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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778791/evolutionary-transitions-in-controls-reconcile-adaptation-with-continuity-of-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Alexander V Badyaev
Evolution proceeds by accumulating functional solutions, necessarily forming an uninterrupted lineage from past solutions of ancestors to the current design of extant forms. At the population level, this process requires an organismal architecture in which the maintenance of local adaptation does not preclude the ability to innovate in the same traits and their continuous evolution. Representing complex traits as networks enables us to visualize a fundamental principle that resolves tension between adaptation and continuous evolution: phenotypic states encompassing adaptations traverse the continuous multi-layered landscape of past physical, developmental and functional associations among traits...
May 17, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776078/critical-properties-of-unlimited-gliding-unexpected-flocking-behavior-driven-by-the-exchange-of-information
#2
Marta Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Agata Fronczak, Piotr Fronczak
Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776046/radial-restricted-solid-on-solid-and-etching-interface-growth-models
#3
Sidiney G Alves
An approach to generate radial interfaces is presented. A radial network recursively obtained is used to implement discrete model rules designed originally for the investigation in flat substrates. I used the restricted solid-on-solid and etching models as to test the proposed scheme. The results indicate the Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang conjecture is completely verified leading to a good agreement between the interface radius fluctuation distribution and the Gaussian unitary ensemble. The evolution of the radius agrees well with the generalized conjecture, and the two-point correlation function exhibits also a good agreement with the covariance of the Airy_{2} process...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775972/the-effect-on-performance-time-and-quality-of-the-knots-after-mono-or-bimanual-training-of-laparoscopic-intracorporeal-knot-tying-according-to-the-gladiator-rule-technique
#4
Fernanda de Almeida Asencio, Helizabet Abdala Salomão Ayroza Ribeiro, Armando Romeo, Arnauld Wattiez, Paulo Augusto Galvão Ayroza Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE:  To assess whether the monomanual or bimanual training of laparoscopic suture following the same technique may interfere with the knots' performance time and/or quality. METHODS:  A prospective observational study involving 41 resident students of gynecology/obstetrics and general surgery who attended a laparoscopic suture training for 2 days. The participants were divided into two groups. Group A performed the training using exclusively their dominant hand, and group B performed the training using both hands to tie the intracorporeal knot...
May 18, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775203/optimal-two-stage-dynamic-treatment-regimes-from-a-classification-perspective-with-censored-survival-data
#5
Rebecca Hager, Anastasios A Tsiatis, Marie Davidian
Clinicians often make multiple treatment decisions at key points over the course of a patient's disease. A dynamic treatment regime is a sequence of decision rules, each mapping a patient's observed history to the set of available, feasible treatment options at each decision point, and thus formalizes this process. An optimal regime is one leading to the most beneficial outcome on average if used to select treatment for the patient population. We propose a method for estimation of an optimal regime involving two decision points when the outcome of interest is a censored survival time, which is based on maximizing a locally efficient, doubly robust, augmented inverse probability weighted estimator for average outcome over a class of regimes...
May 18, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774427/largely-flat-latitudinal-life-history-clines-in-the-dung-fly-sepsis-fulgens-across-europe-diptera-sepsidae
#6
Jeannine Roy, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Patrick T Rohner
Clinal variation in body size and related life history traits is common and has stimulated the postulation of several eco-geographical rules. Whereas some clinal patterns are clearly adaptive, the causes of others remain obscure. We investigated intra-specific body size, development time and female fecundity (egg size and number) clines across 13 European populations of the dung fly Sepsis fulgens spanning 20° latitude from southern Italy to Estonia in a genetic common garden approach. Despite very short generation times (ca...
May 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774406/reduced-global-myocardial-perfusion-reserve-in-dcm-and-hcm-patients-assessed-by-cmr-based-velocity-encoded-coronary-sinus-flow-measurements-and-first-pass-perfusion-imaging
#7
Michael Bietenbeck, Anca Florian, Zornitsa Shomanova, Claudia Meier, Ali Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients suffering from dilative or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (DCM/HCM). To assess CMD, quantitative myocardial first-pass perfusion (1P) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can be performed. Coronary sinus flow (CSF) measurements at rest and during maximal vasodilatation are an alternative and well-validated approach for the quantification of global myocardial blood flow (MBF) in CMR...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772576/wake-up-stroke-versus-stroke-with-known-onset-time-clinical-and-multimodality-ct-imaging-characteristics
#8
Jan W Dankbaar, Henri P Bienfait, Coen van den Berg, Edwin Bennink, Alexander D Horsch, Tom van Seeters, Irene C van der Schaaf, L Jaap Kappelle, Birgitta K Velthuis
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke are mainly based on the time between symptom onset and initiation of treatment. This time is unknown in patients with wake-up stroke (WUS). We investigated clinical and multimodality CT imaging characteristics on admission in patients with WUS and in patients with a stroke with a known onset time. METHODS: All patients were selected from a large prospective cohort study (Dutch acute stroke study)...
May 17, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772110/morphology-and-memory-toward-an-integrated-theory
#9
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771738/prediction-of-transfer-among-multiple-states-of-blood-pressure-based-on-markov-model-an-18-year-cohort-study
#10
Yunfeng Wang, Zhimin Ma, Chaonan Xu, ZiKun Wang, Xinghua Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the rules of transition between normotension, prehypertension and hypertension states and to establish a prediction model for the incidence of prehypertension and hypertension. METHODS: Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2009 were used as training data to develop the model. Data of the year 2011 were used for model validation. The multistate Markov model was developed using the msm package in R software...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770893/the-biogenetical-revolution-of-the-council-of-europe-twenty-years-of-the-convention-on-human-rights-and-biomedicine-oviedo-convention
#11
REVIEW
Oktawian Nawrot
The Council of Europe's legal regulation concerning development of biology and medicine undoubtedly form the most interesting, but certainly not perfect, over-national system of protection of human beings in prenatal stages of development. The strength of the mentioned system is that it based on well-known and common acceptable values and rules such as human dignity and its protection. The aim of the paper is to present the reasons behind adopting such a system, as well as the consequences of the latter.The author argues that in such a way a revolution within the human rights system of the Council of Europe took place...
May 16, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770246/development-of-the-imb-model-and-an-evidence-based-diabetes-self-management-mobile-application
#12
Eunjoo Jeon, Hyeoun-Ae Park
Objectives: This study developed a diabetes self-management mobile application based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model, evidence extracted from clinical practice guidelines, and requirements identified through focus group interviews (FGIs) with diabetes patients. Methods: We developed a diabetes self-management (DSM) app in accordance with the following four stages of the system development life cycle. The functional and knowledge requirements of the users were extracted through FGIs with 19 diabetes patients...
April 2018: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769565/adaptation-to-criticality-through-organizational-invariance-in-embodied-agents
#13
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia
Many biological and cognitive systems do not operate deep within one or other regime of activity. Instead, they are poised at critical points located at phase transitions in their parameter space. The pervasiveness of criticality suggests that there may be general principles inducing this behaviour, yet there is no well-founded theory for understanding how criticality is generated at a wide span of levels and contexts. In order to explore how criticality might emerge from general adaptive mechanisms, we propose a simple learning rule that maintains an internal organizational structure from a specific family of systems at criticality...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766205/-effective-nutritional-supplements-or-pharmaceuticals-how-can-they-be-classified-and-used
#14
REVIEW
K Stephan
Health awareness is increasing in the population, which means that more and more dietary supplements are being bought. These are very similar to well known medicines and sometimes indistinguishable both for healthcare professionals as well as for the consumer. Unclear legal terms and missing maximum quantities and substance lists contribute to this. Both product groups are subject to completely different legal norms and have different market access procedures and risk assessment systems. They also differ in purpose...
May 15, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762525/electronic-magnetic-half-metallic-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-new-equiatomic-quaternary-heusler-compound-yrhtige-a-first-principles-study
#15
Yilin Han, Yang Wu, Tingzhou Li, R Khenata, Tie Yang, Xiaotian Wang
We apply First-principles theory to study the electronic structure as well as the magnetic and mechanical characteristics of YRhTiGe, a newly-designed Y-based quaternary equiatomic Heusler compound. This compound is half-metallic in nature with a ferromagnetic ground state. The total magnetic moment of YRhTiGe is 2 μB and it obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, Mt = Zt - 18, where Mt and Zt are the total magnetic moment and total number of valence electrons, respectively. The magnetic and half-metallic behaviors at its equilibrium and strained lattice constants have been discussed in detail...
May 15, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760845/ruling-out-pulmonary-embolism-in-patients-with-high-pretest-probability
#16
Murtaza Akhter, Jeffrey Kline, Bikash Bhattarai, Mark Courtney, Christopher Kabrhel
Introduction: The American College of Emergency Physicians guidelines recommend more aggressive workup beyond imaging alone in patients with a high pretest probability (PTP) of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the ability of multiple tests to safely rule out PE in high PTP patients is not known. We sought to measure the ability of negative computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) along with negative D-dimer to rule out PE in these high-risk patients. Methods: We analyzed data from a previous prospective observational study conducted in 12 emergency departments (ED)...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760057/weak-galilean-invariance-as-a-selection-principle-for-coarse-grained-diffusive-models
#17
Andrea Cairoli, Rainer Klages, Adrian Baule
How does the mathematical description of a system change in different reference frames? Galilei first addressed this fundamental question by formulating the famous principle of Galilean invariance. It prescribes that the equations of motion of closed systems remain the same in different inertial frames related by Galilean transformations, thus imposing strong constraints on the dynamical rules. However, real world systems are often described by coarse-grained models integrating complex internal and external interactions indistinguishably as friction and stochastic forces...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757602/visualization-of-electronic-multiple-ordering-emo-and-its-dynamics-in-high-magnetic-field-evidence-of-emo-crystals
#18
Zhigao Sheng, Qiyuan Feng, Haibiao Zhou, Shuai Dong, Xueli Xu, Long Cheng, Caixing Liu, Yubin Hou, Wenjie Meng, Yuping Sun, Masao Nakamura, Yoshinori Tokura, Masashi Kawasaki, Qingyou Lu
Constituent atoms and electrons determine matter properties together and they can form long-range ordering respectively. Distinguishing and isolating the electronic ordering out from the lattice crystal is a crucial issue in contemporary materials science. However, the intrinsic structure of a long-range electronic ordering is difficult to observe because it can be easily affected by many external factors. Here, we present the observation of electronic multiple ordering (EMO) and its dynamics at the micrometer scale in a manganite thin film...
May 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756926/beyond-positivity-bounds-and-the-fate-of-massive-gravity
#19
Brando Bellazzini, Francesco Riva, Javi Serra, Francesco Sgarlata
We constrain effective field theories by going beyond the familiar positivity bounds that follow from unitarity, analyticity, and crossing symmetry of the scattering amplitudes. As interesting examples, we discuss the implications of the bounds for the Galileon and ghost-free massive gravity. The combination of our theoretical bounds with the experimental constraints on the graviton mass implies that the latter is either ruled out or unable to describe gravitational phenomena, let alone to consistently implement the Vainshtein mechanism, down to the relevant scales of fifth-force experiments, where general relativity has been successfully tested...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756851/phase-transitions-of-the-polariton-condensate-in-2d-dirac-materials
#20
Ki Hoon Lee, Changhee Lee, Hongki Min, Suk Bum Chung
For the quantum well in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon (e-ph) coupling can lead to the hybridizations of the exciton and the cavity photon known as polaritons, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics due to the nontrivial Berry phase comes into play when the quantum well consists of the gapped two-dimensional Dirac material such as the transition metal dichalcogenide MoS_{2} or WSe_{2}. Specifically, in forming the polariton, the e-ph coupling from the optical selection rule due to the Berry phase can compete against the Coulomb electron-electron (e-e) interaction...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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