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Activated charcoal

Weifeng Cao, Yujue Wang, Jianquan Luo, Junxiang Yin, Yinhua Wan
α,ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DC) are versatile chemical intermediates with different chain length. For biosynthesis of DC, to obtain the highly pure product via crystallization, it is required to remove pigments and proteins in fermentation broth. However, a trade-off between decolorization/deproteinization ratio and DC recovery during the purification process was found, which impeded DC production by fermentation. When ultrafiltration (UF) was applied to treat α,ω-dodecanedioic acid (DC12 ) broth, 93.4% of DC12 recovery, 80...
May 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Entesar Al-Hetlani, Mohamed O Amin, Metwally Madkour, Ahmed Abdel Nazeer
SALDI-MS analysis of pharmaceutical drug molecules (amitriptyline, imipramine and promazine) using carbon-based substrates, namely, activated charcoal (AC), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon black (CB), graphene (rGO), graphene oxide (GO) and graphite, was explored and compared with the conventional organic matrix of MALDI. CB exhibited superior performance with respect to the other substrates in terms of detection sensitivity. Despite the effectiveness of CB to detect all drug molecules, it demonstrated a number of background signals, which may be an issue for the analysis of other molecules in the future...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Saeid Nekoonam, Mohammad Naji, Keywan Mortezaee, Fardin Amidi
AR-mediated androgen signaling plays a key role in female reproductive system. Granulosa-lutein cells (GCs) are the main sites for expression of androgen receptor (AR). There is also a close relation between AKT signaling and AR. Here, we assayed the role for a synthetic AR ligand methyltrienolone (R1881) in expressions of AKTs and AR. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) was performed in 20 normal women. Mural GCs were isolated by filtration method, cultured, and passaged. Then, the cells were starved for 48 h with 10% charcoal stripped FBS...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Robert Porter, Kayla Dewey
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. METHODS: This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. CASE: A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered...
May 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
S-S Zhao, D-X Ma, Y Zhu, J-H Zhao, Y Zhang, J-Q Chen, Z-L Sheng
BACKGROUND: Pomegranate peels have been widely used to treat diarrhea in China. The antidiarrheal activities of aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels have been evaluated. However, there have not been any bioactivity-guided fractionation studies on the antidiarrheal effect to identify the bioactive components of the extract. METHODS: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of pomegranate peels was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, generating fractions dissolved in ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol, and the residual fraction...
May 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lidan Fan, Mengyue Wang, Zhen Zhang, Gang Qin, Xiaoyi Hu, Qiang Chen
Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework...
April 26, 2018: Materials
Alireza Mardomi, Mohammad Nouri, Laya Farzadi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Amir Mehdizadeh, Mehdi Yousefi, Dariush Shanebandi, Maghsod Shaaker, Masoud Darabi
Obtaining a better outcome in assisted reproductive technology remains to be attained. In the case of in vitro fertilization (IVF), oocyte maturity is paramount for achieving a successful pregnancy. Maternal serum supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) medium can increase the rate of oocyte IVM. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of whole and charcoal-stripped serum supplementation on IVM and the activity index of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) in cumulus cells enclosing the oocyte as a molecular indicator of oocyte quality...
April 27, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Javier Caballero, Cecilia Peralta, Antonella Molla, Eleodoro E Del Valle, Primitivo Caballero, Colin Berry, Verónica Felipe, Pablo Yaryura, Leopoldo Palma
Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium possessing an important and historical record as a human-pathogenic bacterium. However, several strains of this species exhibit interesting potential to be used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cereus strain CITVM-11.1, which consists of 37 contig sequences, accounting for 5,746,486 bp (with a GC content of 34.8%) and 5,752 predicted protein-coding sequences. Several of them could potentially be involved in plant-bacterium interactions and may contribute to the strong antagonistic activity shown by this strain against the charcoal root rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bin Wang, Bo Liu, Xing-Xiang Ji, Ming-Guo Ma
Visible-light-active bamboo biochar/TiO₂ composites were fabricated by the calcination method using C16 H36 O₄Ti as the titanium source and bamboo powder with different sizes as the carbon source. The TiO₂ nanoparticles were observed to disperse onto the surface of bamboo biochar fiber. The sizes of the bamboo powder played an important role in the microstructures and the properties of bamboo biochar/TiO₂ composites. The bamboo biochar/TiO₂ composites displayed the photocatalytic activities both under visible light irradiation and UV irradiation...
April 25, 2018: Materials
Visittapong Yordsri, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Chabaiporn Junin, Masahiro Kawasaki, Shunsuke Asahina, Tetsuo Oikawa, Atsushi Saiki, Tadashi Nobuchi, Makoto Shiojiri
Green culms of Bambusa multiplex and the bamboo charcoal carbonized from the green culms at 700°C have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescent element analysis, analytical scanning electron microscopy, and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), aiming at industrial applications as raw materials for functional devices and substances. It is revealed that the green culms and the charcoal contain a significant amount of Si, in particular, ∼18 wt % in the skin. The green culms comprise amorphous and crystalline celluloses...
April 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Dina Abdallah, Marie-Laure Jourdain, Julien Braux, Christine Guillaume, Sophie C Gangloff, Jacky Jacquot, Frédéric Velard
Osteoclasts (OCs), the bone-resorbing cells, play a key role in skeletal development and adult bone remodeling. They also participate in the pathogenesis of various bone disorders. One of the major technical difficulties in the generation of OCs, when working on human material, is the ability to achieve large differentiation of mature OCs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Access to a standardized source of active OCs is needed to better analyze the roles of human OCs. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure yielding active and mature OCs from fresh human PBMCs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chul-Yung Choi, Seung-Sik Cho, In-Soo Yoon
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae), also known as oriental raisin tree, is used in traditional herbal medicine. Its extracts have been reported to show various pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotection, antitumor, antiatopic dermatitis, antilipid peroxidation, anti-steatotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic activities. However, there have been no reports on the effect of H. dulcis extracts in relieving constipation so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a hot-water extract of the branches of H...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
María Jesús García-Sarrió, María Luz Sanz, Jesús Sanz, Azucena González-Coloma, Ana Cristina Soria
A new microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method using ethanol as solvent has been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken experimental design for the enhanced extraction of bioactive terpenoids from Mentha rotundifolia leaves; 100°C, 5 min, 1.125 g dry sample:10 mL solvent and a single extraction cycle were selected as optimal conditions. Improved performance of MAE method in terms of extraction yield and/or reproducibility over conventional solid-liquid extraction and ultrasound assisted extraction was also previously assessed...
April 14, 2018: Electrophoresis
Ida Torre, Rossella Alfano, Tonia Borriello, Osvalda De Giglio, Carmela Iervolino, Maria Teresa Montagna, Marina Silvia Scamardo, Francesca Pennino
BACKGROUND: Legionellosis' treatment failures have been recently reported showing the possibility of resistance development to traditional therapy, especially in healthcare related disease cases. Environmental impact of antibiotic residues, especially in hospital waters, may act on the resistome of Legionella resulting in developing resistance mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigate the antibiotic susceptibility of environmental Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) strains isolated from hospital water systems in Campania, a region located in Southwest Italy...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Research
S Dan-Nielsen, A S Bisgaard, S R Jans, L Arianto, R L Heedeland, M H Jørgensen
AIM: This study focused on children aged zero to six years with suspected single-dose paracetamol poisoning, which has not been investigated in Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of liver injuries and the use of activated charcoal and N-acetylcysteine treatment. METHODS: Our retrospective study was performed in three paediatric hospital centres from 2001 to 2012. Data on symptoms, time of ingestion, blood biochemistry, treatment and adverse reactions were collected...
March 25, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Tahl Zimmerman, Salam A Ibrahim
Choline kinase (Chok) is an enzyme found in eukaryotes and Gram-positive bacteria. Chok catalyzes the production of phosphocholine from choline and ATP. This enzyme has been validated as a drug target in Streptococcus pneumonia , but the role Chok enzymatic activity plays in bacterial cell growth and division is not well understood. Phosphocholine production by Chok and its attenuation by inhibitors in the context of complex samples such as cell extracts can currently be quantified by several methods. These include choline depletion measurements, radioactive methods, mass-spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance...
March 17, 2018: Antibiotics
Paramita Bera, Syamali Chakrabarti, Nitin K Gaikwad, Nithya N Kutty, Monica Barman, Adinpunya Mitra
Emitted scent volatile profile of an orchid species Zygopetalum maculatum was studied using dynamic headspace sampling technique with four different adsorbent matrices, namely Porapak Type Q polymer (mesh size: 80/100), Tenax (mesh size: 60/80), activated charcoal and graphite. In addition, developmental variations in scent emissions and endogenous volatile levels were also investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 21 volatile compounds in the headspace, which was predominantly enriched with benzenoid compounds...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Belay Mekonnen, Assefa Belay Asrie, Zewdu Birhanu Wubneh
Background: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of preventable death in developing countries and mainly affects children and infants. It has been reported that the leaf of Justicia schimperiana is used as an antidiarrheal agent in Libo Kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. Method: The 80% methanolic leaf extract of J. schimperiana was evaluated for its activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility in mice. Results: Significant reduction ( p < 0...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego, Matt W Smith, Quanbao Zhao, Tsai Garcia-Perez, Craig Frear, Manuel Garcia-Perez
Anaerobically digested fibrous solid (AD fiber) is an abundant material that offers potential to produce value-added products such as biochar. The objective of this paper is to better understand how thermochemical processing conditions affect the capacity of biochars derived from AD fiber to adsorb H2 S from biogas. AD fiber was pyrolyzed in an electric tube reactor at temperatures up to 600 °C and 60 min. The chars were employed for H2 S scrubbing tests from a synthetic biogas. Results showed that the chars' capacity for H2 S removal is comparable to that of activated carbon...
March 10, 2018: Waste Management
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
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