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Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Hyun-Sook Kim, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Youngmi Kim Pak, Wonchae Choe, Joohun Ha, Suk Chon
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus) and beer. The aim of the current study was to explore the role of xanthohumol in modulating the toxicity of TCDD in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. In cells treated with TCDD alone, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species production, cardiolipin peroxidation, nitric oxide release and cytochrome P450 1A1 expression were significantly increased...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Dan Chen, Huanhuan Sha, Tianmu Hu, Shuchen Dong, Junying Zhang, Siwen Liu, Haixia Cao, Rong Ma, Yang Wu, Changwen Jing, Zhuo Wang, Jianzhong Wu, Jifeng Feng
Most of the patients with lung cancer are diagnosed at advanced stage, and they often lose the opportunity of surgical therapy, most of whom fail to reach good prognosis after chemotherapy. Recently, a few clinical studies have confirmed the role of adoptive T-cell transfer in the maintenance therapy of cancer patients. Here, we provided statistical insights into the role of CIKs in advanced lung cancer from three different levels, cell model (in vitro co-culture system), mice model (in situ lung cancer), and clinical research (in lung cancer patients of different progression stages)...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Tapiwa Lundu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Ryo Ito, Kenta Shimizu, Shintaro Kobayashi, Kentaro Yoshii, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa, Hiroaki Kariwa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly emerged phlebovirus identified in China, Japan, and South Korea. Phlebovirus glycoproteins (GP) play a key role in targeting viral structural components to the budding compartments in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex. However, the role of SFTSV GP in targeting structural proteins to the ERGIC and Golgi complex remains unresolved. In this study, we show that SFTSV GP plays a significant role in targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) to the budding sites...
2018: Biomedical Research
Shweta Tikoo, Natasja Barki, Rohit Jain, Nursafwana S Zulkhernain, Sabine Buhner, Michael Schemann, Wolfgang Weninger
Mast cells are a part of the innate immune system implicated in allergic reactions and the regulation of host-pathogen interactions. The distribution, morphology and biochemical composition of mast cells has been studied in detail in vitro and on tissue sections both at the light microscopic and ultrastructural level. More recently, the development of fluorescent reporter strains and intravital imaging modalities has enabled first glimpses of the real-time behavior of mast cells in situ. In this review, we describe commonly used imaging approaches to study mast cells in cell culture as well as within normal and diseased tissues...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
Julian H Birnbaum, Debora Wanner, Anton F Gietl, Antje Saake, Thomas M Kündig, Christoph Hock, Roger M Nitsch, Christian Tackenberg
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been described in postmortem brain samples and animal models. However, these observations were made at a late stage of disease and the inability to examine an early, presymptomatic phase in human neurons impeded our understanding of cause or consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells (iN cells) from sporadic AD (SAD) patients and healthy control subjects (HCS) to show aberrant mitochondrial function in patient-derived cells...
January 26, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Ali Reza Noori, Elaheh Sadat Hosseini, Maryam Nikkhah, Saman Hosseinkhani
Apaf-1 is a cytosolic multi-domain protein in the apoptosis regulatory network. When cytochrome c releases from mitochondria; it binds to WD40 repeats of Apaf-1 molecule and induces oligomerization of Apaf-1. Here in, a split luciferase assay was used to compare apoptosome formation in cell-free and cell-based systems. This assay uses Apaf-1 tagged with either N-terminal fragment or C-terminal fragment of P. pyralis luciferase. In cell based-system, the apoptosome formation is induced inside the cells which express Apaf-1 tagged with complementary fragments of luciferase while in cell-free system, the apoptosome formation is induced in extracts of the cells...
January 31, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Gongyu Li, Siming Yuan, Shihui Zheng, Yangzhong Liu, Guangming Huang
In-situ living cell protein analysis would enable the structural identification and functional interrogation of intracellular proteins in native cellular environments. Previously, we have presented an in-situ MS strategy to identify protein and protein/metal ion complex with relatively small molecular weight (Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 10860-10866). However, it is still challenging to directly identify larger proteins and protein/ligand complexes in cell, due to numerous non-specific binding of ligands, solvents and other cellular constituents...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Nabarun Chakraborty, Amrita Cheema, Aarti Gautam, Duncan Donohue, Allison Hoke, Carolynn Conley, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Spaceflight presents a spectrum of stresses very different from those associated with terrestrial conditions. Our previous study (BMC Genom. 15: 659, 2014) integrated the expressions of mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins and results indicated that microgravity induces an immunosuppressive state that can facilitate opportunistic pathogenic attack. However, the existing data are not sufficient for elucidating the molecular drivers of the given immunosuppressed state. To meet this knowledge gap, we focused on the metabolite profile of spaceflown human cells...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Stefano Fais, Michael Overholtzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ashutosh Pandey, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication system used broadly in animal development and adult maintenance. Interaction of the Notch receptor with ligands from neighboring cells induces activation of the signaling pathway (trans-activation), while interaction with ligands from the same cell inhibits signaling (cis-inhibition). Proper balance between trans-activation and cis-inhibition helps establish optimal levels of Notch signaling in some contexts during animal development. Because of the overlapping expression domains of Notch and its ligands in many cell types and the existence of feedback mechanisms, studying the effects of a given post-translational modification on trans- versus cis-interactions of Notch and its ligands in vivo is difficult...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Devadarssen Murdamoothoo, Anja Schwenzer, Jessica Kant, Tristan Rupp, Anna Marzeda, Kim Midwood, Gertraud Orend
The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-C (TNC) has received a lot of attention since its discovery 30 years ago because of its multiple roles in tissue repair, and in pathologies such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Mouse models with high or no TNC expression have enabled the validation of key roles for TNC in immunity and angiogenesis. In parallel, many approaches including primary cell or organ cultures have shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which TNC exerts its multiple actions in vivo...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
Zhongdong Xie, Han Liang, Jinmeng Wang, Xiaowen Xu, Yan Zhu, Aizhen Guo, Xian Shen, Fuao Cao, Wenjun Chang
The E3 ubiquitin protein UBR5 has been implicated in the regulation of multiple biological functions and has recently emerged as a key regulator of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in cancer. However, the clinical significance and biological function of UBR5 in colorectal cancer (CRC) are poorly understood. In this study, we compared the expression pattern of UBR5 between CRC and adjacent normal tissues and found that UBR5 expression was frequently elevated in CRC, possibly through chromosomal gains. Using three CRC patient cohorts, we found that patients with high UBR5 mRNA levels, UBR5 gene amplification, or high nuclear UBR5 protein levels had poor prognoses...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Esther Giesselmann, Björn Becker, Manfred J Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Virus infected killer strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae secrete protein toxins such as K28, K1, K2 and Klus which are lethal to sensitive yeast strains of the same or related species. K28 is somewhat unique as it represents an α/β heterodimeric protein of the A/B toxin family which, after having bound to the surface of sensitive target cells, is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis and transported through the secretory pathway in a retrograde manner...
December 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Rajib Schubert, Stuart Trenholm, Kamill Balint, Georg Kosche, Cameron S Cowan, Manuel A Mohr, Martin Munz, David Martinez-Martin, Gotthold Fläschner, Richard Newton, Jacek Krol, Brigitte Gross Scherf, Keisuke Yonehara, Adrian Wertz, Aaron Ponti, Alexander Ghanem, Daniel Hillier, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Daniel J Müller, Botond Roska
Genetic engineering by viral infection of single cells is useful to study complex systems such as the brain. However, available methods for infecting single cells have drawbacks that limit their applications. Here we describe 'virus stamping', in which viruses are reversibly bound to a delivery vehicle-a functionalized glass pipette tip or magnetic nanoparticles in a pipette-that is brought into physical contact with the target cell on a surface or in tissue, using mechanical or magnetic forces. Different single cells in the same tissue can be infected with different viruses and an individual cell can be simultaneously infected with different viruses...
December 18, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
Yong-Jian Wang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Shao-Hua Fan, Juan Zhuang, Qun Shan, Xin-Rui Han, Xin Wen, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Bin Qiao, Qian Tao, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
We investigated the involvement of microRNA-433 (miR-433) in the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Totally 108 OSCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues from patients with OSCC were collected. Also, transplanted tumor formation experiment in nude mice was conducted to verify the effect of miR-433 and FAK on subcutaneous transplanted tumor. The CD44+ stem cell from SCC-9 were collected and assigned into the blank, miR-433 mimics, mimics control, miR-433 inhibitors, inhibitors control, siFAK and miR-433 inhibitors + siFAK groups...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
A Cagdas Yorukoglu, A Esat Kiter, Semih Akkaya, N Lale Satiroglu-Tufan, A Cevik Tufan
The integration of stem cell technology and cell sheet engineering improved the potential use of cell sheet products in regenerative medicine. This review will discuss the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell sheet-based tissue engineering. Besides their adhesiveness to plastic surfaces and their extensive differentiation potential in vitro, MSCs are easily accessible, expandable in vitro with acceptable genomic stability, and few ethical issues. With all these advantages, they are extremely well suited for cell sheet-based tissue engineering...
2017: Stem Cells International
HyeRim Shin, Dayoung Kim, David M Helfman
Metastasis dissemination is the result of various processes including cell migration and cell aggregation. These processes involve alterations in the expression and organization of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins in tumor cells. Alterations in actin filaments and their binding partners are known to be key players in metastasis. Downregulation of specific tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms is a common characteristic of transformed cells. In this study, we examined the role of Tpm2.1 in non-transformed MCF10A breast epithelial cells in cell migration and cell aggregation, because this isoform is downregulated in primary and metastatic breast cancer as well as various breast cancer cell lines...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Shigeki Aoki, Michie Morita, Takuya Hirao, Masashi Yamaguchi, Reika Shiratori, Megumi Kikuya, Hiroji Chibana, Kousei Ito
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Treatments include glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (Dex) and prednisolone, which may be of value when used alongside cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. To predict therapeutic efficacy of GCs, their activity against ALL cells is usually examined prior to chemotherapy; however, few studies have examined their effects when used in combination with other drugs. The paradox is that cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs that are effective against proliferating cancer cells show synergistic effects when used with GCs that prevent cell proliferation...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
Banzhan Ruan, Bo Zhang, Ang Chen, Long Yuan, Jianqing Liang, Manna Wang, Zhengrong Zhang, Jie Fan, Xiaochen Yu, Xin Zhang, Zubiao Niu, You Zheng, Songzhi Gu, Xiaoqing Liu, Hongli Du, Jufang Wang, Xianwen Hu, Lihua Gao, Zhaolie Chen, Hongyan Huang, Xiaoning Wang, Qiang Sun
Cell-in-cell structure is prevalent in human cancer, and associated with several specific pathophysiological phenomena. Although cell membrane adhesion molecules were found critical for cell-in-cell formation, the roles of other membrane components, such as lipids, remain to be explored. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of cholesterol and phospholipids on the formation of cell-in-cell structures by utilizing liposome as a vector. We found that Lipofectamine-2000, the reagent commonly used for routine transfection, could significantly reduce entotic cell-in-cell formation in a cell-specific manner, which is correlated with suppressed actomyosin contraction as indicated by reduced β-actin expression and myosin light chain phosphorylation...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Amr El Zawily, Emily McEwen, Behzad Toosi, Frederick S Vizeacoumar, Tanya Freywald, Franco J Vizeacoumar, Andrew Freywald
While impressive improvements have been achieved in T-ALL therapy, current treatment approaches fail in approximately 25% of patients and these patients have limited treatment options. Another significant group of patients is being overtreated, which causes long-lasting side effects. Identification of molecules controlling drug resistance in T-ALL is crucial for treatment optimisation in both scenarios. We report here the EphB6 receptor is frequently overexpressed in T-ALL. Remarkably, our observations indicate that EphB6 acts in T-ALL cells to enhance sensitivity to a DNA-damaging drug, doxorubicin, as interruption of EphB6 activity interferes with the efficiency of doxorubicin-induced eradication of T-ALL cells in cell culture and in xenograft animals...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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