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Xue-Lei Tian, Xue Lu, Jiang-Bin Feng, Tian-Jing Cai, Shuang Li, Mei Tian, Qing-Jie Liu
Chromosome damage is related to DNA damage and erroneous repair. It can cause cell dysfunction and ultimately induce carcinogenesis. Histone acetylation is crucial for regulating chromatin structure and DNA damage repair. Ionizing radiation (IR) can alter histone acetylation. However, variations in histone acetylation in response to IR exposure and the relationship between histone acetylation and IR-induced chromosome damage remains unclear. Hence, this study investigated the variation in the total acetylation levels of H3 and H4 in human lymphocytes exposed to 0-2 Gy 60 Co γ-rays...
May 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Rachel Tsunemoto, Sohyon Lee, Attila Szűcs, Pavel Chubukov, Irina Sokolova, Joel W Blanchard, Kevin T Eade, Jacob Bruggemann, Chunlei Wu, Ali Torkamani, Pietro Paolo Sanna, Kristin K Baldwin
The transcriptional programs that establish neuronal identity evolved to produce the rich diversity of neuronal cell types that arise sequentially during development. Remarkably, transient expression of certain transcription factors can also endow non-neural cells with neuronal properties. The relationship between reprogramming factors and the transcriptional networks that produce neuronal identity and diversity remains largely unknown. Here, from a screen of 598 pairs of transcription factors, we identify 76 pairs of transcription factors that induce mouse fibroblasts to differentiate into cells with neuronal features...
May 9, 2018: Nature
Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cancer cells in vivo develop resistance to many anti-tumor drugs. One known factor to influence such drug resistance is hypoxia, which is an important component of the tumor microenvironment. Standard cancer lines mostly do not exhibit a cellular hypoxic microenvironment and there is a paucity of information on the efficacy of lead molecules in both cellular- and environment-induced hypoxic conditions. Therefore, in the present study, we have evaluated the efficacy of the arylidene derivative MLT-401, a lead molecule showing activity against colorectal cancer model using the HCT 116 cell line and CCD-80-C control cells in normoxic and natural (marginal) hypoxic conditions, which is usually observed in high-altitude regions...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jeong Su Ok, Seon Beom Song, Eun Seong Hwang
Background and Objectives: Therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generally require substantial expansion of cell populations. However, the replicative life span of MSCs is limited and their multipotency declines over continued passages, imposing a limitation on their application especially in aged individuals. In an effort to increase MSC life span, we tested the effects of nicotinamide (NAM), a precursor of NAD+ that has been shown to reduce reactive oxygen species generation and delay the onset of replicative senescence in fibroblasts...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Yan Yue, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
White matter damage, characterized by demyelination due to the damage of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), is the most common type of brain damage in preterm infants. Survivors are often subject to long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae because of the lack of effective treatment. In recent years, it has been found that cell transplantation has the potential for the treatment of white matter damage. OPCs are frequently used cells in cell transplantation therapy. With abilities of migration and myelinization, OPCs are the best seed cells for the treatment of white matter damage...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Shuang Chen, Kenichi Shimada, Timothy R Crother, Ebru Erbay, Prediman K Shah, Moshe Arditi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling promote the development of high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the role of TLR4/MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic and stromal cells in the development and infection-mediated acceleration of atherosclerosis. METHODS: The authors generated bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and Tlr4-/- mice, as well as wild-type and Myd88-/- mice...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Yongsheng Jia, Cuicui Zhang, Chuanxiang Hu, Yang Yu, Xiangqian Zheng, Yigong Li, Ming Gao
BRAF V600E is the most common genetic alteration in thyroid cancer and is indicative of a relatively poor prognosis. A selective inhibitor of BRAF V600E has been proposed as a novel treatment for patients with thyroid cancer exhibiting BRAF V600E mutations. However, this inhibitor has demonstrated a limited therapeutic effect. In the present study, possible adaptive mechanisms of resistance of thyroid cancer cells to the specific BRAF V600E inhibitor, PLX4032, were investigated. MTT assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative efficiencies and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of inhibitory treatments...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Libo Sun, Shoujun Yang, Guonan Chi, Xingyi Jin
Background: Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and common malignancies of the central nervous system in humans. Owing to the correlation of high Hsp90 expression with prognosis and clinical pathology features of diverse types of cancer, targeting Hsp90 with small-molecule inhibitors has become a promising anticancer strategy. Purpose: In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of anticancer effect of NMS-E973 in giloblastoma and elucidate the mechanism...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Hyun-Sook Kim, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Youngmi Kim Pak, Wonchae Choe, Joohun Ha, Suk Chon
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus) and beer. The aim of the current study was to explore the role of xanthohumol in modulating the toxicity of TCDD in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. In cells treated with TCDD alone, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species production, cardiolipin peroxidation, nitric oxide release and cytochrome P450 1A1 expression were significantly increased...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Dan Chen, Huanhuan Sha, Tianmu Hu, Shuchen Dong, Junying Zhang, Siwen Liu, Haixia Cao, Rong Ma, Yang Wu, Changwen Jing, Zhuo Wang, Jianzhong Wu, Jifeng Feng
Most of the patients with lung cancer are diagnosed at advanced stage, and they often lose the opportunity of surgical therapy, most of whom fail to reach good prognosis after chemotherapy. Recently, a few clinical studies have confirmed the role of adoptive T-cell transfer in the maintenance therapy of cancer patients. Here, we provided statistical insights into the role of CIKs in advanced lung cancer from three different levels, cell model (in vitro co-culture system), mice model (in situ lung cancer), and clinical research (in lung cancer patients of different progression stages)...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Tapiwa Lundu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Ryo Ito, Kenta Shimizu, Shintaro Kobayashi, Kentaro Yoshii, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa, Hiroaki Kariwa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly emerged phlebovirus identified in China, Japan, and South Korea. Phlebovirus glycoproteins (GP) play a key role in targeting viral structural components to the budding compartments in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex. However, the role of SFTSV GP in targeting structural proteins to the ERGIC and Golgi complex remains unresolved. In this study, we show that SFTSV GP plays a significant role in targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) to the budding sites...
2018: Biomedical Research
Shweta Tikoo, Natasja Barki, Rohit Jain, Nursafwana S Zulkhernain, Sabine Buhner, Michael Schemann, Wolfgang Weninger
Mast cells are a part of the innate immune system implicated in allergic reactions and the regulation of host-pathogen interactions. The distribution, morphology and biochemical composition of mast cells has been studied in detail in vitro and on tissue sections both at the light microscopic and ultrastructural level. More recently, the development of fluorescent reporter strains and intravital imaging modalities has enabled first glimpses of the real-time behavior of mast cells in situ. In this review, we describe commonly used imaging approaches to study mast cells in cell culture as well as within normal and diseased tissues...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
Julian H Birnbaum, Debora Wanner, Anton F Gietl, Antje Saake, Thomas M Kündig, Christoph Hock, Roger M Nitsch, Christian Tackenberg
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been described in postmortem brain samples and animal models. However, these observations were made at a late stage of disease and the inability to examine an early, presymptomatic phase in human neurons impeded our understanding of cause or consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells (iN cells) from sporadic AD (SAD) patients and healthy control subjects (HCS) to show aberrant mitochondrial function in patient-derived cells...
March 2018: Stem Cell Research
Ali Reza Noori, Elaheh Sadat Hosseini, Maryam Nikkhah, Saman Hosseinkhani
Apaf-1 is a cytosolic multi-domain protein in the apoptosis regulatory network. When cytochrome c releases from mitochondria; it binds to WD-40 repeats of Apaf-1 molecule and induces oligomerization of Apaf-1. Here in, a split luciferase assay was used to compare apoptosome formation in cell-free and cell-based systems. This assay uses Apaf-1 tagged with either N-terminal fragment or C-terminal fragment of P. pyralis luciferase. In cell based-system, the apoptosome formation is induced inside the cells which express Apaf-1 tagged with complementary fragments of luciferase while in cell-free system, the apoptosome formation is induced in extracts of the cells...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Gongyu Li, Siming Yuan, Shihui Zheng, Yangzhong Liu, Guangming Huang
In situ living cell protein analysis would enable the structural identification and functional interrogation of intracellular proteins in native cellular environments. Previously, we have presented an in situ mass spectrometry (MS) strategy to identify protein and protein/metal ion complex with relatively small molecular weight ( Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 10860-10866). However, it is still challenging to directly identify larger proteins and protein/ligand complexes in cell, due to numerous nonspecific bindings of ligands, solvents, and other cellular constituents...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Nabarun Chakraborty, Amrita Cheema, Aarti Gautam, Duncan Donohue, Allison Hoke, Carolynn Conley, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Spaceflight presents a spectrum of stresses very different from those associated with terrestrial conditions. Our previous study (BMC Genom. 15 : 659, 2014) integrated the expressions of mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins and results indicated that microgravity induces an immunosuppressive state that can facilitate opportunistic pathogenic attack. However, the existing data are not sufficient for elucidating the molecular drivers of the given immunosuppressed state. To meet this knowledge gap, we focused on the metabolite profile of spaceflown human cells...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Stefano Fais, Michael Overholtzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ashutosh Pandey, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication system used broadly in animal development and adult maintenance. Interaction of the Notch receptor with ligands from neighboring cells induces activation of the signaling pathway (trans-activation), while interaction with ligands from the same cell inhibits signaling (cis-inhibition). Proper balance between trans-activation and cis-inhibition helps establish optimal levels of Notch signaling in some contexts during animal development. Because of the overlapping expression domains of Notch and its ligands in many cell types and the existence of feedback mechanisms, studying the effects of a given post-translational modification on trans- versus cis-interactions of Notch and its ligands in vivo is difficult...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Devadarssen Murdamoothoo, Anja Schwenzer, Jessica Kant, Tristan Rupp, Anna Marzeda, Kim Midwood, Gertraud Orend
The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-C (TNC) has received a lot of attention since its discovery 30 years ago because of its multiple roles in tissue repair, and in pathologies such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Mouse models with high or no TNC expression have enabled the validation of key roles for TNC in immunity and angiogenesis. In parallel, many approaches including primary cell or organ cultures have shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which TNC exerts its multiple actions in vivo...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
Zhongdong Xie, Han Liang, Jinmeng Wang, Xiaowen Xu, Yan Zhu, Aizhen Guo, Xian Shen, Fuao Cao, Wenjun Chang
The E3 ubiquitin protein UBR5 has been implicated in the regulation of multiple biological functions and has recently emerged as a key regulator of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cancer. However, the clinical significance and biological function of UBR5 in colorectal cancer (CRC) are poorly understood. In this study, we compared the expression pattern of UBR5 between CRC and adjacent normal tissues and found that UBR5 expression was frequently elevated in CRC, possibly through chromosomal gains. Using three CRC patient cohorts, we found that patients with high UBR5 mRNA levels, UBR5 gene amplification, or high nuclear UBR5 protein levels had poor prognoses...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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