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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213923/diagnostic-accuracy-of-charcot-s-triad-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Steva Rumsey, Joel Winders, Andrew D MacCormick
BACKGROUND: Charcot's triad is a well-established diagnostic tool for acute cholangitis (AC). It has been recognized as an inaccurate test in clinical practice; however, its exact sensitivity and specificity remain unclear. This knowledge is key to informing the value of its continued clinical application. The objectives of this study are to calculate an estimate of the sensitivity and specificity of Charcot's triad based on published research and consider its applicability to clinical practice and medical education...
February 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213475/wheat-landrace-genome-diversity
#2
Luzie U Wingen, Claire West, Michelle Leverington-Waite, Sarah Collier, Simon Orford, Richard Goram, Cai-Yun Yang, Julie King, Alexandra M Allen, Amanda Burridge, Keith J Edwards, Simon Griffiths
Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focussing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating bi-parental populations were developed mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity (WINGEN et al...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212994/an-open-label-phase-ii-study-of-the-polo-like-kinase-1-plk-1-inhibitor-bi-2536-in-patients-with-relapsed-small-cell-lung-cancer-sclc
#3
Mark M Awad, Quincy S-C Chu, Leena Gandhi, Joe J Stephenson, Ramaswamy Govindan, Daniel S Bradford, Philip D Bonomi, David M Ellison, Keith D Eaton, Holger Fritsch, Gerd Munzert, Bruce E Johnson, Mark A Socinski
OBJECTIVES: This phase II, open-label study was designed to evaluate the response rate to the polo-like kinase 1 (Plk-1) inhibitor BI 2536 in patients with sensitive-relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), duration of response, and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were treated with the recommended phase II dose of 200mg of BI 2536 intravenously every 21days. This was a two-stage design with an early stopping rule in place if responses were not seen in at least 2 of the first 18 enrolled patients...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212463/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-an-inhaled-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-in-copd-patients-phase-ii-study-results
#4
Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209158/gene-regulatory-network-underlying-the-immortalization-of-epithelial-cells
#5
Luis Fernando Méndez-López, Jose Davila-Velderrain, Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Christian Enríquez-Olguín, Juan Carlos Martínez-García, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla
BACKGROUND: Tumorigenic transformation of human epithelial cells in vitro has been described experimentally as the potential result of spontaneous immortalization. This process is characterized by a series of cell-state transitions, in which normal epithelial cells acquire first a senescent state which is later surpassed to attain a mesenchymal stem-like phenotype with a potentially tumorigenic behavior. In this paper we aim to provide a system-level mechanistic explanation to the emergence of these cell types, and to the time-ordered transition patterns that are common to neoplasias of epithelial origin...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208418/mixing-with-applications-to-inertial-confinement-fusion-implosions
#6
V Rana, H Lim, J Melvin, J Glimm, B Cheng, D H Sharp
Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207987/fitness-to-drive-how-well-do-we-know-the-rules-survey-of-19-ent-surgeons-in-wales
#7
Darren Yap, Adam Shakir, Rhodri Costello, Simon Browning
Emergency department doctors and General Practitioners have a role in advising patients of their obligations to inform the DVLA regarding medical conditions that affect their ability to drive. Current guidelines are clear that the initial communication to the DVLA should be from the patient(1) . However, doctors should contact the DVLA directly if there are good reasons to do so(2) . Studies have shown that doctors' knowledge of medical restrictions placed on driving is poor (3,4,5,6) . Even if the need for a medical restriction is known, doctors are often not aware of the notification process...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207166/a-set-of-isomeric-episomal-plasmids-for-systematic-examination-of-mitotic-stability-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Ruben Hohnholz, Kim Julia Pohlmann, Tilman Achstetter
Yeast episomal shuttle vectors (YEp type) are commonly used in fundamental research and biotechnology whenever elevated product levels are desired. Their instability, however, poses an impediment not only in industrial scale fermentation. In order to analyze instability which might be linked to plasmid structure, a series of YEp type plasmids identical in size has been assembled, differing only in the overall arrangement of the fragments used. Performance of the eight plasmid isoforms was studied with respect to mitotic stability...
February 16, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206778/personal-and-cultural-identity-development-in-recently-immigrated-hispanic-adolescents-links-with-psychosocial-functioning
#9
Alan Meca, Raha F Sabet, Colleen M Farrelly, Cynthia G Benitez, Seth J Schwartz, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Jennifer B Unger, Byron L Zamboanga, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Simona Picariello, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, Daniel W Soto, Monica Pattarroyo, Juan A Villamar, Karina M Lizzi
OBJECTIVES: This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. METHOD: The sample consisted of 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = .88 years) from Miami and Los Angeles who participated in a longitudinal study...
February 16, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205257/status-of-internal-quality-control-for-thyroid-hormones-immunoassays-from-2011-to-2016-in-china
#10
Shishi Zhang, Wei Wang, Haijian Zhao, Falin He, Kun Zhong, Shuai Yuan, Zhiguo Wang
BACKGROUND: Internal quality control (IQC) plays a key role in the evaluation of precision performance in clinical laboratories. This report aims to present precision status of thyroid hormones immunoassays from 2011 to 2016 in China. METHODS: Through Clinet-EQA reporting system, IQC information of Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine in the form of free and total (FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4), as well as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) were collected from participant laboratories submitting IQC data in February, 2011-2016...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204949/caregiver-burden-and-the-medical-ethos
#11
Karsten Witt, Johanne Stümpel, Christiane Woopen
Are physicians sometimes morally required to ease caregiver burden? In our paper we defend an affirmative answer to this question. First, we examine the well-established principle that medical care should be centered on the patient. We argue that although this principle seems to give physicians some leeway to lessen caregivers' suffering, it is very restrictive when spelled out precisely. Based on a critical analysis of existing cases for transcending patient-centeredness we then go on to argue that the medical ethos should indeed contain a rule requiring physicians to alleviate caregiver burden under certain circumstances...
February 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203241/models-for-predicting-the-architecture-of-different-shoot-types-in-apple
#12
Emna Baïram, Mickaël Delaire, Christian Le Morvan, Gerhard Buck-Sorlin
In apple, the first-order branch of a tree has a characteristic architecture constituting three shoot types: bourses (rosettes), bourse shoots, and vegetative shoots. Its overall architecture as well as that of each shoot thus determines the distribution of sources (leaves) and sinks (fruits) and could have an influence on the amount of sugar allocated to fruits. Knowledge of architecture, in particular the position and area of leaves helps to quantify source strength. In order to reconstruct this initial architecture, rules equipped with allometric relations could be used: these allow predicting model parameters that are difficult to measure from simple traits that can be determined easily, non-destructively and directly in the orchard...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202213/recent-developments-in-the-pathology-of-thyroid-cancer
#13
D N Poller, S J Johnson
The histopathological features of thyroid cancers can be used to risk stratify patients, allowing prognostication and treatment decisions. A detailed accurate histological assessment by experienced pathologists working within a multidisciplinary context is crucial. Experience is also essential for interpretation of preoperative thyroid cytology specimens, which can be challenging. There is now more international harmonisation of numerical reporting systems for thyroid cytology. Understanding of the molecular basis of thyroid cancer has increased dramatically in recent years...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202026/an-indirect-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-identification-of-antibodies-to-senecavirus-a-in-swine
#14
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Zeynep Akkutay-Yoldar, Suzanne R Stone, Steven J P Tousignant, Fabio A Vannucci, Michael P Murtaugh
BACKGROUND: Senecavirus A (SVA), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded RNA virus closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus. SVA was originally identified as a cell culture contaminant and was not associated with disease until 2007 when it was first observed in pigs with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease (IVD). Vesicular disease is sporadically observed in swine, is not debilitating, but is significant due to its resemblance to foreign animal diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), whose presence would be economically devastating to the United States...
February 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201920/atomic-vs-quantum-dot-open-shell-spectra
#15
Jacob Katriel, H E Montgomery
Hund's rules apply to pairs of atomic states which, in the limit of weak interelectronic repulsion, belong to a common configuration. We examine the asymptotic behavior of the energy difference between states belonging to such pairs (ΔE) as a function of the nuclear charge (Z) at both Z→∞ (ignoring relativistic effects) and at Z→Zc, where Zc is the critical charge below which the outermost electron is not bound. We find that the ratio ΔEZ(2) is non-monotonic, having a maximum at some intermediate value of Z...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196932/a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-rebound-hyperbilirubinemia-following-inpatient-phototherapy
#16
Pearl W Chang, Michael W Kuzniewicz, Charles E McCulloch, Thomas B Newman
OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics provides little guidance on when to discontinue phototherapy in newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia. We sought to develop a prediction rule to estimate the probability of rebound hyperbilirubinemia after inpatient phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects for this retrospective cohort study were infants born in 2012 to 2014 at ≥35 weeks' gestation at 16 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals who received inpatient phototherapy before age 14 days...
February 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196510/partial-hiv-c2v3-envelope-sequence-analysis-reveals-association-of-coreceptor-tropism-envelope-glycosylation-and-viral-genotypic-variability-among-kenyan-patients-on-haart
#17
Rose C Kitawi, Carol W Hunja, Rashid Aman, Bernhards R Ogutu, Anne W T Muigai, Gilbert O Kokwaro, Washingtone Ochieng
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 is highly variable genetically and at protein level, a property it uses to subvert antiviral immunity and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess if HIV subtype differences were associated with variations in glycosylation patterns and co-receptor tropism among HAART patients experiencing different virologic treatment outcomes. METHODS: A total of 118 HIV env C2V3 sequence isolates generated previously from 59 Kenyan patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were examined for tropism and glycosylation patterns...
February 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196071/how-green-are-the-streets-an-analysis-for-central-areas-of-chinese-cities-using-tencent-street-view
#18
Ying Long, Liu Liu
Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each) of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195263/kikuchi-fujimoto-disease-a-clinicopathologic-update
#19
F Pepe, S Disma, C Teodoro, P Pepe, G Magro
Kikuchi-Fujmoto disease (KFD), also known as "histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis", is a rare lymphadenitis of unknown origin, but with an excellent prognosis. It is more common in Asia, but isolated cases are also reported in America, Africa and Europe. The disease can have an acute or subacute course, usually develops in 1 to 3 weeks, with spontaneous resolution in 1-4 months. The main clinical sign is cervical lymphadenopathy, especially in the posterior cervical triangle with bulky and painful lymph nodes, usually affecting only one side; rare cases of generalized lymphadenopathy can be seen...
September 2016: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195245/ependymoma-with-diffuse-signet-ring-features-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
L Cima, S Beccari, C Ghimenton, G Pinna, A Beltramello, M Chilosi, M Brunelli, A Eccher
Signet-ring cell ependymoma is a rare variant of ependymoma with only seven cases described in literature. Biological behavior and prognosis of this entity are not well-known until now. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with a history of headache and gait instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an upper cervical tumor with cystic component and mural nodule. The patient underwent surgery. Microscopically some cells displayed an eccentric nucleus compressed to the periphery by vacuolated cytoplasm...
March 2016: Pathologica
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