, in some patients, recurrent infection difficult to treat occurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new method used to treat the recurrent CDI. FMT consists in the infusion of the fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with CDI to restore the natural intestinal microflora...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345443/economic-burden-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-retrospective-analysis-of-a-u-s-commercially-insured-population
#12
Jessica L Buono, Kush Mathur, Amelia J Averitt, David A Andrae
BACKGROUND: The economic burden associated with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To (a) evaluate total annual all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and symptom-related (i.e., IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain) health care resource use and costs among IBS-D patients in a U.S. commercially insured population and (b) estimate incremental all-cause health care costs of IBS-D patients versus matched controls. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2013 were identified from the Truven Health MarketScan research database...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345300/primary-intestinal-lymphangiectasia-multiple-detector-computed-tomography-findings-after-direct-lymphangiography
#13
Xiaoli Sun, Wenbin Shen, Xiaobai Chen, Tingguo Wen, Yongli Duan, Rengui Wang
INTRODUCTION: To analyse the findings of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) after direct lymphangiography in primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL). METHODS: Fifty-five patients with PIL were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MDCT after direct lymphangiography. The pathologies of 16 patients were confirmed by surgery and the remaining 39 patients were confirmed by gastroendoscopy and/or capsule endoscopy. RESULTS: After direct lymphangiography, MDCT found intra- and extraintestinal as well as lymphatic vessel abnormalities...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344951/a-case-of-littr%C3%A3-s-hernia-at-zinder-national-hospital-zinder-niger
#14
I Amadou Magagi, H Adamou, O Habou
The presence of a Meckel's diverticulum in a hernia sac is known as Littré's hernia. We report a case of Littré's hernia in an 18-year old young man because of the uncommon condition. An 18-year old young patient was admitted to the Emergency Surgical Department of Zinder National Hospital, Zinder, Niger with a painful inguinoscrotal swelling of three days duration. The diagnosis of strangulated right inguinoscrotal hernia was made. At surgery, a Meckel's diverticulum was found at the antimesenteric border of the ileum in the hernia sac, the bowel loop was not viable...
April 2016: Journal of the West African College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344797/poor-reproducibility-of-breath-hydrogen-testing-implications-for-its-application-in-functional-bowel-disorders
#15
Chu K Yao, Caroline J Tuck, Jacqueline S Barrett, Kim Ek Canale, Hamish L Philpott, Peter R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the reproducibility of lactulose and fructose breath testing for clinical application in functional bowel disorders. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of lactulose and fructose breath hydrogen testing and assess symptom response to fructose testing. METHODS: Results were analysed from 21 patients with functional bowel disorder with lactulose breath tests and 30 with fructose breath tests who completed another test >2 weeks later...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344794/does-calprotectin-level-identify-a-subgroup-among-patients-suffering-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-results-of-a-prospective-study
#16
Chloé Melchior, Moutaz Aziz, Typhaine Aubry, Guillaume Gourcerol, Muriel Quillard, Alberto Zalar, Moïse Coëffier, Pierre Dechelotte, Anne-Marie Leroi, Philippe Ducrotté
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a multifactorial disease. Although faecal calprotectin has been shown to be a reliable marker of intestinal inflammation, its role in irritable bowel syndrome remains debated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this prospective study were to select a subgroup of irritable bowel syndrome patients and to characterise those patients with high faecal calprotectin by systematic work-up. METHODS: Calprotectin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in consecutive irritable bowel syndrome patients fulfilling Rome III criteria in whom normal colonoscopy and appropriate tests had excluded organic disease...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344789/a-ppar-gamma-agonist-protects-from-radiation-induced-intestinal-toxicity
#17
Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Chiara Gerini, Isacco Desideri, Cinzia Bastida, Stefania Pallotta, Francesca Castiglione, Pierluigi Bonomo, Icro Meattini, Daniela Greto, Sabrina Cappelli, Lucia Di Brina, Mauro Loi, Giampaolo Biti, Lorenzo Livi
OBJECTIVE: Because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-neoplastic properties, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone is an interesting drug for investigating for use in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced intestinal damage. We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone in a murine model of acute intestinal damage, assessing whether radioprotection is selective for normal tissues or also occurs in tumour cells. METHODS: Mice were total-body irradiated (12 Gy), with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day)...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344572/gut-colonization-by-methanogenic-archaea-is-associated-with-organic-dairy-consumption-in-children
#18
Jeroen A A van de Pol, Niels van Best, Catherine A Mbakwa, Carel Thijs, Paul H Savelkoul, Ilja C W Arts, Mathias W Hornef, Monique Mommers, John Penders
The gut microbiota represents a complex and diverse ecosystem with a profound impact on human health, promoting immune maturation, and host metabolism as well as colonization resistance. Important members that have often been disregarded are the methanogenic archaea. Methanogenic archaea reduce hydrogen levels via the production of methane, thereby stimulating food fermentation by saccharolytic bacteria. On the other hand, colonization by archaea has been suggested to promote a number of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344174/core-shell-eudragit-poly-ethylene-oxide-fibers-for-site-specific-release
#19
Dong Jia, Yanshan Gao, Gareth R Williams
Electrospinning was used to prepare core/shell fibers containing the active pharmaceutical ingredients indomethacin (IMC) or mebeverine hydrochloride (MB-HCl). The shell of the fibers was fabricated from the pH sensitive Eudragit S100 polymer, while the drug-loaded core was based on the mucoadhesive polyethylene oxide (PEO). Three different drug loadings (from 9-23% w/w of the core mass) were prepared, and for MB-HCl two different molecular weights of PEO were explored. The resultant fibers generally comprise smooth cylinders, although in some cases defects such as surface particles or flattened or merged fibers were visible...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344124/comparative-genomics-of-transport-proteins-in-probiotic-and-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-strains
#20
Jimmy Do, Hassan Zafar, Milton H Saier
Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species that can be pathogenic, probiotic, commensal, or a harmless laboratory strain. Pathogenic strains of E. coli cause urinary tract infections, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and pyelonephritis, while the two known probiotic E. coli strains combat inflammatory bowel disease and play a role in immunomodulation. Salmonella enterica, a close relative of E. coli, includes two important pathogenic serovars, Typhi and Typhimurium, causing typhoid fever and enterocolitis in humans, respectively, with the latter strain also causing a lethal typhoid fever-like disease in mice...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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