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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183311/evaluation-of-the-antidiarrheal-activity-of-the-leaf-extracts-of-myrtus-communis-linn-myrtaceae-in-mice-model
#1
Mekonnen Sisay, Ephrem Engidawork, Workineh Shibeshi
BACKGROUND: Myrtus communis L. has a folkloric repute for the management of diarrhea and dysentery in different parts of the world. However, the safety and efficacy of the leaf extract have not been scientifically validated in animal model. This study was, therefore, aimed to investigate the antidiarrheal effect of 80% methanol extract (80ME) and solvent fractions of the leaves of Myrtus communis L. in mice. METHODS: The antidiarrheal activity of the 80ME and solvent fractions was evaluated against castor oil induced diarrheal model, charcoal meal and enteropooling tests...
February 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140681/a-review-on-nanoparticle-based-technologies-for-biodetoxification
#2
Faqir Muhammad, Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Ahmad Raza, Bushra Akhtar, Santosh Aryal
Nanotechnology has gained significant penetration to different fields of medicine including drug delivery, disease interrogation, targeting and bio-imaging. In recent years, efforts have been put forth to assess the use of this technology in biodetoxification. In this review, we will discuss the current status of nanostructured biomaterials/nanoparticle (NP)-based technologies as a candidate biodetoxifying agent. Patient hospitalization due to illicit drug consumption, suicidal attempts and accidental toxin exposure are major challenges in the medical field...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139533/amitraz-an-underrecognized-poison-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: 'amitraz', 'poisoning', 'toxicity', 'intoxication' and 'overdose'...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134283/a-robust-highly-stretchable-supramolecular-polymer-conductive-hydrogel-with-self-healability-and-thermo-processability
#4
Qian Wu, Junjie Wei, Bing Xu, Xinhua Liu, Hongbo Wang, Wei Wang, Qigang Wang, Wenguang Liu
Dual amide hydrogen bond crosslinked and strengthened high strength supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogels were fabricated by simply in situ doping poly (N-acryloyl glycinamide-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic) (PNAGA-PAMPS) hydrogels with PEDOT/PSS. The nonswellable conductive hydrogels in PBS demonstrated high mechanical performances-0.22-0.58 MPa tensile strength, 1.02-7.62 MPa compressive strength, and 817-1709% breaking strain. The doping of PEDOT/PSS could significantly improve the specific conductivities of the hydrogels...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133524/comparison-of-activated-charcoal-and-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-resin-efficiency-on-reduction-of-amitriptyline-oral-absorption-in-rat-as-treatments-for-overdose-and-toxicities
#5
Gholamhossein Yousefi, Mohammad Bizhani, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Saeid Gholamzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Comparative in vivo studies were carried out to determine the adsorption characteristics of amitriptyline (AMT) on activated charcoal (AC) and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS). AC has been long used as gastric decontamination agent for tricyclic antidepressants and SPS has showed to be highly effective on in-vitro drugs adsorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into six groups. Group I: control, group II: AMT 200 mg/kg as single dose orally, group III and IV: AC 1g/kg as single dose orally 5 and 30 min after AMT administration respectively, and group 5 and 6: SPS 1 g/kg as single dose orally 5 and 30 min after AMT administration, respectively...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126568/a-risk-based-approach-for-identifying-constituents-of-concern-in-oil-sands-process-affected-water-from-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region
#6
Andrew D McQueen, Ciera M Kinley, Maas Hendrikse, Daniel P Gaspari, Alyssa J Calomeni, Kyla J Iwinski, James W Castle, Monique C Haakensen, Kerry M Peru, John V Headley, John H Rodgers
Mining leases in the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) region produce large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) containing constituents that limit beneficial uses and discharge into receiving systems. The aim of this research is to identify constituents of concern (COCs) in OSPW sourced from an active settling basin with the goal of providing a sound rational for developing mitigation strategies for using constructed treatment wetlands for COCs contained in OSPW. COCs were identified through several lines of evidence: 1) chemical and physical characterization of OSPW and comparisons with numeric water quality guidelines and toxicity endpoints, 2) measuring toxicity of OSPW using a taxonomic range of sentinel organisms (i...
January 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110639/amitraz-poisoning-a-case-report-of-an-unusual-pesticide-poisoning-in-sri-lanka-and-literature-review
#7
H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Nilukshana Yogendranathan, M D M S Wijayabandara, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: Amitraz is a pesticide used worldwide on animals and in agriculture. It contains triazapentadiene, which is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist. Amitraz poisoning is fairly uncommon in humans and occurs via oral, dermal or inhalational routes. Only a limited number of case reports of human intoxication have been published and most of them are of accidental ingestion by children. CASE PRESENTATION: A twenty-year-old Sri Lankan female presented following self-ingestion of 20 ml of amitraz resulting in 37...
January 23, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107093/adult-clonidine-overdose-prolonged-bradycardia-and-central-nervous-system-depression-but-not-severe-toxicity
#8
Geoffrey K Isbister, Simon P Heppell, Colin B Page, Nicole M Ryan
CONTEXT: There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment, complications (central nervous system and cardiovascular effects) and length of stay (LOS) were extracted from a clinical database or medical records...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100803/a-new-cue-for-torpor-induction-charcoal-ash-and-smoke
#9
Clare Stawski, Julia Nowack, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
Recent work has shown that the use of torpor for energy conservation increases after forest fires in heterothermic mammals, probably in response to the reduction of food. However, the specific environmental cues for this increased torpor expression remain unknown. It is possible that smoke and the novel substrate of charcoal and ash act as signals for an impending period of starvation requiring torpor. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the combined cues of smoke, a charcoal/ash substrate and food shortage will enhance torpor expression in a small forest-dwelling marsupial, the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), because like other animals that live in fire-prone habitats they must effectively respond to fires to ensure survival...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073319/no-clinically-relevant-effects-in-children-after-accidental-ingestion-of-panaeolina-foenisecii-lawn-mower-s-mushroom
#10
Katharina M Schenk-Jaeger, Katharina E Hofer-Lentner, Bettina Plenert, Dagmar Eckart, Bettina Haberl, Gabriele Schulze, Janine Borchert-Avalone, Uwe Stedtler, Rudolph Pfab
INTRODUCTION: Panaeolina foenisecii is one of the most common and widely distributed lawn mushrooms in Europe and North America, and frequently involved in accidental mushroom ingestion, mainly in children. Nevertheless, there is contradictory information regarding the toxicity profile of P. foenisecii in the literature. Objective of the study was to assess clinical effects with particular attention on psychoactive properties of P. foenisecii in case of accidental oral exposure. METHODS: This observational case series is based on prospectively collected data on mushroom poisoning using a structured data collection form, and it was performed in seven poisons centres in Germany and Switzerland...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060501/discovery-of-multicomponent-heterogeneous-catalysts-via-admixture-screening-pdbite-catalysts-for-aerobic-oxidative-esterification-of-primary-alcohols
#11
David S Mannel, Maaz S Ahmed, Thatcher W Root, Shannon S Stahl
In the present study, we demonstrate the utility of "admixture screening" for the discovery of new multicomponent heterogeneous Pd catalyst compositions that are highly effective for aerobic oxidative methyl esterification of primary alcohols. The identification of possible catalysts for this reaction was initiated by the screening of simple binary and ternary admixtures of Pd/charcoal in combination with one or two metal and/or metalloid components as the catalyst. This approach permitted rapid evaluation of over 400 admixture combinations for the oxidative methyl esterification of 1-octanol at 60 °C in methanol...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060290/visualization-of-the-charcoal-agar-resazurin-assay-for-semi-quantitative-medium-throughput-enumeration-of-mycobacteria
#12
Ben Gold, Julia Roberts, Yan Ling, Landys Lopez Quezada, Jou Glasheen, Elaine Ballinger, Selin Somersan-Karakaya, Thulasi Warrier, Carl Nathan
There is an urgent need to discover and progress anti-infectives that shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, is refractory to rapid and lasting chemotherapy due to the presence of bacilli exhibiting phenotypic drug resistance. The charcoal agar resazurin assay (CARA) was developed as a tool to characterize active molecules discovered by high-throughput screening campaigns against replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis. Inclusion of activated charcoal in bacteriologic agar medium helps mitigate the impact of compound carry-over, and eliminates the requirement to pre-dilute cells prior to spotting on CARA microplates...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057131/-interaction-between-smoking-and-indoor-air-pollution-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-diseases
#13
D X Pan, Y J Qian, C M Wang, Y Guo, Z Bian, K X Xie, L L Chen, Y D Zhang, Q Y Li
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in Tongxiang, Zhejiang province, and analyze the interaction between smoking and indoor air pollution on COPD. Methods: Townships of Chongfu, Zhouquan, Gaoqiao, Shimen, Wuzhen were randomly selected from Tongxiang. All the local people aged 30-79 years were asked to receive questionnaire survey, physical examination and pulmonary function testing. FEV1max/FVC max≤0.7 was the criterion of COPD diagnosis. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between smoking/indoor air pollution and COPD, multiplied interaction between smoking and indoor air pollution was evaluated, Excel table prepared by Andersson et al...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043416/antidiarrhoeal-investigation-of-apium-leptophyllum-pers-by-modulation-of-na-k-atpase-nitrous-oxide-and-intestinal-transit-in-rats
#14
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Rakesh Sagar, Anjan Kumar, Amrita Bhaiji, Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
BACKGROUND: Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) is an annual herb with traditional appreciation for various pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this herb is insufficient. The aim of the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate flavonoidal fraction of A. leptophyllum fruit (FFALF) against diarrhoea on albino rats. METHODS: The antidiarrhoeal study was conducted by castor oil induce diarrhoea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling and intestinal transit by charcoal meal test...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040870/innovative-methods-to-generate-clean-sugar-stream-from-biomass-feedstocks-for-efficient-fermentation
#15
REVIEW
Jung-Eun Lee, Yadhu N Guragain, Krishna P Bastola, Praveen V Vadlani
Sorghum stalks were evaluated to generate clean sugars; enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of acid pretreated biomass was significantly low (12.3 g sugar/g pretreated biomass) compared to alkali method (49.1 g sugar/g pretreated biomass). Inhibitory compounds derived from acid pretreatment, such as hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and furfural, were effectively removed using an appropriate detoxification method using 1% (w/v) activated charcoal. The resin mixture containing cationic exchangers (DOWEX 50WX8) and anionic exchangers (IRA 743) in 7:3 ratio at pH 2...
December 31, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011482/galectin-3-is-implicated-in-tumor-progression-and-resistance-to-anti-androgen-drug-through-regulation-of-androgen-receptor-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Tsogt-Ochir Dondoo, Tomoharu Fukumori, Kei Daizumoto, Tomoya Fukawa, Miho Kohzuki, Minoru Kowada, Yoshito Kusuhara, Hidehisa Mori, Hiroyoshi Nakatsuji, Masayuki Takahashi, Hiro-Omi Kanayama
BACKGROUND: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)-related deaths are increasing worldwide. Therefore, clarification of the mechanisms of hormone-related tumor progression and resistance to anti-androgen drugs is useful in order to develop strategies for appropriate treatment of CRPC. Galectin-3 has been shown to be correlated with tumor progression in a variety of cancer types through the regulation of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined tumor cell invasion and migration using the xCELLigence system...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997553/solar-aligned-pictographs-at-the-paleoindian-site-of-painel-do-pil%C3%A3-o-along-the-lower-amazon-river-at-monte-alegre-brazil
#17
Christopher Sean Davis
The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978459/le-carbone-a-charcoal-supplement-modulates-dss-induced-acute-colitis-in-mice-through-activation-of-ampk%C3%AE-and-downregulation-of-stat3-and-caspase-3-dependent-apoptotic-pathways
#18
Mst Rejina Afrin, Somasundaram Arumugam, Md Azizur Rahman, Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Remya Sreedhar, Meilei Harima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Takashi Nakamura, Shizuka Miyashita, Kenji Suzuki, Kazuyuki Ueno, Kenichi Watanabe
Le Carbone (LC) is a charcoal supplement, which contains a large amount of dietary fibers. Several studies suggested that charcoal supplement may be beneficial for stomach disorders, diarrhea, gas and indigestion. But no studies address whether LC intake would suppress inflammation, cell proliferation or disease progression in colitis. In the present study, the effect of LC on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and its possible mechanism of action were examined. A study was designed for 8days, using C57BL/6 female mice that were administered with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7days followed by another 1day consumption of normal water with or without treatment...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976016/effect-of-activated-charcoal-on-the-developmental-patterns-polyphenolics-productivity-and-photosynthetic-activity-of-sideritis-scardica-in-vitro
#19
P Koleva, N Petrova, S Krumova, V Velikova, I Aneva, L Evstatieva, E Wolfram, K Danova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975560/chamomile-flower-myrrh-and-coffee-charcoal-components-of-a-traditional-herbal-medicinal-product-diminish-pro-inflammatory-activation-in-human-macrophages
#20
C Vissiennon, D Hammoud, R Jente, K H Goos, K Nieber, J Arnhold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
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