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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633916/novel-variant-of-oct4b4-is-differentially-expressed-in-human-embryonic-stem-and-embryonic-carcinoma-cells
#1
Ensieh M Poursani, Majid Mehravar, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Seyed Javad Mowla
POU domain proteins are an important family of transcription factors that regulates cell type-specific gene expression. One of the most crucial members of this family that maintains pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells is POU5F1/OCT4. The OCT4 gene can generate several variants under different situations/cell types includes OCT4A that is the major factor sustains pluripotency in embryonic stem and embryonic carcinoma cells, and also OCT4B and OCT4B1, which might be transcribed from a different potential promoter located in intron1 and are expressed in various tissues and cell types...
June 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631562/cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-patterning-differentiation-and-in-prognosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Simple Mohanta, Gangotri Siddappa, Sindhu Govindan Valiyaveedan, Ravindra Dodda Thimmasandra Ramanjanappa, Debashish Das, Ramanan Pandian, Samanta Sekhar Khora, Moni Abraham Kuriakose, Amritha Suresh
Differentiation is a major histological parameter determining tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of the patient; cancer stem cells with their slow dividing and undifferentiated nature might be one of the factors determining the same. This study aims to correlate cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD147) with tumor differentiation and evaluate their subsequent effect on prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in treatment naïve oral cancer patients (n = 53) indicated that the expression of CD147 was associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609003/preanalytic-specimen-triage-smears-cell-blocks-cytospin-preparations-transport-media-and-cytobanking
#3
Gilda da Cunha Santos, Mauro A Saieg
With increasing requests for the evaluation of prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers, great attention must be paid to the preanalytical issues regarding sample quality and DNA/RNA yield from all different types of cytological preparations. The objectives of this review were: 1) to provide an update regarding the importance of specimen triage as well as specimen handling and collection; 2) to discuss the different cell preparations that can be used for molecular testing, their advantages and limitations; and 3) to highlight the strategies for biobanking cytology samples...
June 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608552/a-perspective-on-stem-cell-therapy-for-ear-disorders
#4
Rahul Mittal, Hyunseo D Jung, Jeenu Mittal, Adrien A Eshraghi
The use of stem cells in cell-based therapy is an emerging concept for the treatment of ear disorders. Tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) and inner ear disorders are some of the most commonly presented otologic disorders that can benefit from advances in cell-based therapy. Studies have already demonstrated that stem cell-based therapy can potentially be an effective treatment modality for acute and chronic TMP. Recent studies have also shown promise in application of cell-based approach to treat inner ear dysfunction...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532456/mechanisms-of-tanshinone-ii-a-inhibits-malignant-melanoma-development-through-blocking-autophagy-signal-transduction-in-a375-cell
#5
Xiaojing Li, Zhifeng Li, Xianping Li, Baoguo Liu, Zhijun Liu
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the high degree of malignancy and early prone to blood and lymph node metastasis. There is not cured for MM. Tan II A has been reported to reduce cancer cell proliferation. But the mechanism by which Tan II A inhibited melanoma growth are not well characterized. We sought to explore the possible mechanism by which Tan II A regulated cell proliferation through autophagy signaling pathway in A375 cells. METHODS: We tested the effects of Tan II A on melanoma A375, MV3, M14, and other human cell lines including Hacat and HUVEC cells in cell culture model...
May 22, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514207/circadian-gene-clock-affects-drug-resistant-gene-expression-and-cell-proliferation-in-ovarian-cancer-skov3-ddp-cell-lines-through-autophagy
#6
Yang Sun, Long Jin, Yu-Xia Sui, Li-Li Han, Jia-Hua Liu
Abnormal autophagy regulation affects the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer, during which the circadian gene clock may play a major role. In this study, RNA interference plasmid pSUPER-Clock and overexpression plasmid pcDNA3.1-Clock of CLOCK were used to stably transfect the SKOV3/DDP cells by lipofection. Upon screening, the in vitro transfected cell lines with pSUPER-Clock, the autophagy level, and G0/G1 phase cells were significantly reduced, and the expression levels of Clock, LC3, P-gp, and MRP2 were inhibited...
May 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505189/small-and-big-hodgkin-reed-sternberg-cells-of-hodgkin-lymphoma-cell-lines-l-428-and-l-1236-lack-consistent-differences-in-gene-expression-profiles-and-are-capable-to-reconstitute-each-other
#7
Benjamin Rengstl, Sooji Kim, Claudia Döring, Christian Weiser, Julia Bein, Katrin Bankov, Marco Herling, Sebastian Newrzela, Martin-Leo Hansmann, Sylvia Hartmann
The hallmark of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is the presence of giant, mostly multinucleated Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. Whereas it has recently been shown that giant HRS cells evolve from small Hodgkin cells by incomplete cytokinesis and re-fusion of tethered sister cells, it remains unsolved why this phenomenon particularly takes place in this lymphoma and what the differences between these cell types of variable sizes are. The aim of the present study was to characterize microdissected small and giant HRS cells by gene expression profiling and to assess differences of clonal growth behavior as well as susceptibility toward cytotoxic intervention between these different cell types to provide more insight into their distinct cellular potential...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495964/transition-zone-cells-reach-g2-phase-before-initiating-elongation-in-maize-root-apex
#8
M Victoria Alarcón, Julio Salguero
Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494349/trabectedin-and-campthotecin-synergistically-eliminate-cancer-stem-cells-in-cell-of-origin-sarcoma-models
#9
Lucia Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Tornin, Aida Rodriguez, Laura Santos, Eva Allonca, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Garcia, Aurora Astudillo, Juana Maria Garcia-Pedrero, Rene Rodriguez
Trabectedin has been approved for second-line treatment of soft tissue sarcomas. However, its efficacy to target sarcoma initiating cells has not been addressed yet. Here, we used pioneer models of myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCLS) and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) developed from transformed human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to evaluate the effect of trabectedin in the cell type responsible for initiating sarcomagenesis and their derived cancer stem cells (CSC) subpopulations. We found that low nanomolar concentrations of trabectedin efficiently inhibited the growth of sarcoma-initiating cells, induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and apoptosis...
May 8, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485205/effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-the-increase-in-type-ii-collagen-accumulation-in-cartilage-like-msc-sheets
#10
Keigo Sato, Hisashi Mera, Shigeyuki Wakitani, Mutsumi Takagi
With the aim to increase type II collagen content in the scaffold-free cartilage-like cell sheet using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, we examined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) addition to the chondrogenic medium for the cell sheet culture. The addition of EGCG (10 μM) increased the content of type II collagen 2-fold, while the addition did not markedly change the expression level of the genes encoding type II collagen and Sox 9. The reactive oxygen species level in the cells in cell sheets was thought to be too low to suppress the accumulation of type II collagen...
June 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484739/usage-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-cell-based-therapy-advantages-and-disadvantages
#11
REVIEW
Hee Jung Kim, Jeong-Soo Park
The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell-based therapy has attracted extensive interest in the field of regenerative medicine, and it shows applications to numerous incurable diseases. hMSCs show several superior properties for therapeutic use compared to other types of stem cells. Different cell types are discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages, with focus on the characteristics of hMSCs. hMSCs can proliferate readily and produce differentiated cells that can substitute for the targeted affected tissue...
March 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450545/decreased-motor-neuron-support-by-sma-astrocytes-due-to-diminished-mcp1-secretion
#12
Jasmin E Martin, TrangKimberly T Nguyen, Christopher Grunseich, Jonathan H Nofziger, Philip R Lee, Douglas Fields, Kenneth H Fischbeck, Emily Foran
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severe, often fatal muscle weakness due to loss of motor neurons. SMA patients have deletions and other mutations of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in decreased SMN protein. Astrocytes are the primary support cells of the CNS and are responsible for glutamate clearance, metabolic support, response to injury, and regulation of signal transmission. Astrocytes have been implicated in SMA as in in other neurodegenerative disorders...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447671/the-scaffold-microenvironment-for-stem-cell-based-bone-tissue-engineering
#13
REVIEW
Zhichao Hao, Zhenhua Song, Jun Huang, Keqing Huang, Amanda Panetta, Zhipeng Gu, Jun Wu
Bone tissue engineering uses the principles and methods of engineering and life sciences to study bone structure, function and growth mechanism for the purposes of repairing, maintaining and improving damaged bone tissue. Scaffolds not only provide structural support for stem cells in cell adhesion and proliferation and bone formation, but also serve as a microenvironment for guiding stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration and for controlling tissue structure. This review presents the research status of the scaffold microenvironment for bone-related stem cells based on bone tissue engineering...
April 27, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440448/modified-panax-ginseng-extract-regulates-autophagy-by-ampk-signaling-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#14
Hwa-Seung Yoo, Jung Min Kim, Eunbi Jo, Chong-Kwan Cho, Seung-Yeul Lee, Hwan Su Kang, Min-Goo Lee, Pei-Ying Yang, Ik-Soon Jang
Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type (PPT) in modified regular ginseng extract (MRGX). In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A549 human lung cancer cells...
June 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410237/combination-therapy-in-combating-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Reza Bayat Mokhtari, Tina S Homayouni, Narges Baluch, Evgeniya Morgatskaya, Sushil Kumar, Bikul Das, Herman Yeger
Combination therapy, a treatment modality that combines two or more therapeutic agents, is a cornerstone of cancer therapy. The amalgamation of anti-cancer drugs enhances efficacy compared to the mono-therapy approach because it targets key pathways in a characteristically synergistic or an additive manner. This approach potentially reduces drug resistance, while simultaneously providing therapeutic anti-cancer benefits, such as reducing tumour growth and metastatic potential, arresting mitotically active cells, reducing cancer stem cell populations, and inducing apoptosis...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409495/antiplatelet-and-anti-proliferative-action-of-disintegrin-from-echis-multisquamatis-snake-venom
#16
Volodymyr Chernyshenko, Natalia Petruk, Darya Korolova, Ludmila Kasatkina, Olha Gornytska, Tetyana Platonova, Tamara Chernyshenko, Andriy Rebriev, Olena Dzhus, Liudmyla Garmanchuk, Eduard Lugovskoy
AIM: To purify the platelet aggregation inhibitor from Echis multisquamatis snake venom (PAIEM) and characterize its effect on platelet aggregation and HeLa cell proliferation. METHODS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) were used for PAIEM identification. Platelet aggregation in the presence of PAIEM was studied on aggregometer Solar-AP2110. The changes of shape and granularity of platelets in the presence of PAIEM were studied on flow cytometer COULTER EPICS XL, and degranulation of platelets was estimated using spectrofluorimetry...
April 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408143/tetrandrine-potentiates-the-glucocorticoid-pharmacodynamics-via-inhibiting-p-glycoprotein-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-mitogen-activated-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#17
Wencheng Xu, Kehan Meng, Yuanchao Tu, Sachiko Tanaka, Kenji Onda, Kentaro Sugiyama, Toshihiko Hirano, Haruki Yamada
Glucocorticoids play significant roles in treatments of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Some patients show a poor or absent response even to high doses of glucocorticoids. The purpose of this study was to explore whether tetrandrine combined with glucocorticoids could be a new treatment strategy to resolve glucocorticoids resistance. Information on glucocorticoids sensitivity was usually obtained through mitogen-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cell culture procedures. Thus, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was chosen as a model to study the immunosuppressive effect of methylprednisolone combined with tetrandrine, including the possible action mechanisms...
July 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348038/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-in-vascular-homeostasis-and-disease
#18
Marie-José Goumans, An Zwijsen, Peter Ten Dijke, Sabine Bailly
It is well established that control of vascular morphogenesis and homeostasis is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Delta-like 4 (Dll4), angiopoietin, and ephrin signaling. It has become clear that signaling by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which have a long history of studies in bone and early heart development, are also essential for regulating vascular function. Indeed, mutations that cause deregulated BMP signaling are linked to two human vascular diseases, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pulmonary arterial hypertension...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347547/pace4-is-an-important-driver-of-zr-75-1-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-proliferation-and-tumor-progression
#19
François Panet, Frédéric Couture, Anna Kwiatkowska, Roxane Desjardins, Brigitte Guérin, Robert Day
Breast cancer is the most frequent and deadly malignancy in women worldwide. Despite national screening programs combined with new treatments relapse rate remain high and new therapies are needed. From previous work, we identified PACE4, a member of the proprotein convertase (PCs) family of endoproteases, as a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer. In the present study we asked the question if PACE4 could also be a potential target in breast cancer. In clinical samples of breast adenocarcinoma, we observed a specific overexpression of PACE4 in the estrogen-receptor (ER) positive subtype...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291251/activated-hepatic-stellate-cells-impair-nk-cell-anti-fibrosis-capacity-through-a-tgf-%C3%AE-dependent-emperipolesis-in-hbv-cirrhotic-patients
#20
Jijing Shi, Juanjuan Zhao, Xin Zhang, Yongqian Cheng, Jinhua Hu, Yuanyuan Li, Xin Zhao, Qinghua Shang, Yanling Sun, Bo Tu, Lei Shi, Bin Gao, Fu-Sheng Wang, Zheng Zhang
Natural killer (NK) cells can induce liver fibrosis remission by killing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and producing interferon (IFN)-γ in a mouse model; however, their anti-fibrotic immune-characteristics and regulatory mechanisms by HSCs remain to be determined, especially in livers from HBV-infected liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. We analyzed frequency, phenotype and anti-fibrotic function of hepatic and peripheral NK subsets in 43 HBV-LC patients. We found that hepatic NK subsets from LC patients displayed a decreased frequency, activation status and anti-fibrotic activity compared with those from chronic hepatitis B patients, which were mainly mediated by increased intrahepatic tumour-growth factor (TGF)-β because blockade of TGF-β significantly reversed NK anti-fibrotic function in vitro...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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