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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644687/massive-paracetamol-overdose-an-observational-study-of-the-effect-of-activated-charcoal-and-increased-acetylcysteine-dose-atom-2
#1
Angela L Chiew, Geoffrey K Isbister, Katharine A Kirby, Colin B Page, Betty S H Chan, Nicholas A Buckley
CONTEXT: Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose, with increasing concerns that those taking "massive" overdoses have higher rates of hepatotoxicity and may require higher doses of acetylcysteine. The objective was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of "massive" (≥ 40 g) paracetamol overdoses. METHODS: Patients were identified through the Australian Paracetamol Project, a prospective observational study through Poisons Information Centres in NSW and Queensland, over 3 and 1...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636112/fluorescent-carbon-nanoparticles-obtained-from-charcoal-via-green-methods-and-their-application-for-sensing-fe-3-in-an-aqueous-medium
#2
Rajesh Patidar, Babulal Rebary, Dhruti A Sanghani, Gopala Ram Bhadu, Parimal Paul
Two green methods (microwave and hydrothermal) were employed for the preparation of water dispersible fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from activated charcoal. Microwave and hydrothermally synthesized carbon nanoparticles, (MW-CNPs) and (HT-CNPs), respectively were characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. A detailed study of their fluorescence characteristics was made. MW-CNPs and HT-CNPs were tested for metal ion selectivity in aqueous medium. MW-CNPs showed selectivity for Fe(3+) among the tested metal ions and important studies such as for interference, linear range and limit of detection were carried out...
June 21, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627339/-evaluation-of-adsorption-effect-of-activated-charcoal-on-oral-paraquat-poisoning-an-experimental-study-on-large-animal
#3
Baisheng Sun, Yuezhong He, Yuhao Pei, Cong Zhang, Xigang Zhang, Zhan Yang
OBJECTIVE: To study the adsorption effect of activated charcoal suspension on paraquat (PQ) in gastrointestinal tract of beagles exposed to PQ. METHODS: Twenty healthy male beagles were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 6 beagles in each group. 20% PQ solution (a dose of 30 mg/kg) was prescribed through stomach for beagles in both groups. After exposure to PQ for 30 minutes, the beagles in experimental group were given activated charcoal suspension (1...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609563/bayesian-forecasting-tool-to-predict-the-need-for-antidote-in-acute-acetaminophen-overdose
#4
Julie Desrochers, Jessica Wojciechowski, Wendy Klein-Schwartz, Jogarao V S Gobburu, Mathangi Gopalakrishnan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver injury in the United States. Patients with elevated plasma acetaminophen concentrations (PAC) require hepatoprotective treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). These patients have been primarily risk-stratified using the Rumack-Matthew nomogram. Previous studies of acute APAP overdoses found that the nomogram failed to accurately predict the need for the antidote. The objectives of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for APAP following acute overdose and evaluate the utility of population PK model-based Bayesian forecasting in NAC administration decisions...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602189/one-step-electro-oxidative-preparation-of-graphene-quantum-dots-from-wood-charcoal-as-a-peroxidase-mimetic
#5
Narsingh R Nirala, Gaurav Khandelwal, Brijesh Kumar, Vinita, Rajiv Prakash, Vinod Kumar
In present study, we highlight one-step electrochemical synthesis of nearly uniform size (~ 5nm) of graphene quantum dots (E-GQDs) from wood charcoal and their further application as a peroxidase enzyme mimetic. The structural and optical properties of as-synthesized E-GQDs were probed by TEM, AFM, and spectroscopic techniques. Peroxidase enzyme mimetic potential of E-GQDs were examined for colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose. E-GQDs allowed a rapid and sensitive detection of glucose with a detection limit of 0...
October 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573238/kirkia-acuminata-oliv-a-review-of-its-ethnobotany-and-pharmacology
#6
Alfred Maroyi
BACKGROUND: Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572829/investigating-potential-modes-of-actions-of-mimusops-kummel-fruit-extract-and-solvent-fractions-for-their-antidiarrheal-activities-in-mice
#7
Mulugeta Molla, Negero Gemeda, Solomon M Abay
BACKGROUND: Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. METHODS: Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. RESULTS: In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571191/a-successfully-treated-case-of-criminal-thallium-poisoning
#8
Tetsuya Yumoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Hiromichi Naito, Atsuyoshi Iida, Atsunori Nakao
Thallium was once commonly used as a household rodent or ant killer, but many countries have banned such use due to unintentional or criminal poisonings of humans. A common initial clinical manifestation of thallium poisoning is gastrointestinal symptoms followed by delayed onset of neurological symptoms and alopecia. These clinical characteristics can provide important diagnostic clues regarding thallium poisoning. Here, we report a 23-year-old woman who was poisoned by a business colleague when she unknowingly drank tea containing the toxic substance several times...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542442/pedogenetic-processes-in-anthrosols-with-pretic-horizon-amazonian-dark-earth-in-central-amazon-brazil
#9
Rodrigo S Macedo, Wenceslau G Teixeira, Marcelo M Corrêa, Gilvan C Martins, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon) and from a non-anthropic pedon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542219/late-neolithic-phytolith-and-charcoal-records-of-human-activities-and-vegetation-change-in-shijiahe-culture-tanjialing-site-china
#10
Xiao Hong Zhu, Bing Li, Chun Mei Ma, Cheng Zhu, Li Wu, Hui Liu
There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP), the climate was warm and humid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541004/the-effect-of-peripheral-crf-peptide-and-water-avoidance-stress-on-colonic-and-gastric-transit-in-guinea-pigs
#11
Zahid Hussain, Hae Won Kim, Cheal Wung Huh, Young Ju Lee, Hyojin Park
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539097/removal-of-organic-matter-from-stabilized-landfill-leachate-using-coagulation-flocculation-fenton-coupled-with-activated-charcoal-adsorption
#12
Ahmad Razali Ishak, Fauziah Shahul Hamid, Sharifah Mohamad, Kheng Soo Tay
The treatment of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) by conventional biological treatment is often inefficient due to the presence of bio-recalcitrant substances. In this study, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with the Fenton reaction in the treatment of SLL was evaluated. The efficiency of the selected treatment methods was evaluated through total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SLL. With ferric chloride as the coagulant, coagulation-flocculation was found to achieve the highest TOC removal of 71% at pH 6...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535126/activated-charcoal-significantly-reduces-the-amount-of-colchicine-released-from-gloriosa-superba-in-simulated-gastric-and-intestinal-media
#13
Shukry Zawahir, Indika Gawarammana, Paul I Dargan, Mahfoudh Abdulghni, Andrew H Dawson
BACKGROUND: Poisoning with Gloriosa superba, a plant containing colchicine, is common in Sri Lanka. OBJECTIVES: This study was to estimate release of colchicine from 5 g of different parts of Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media, and examine the binding efficacy of activated charcoal (AC) to colchicine within this model. METHODS: A USP dissolution apparatus-II was used to prepare samples for analysis of colchicine using HPLC...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531860/boosting-biomethane-yield-and-production-rate-with-graphene-the-potential-of-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-in-anaerobic-digestion
#14
Richen Lin, Jun Cheng, Jiabei Zhang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen, Jerry D Murphy
Interspecies electron transfer between bacteria and archaea plays a vital role in enhancing energy efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD). Conductive carbon materials (i.e. graphene nanomaterial and activated charcoal) were assessed to enhance AD of ethanol (a key intermediate product after acidogenesis of algae). The addition of graphene (1.0g/L) resulted in the highest biomethane yield (695.0±9.1mL/g) and production rate (95.7±7.6mL/g/d), corresponding to an enhancement of 25.0% in biomethane yield and 19...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497785/charcoal-evidence-that-rising-atmospheric-oxygen-terminated-early-jurassic-ocean-anoxia
#15
Sarah J Baker, Stephen P Hesselbo, Timothy M Lenton, Luís V Duarte, Claire M Belcher
The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) was characterized by a major disturbance to the global carbon(C)-cycle, and depleted oxygen in Earth's oceans resulting in marine mass extinction. Numerical models predict that increased organic carbon burial should drive a rise in atmospheric oxygen (pO2) leading to termination of an OAE after ∼1 Myr. Wildfire is highly responsive to changes in pO2 implying that fire-activity should vary across OAEs. Here we test this hypothesis by tracing variations in the abundance of fossil charcoal across the T-OAE...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496040/induction-of-human-cytochrome-p450-3a-enzymes-in-cultured-placental-cells-by-thalidomide-and-relevance-to-bioactivation-and-toxicity
#16
Norie Murayama, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Daisuke Satoh, Kazuya Arata, Tasuku Harada, Norio Shibata, F Peter Guengerich, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Evidence has been presented for auto-induced human cytochrome P450 3A enzyme involvement in the teratogenicity and clinical outcome of thalidomide due to oxidation to 5-hydroxythalidomide and subsequent metabolic activation in livers. In this study, more relevant human placenta preparations and placental BeWo cells showed low but detectable P450 3A4/5 mRNA expression and drug oxidation activities. Human placental microsomal fractions from three subjects showed detectable midazolam 1´- and 4-hydroxylation and thalidomide 5-hydroxylation activities...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482318/differential-responses-of-peach-prunus-persica-seedlings-to-elevated-ozone-are-related-with-leaf-mass-per-area-antioxidant-enzymes-activity-rather-than-stomatal-conductance
#17
Lulu Dai, Pin Li, Bo Shang, Shuo Liu, Aizhen Yang, Younian Wang, Zhaozhong Feng
To evaluate the ozone (O3) sensitivity among peach tree (Prunus persica) cultivars widely planted in Beijing region and explore the possible eco-physiological response mechanisms, thirteen cultivars of peach seedlings were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 (E-O3, non-filtered ambient air plus 60 ppb) for one growing season in open-top chambers. Leaf structure, stomatal structure, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation were measured in three replicated chambers...
August 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474218/new-insight-into-sugarcane-industry-waste-utilization-press-mud-for-cleaner-biobutanol-production-by-using-c-acetobutylicum-nrrl-b-527
#18
Pranhita R Nimbalkar, Manisha A Khedkar, Shashank G Gaikwad, Prakash V Chavan, Sandip B Bankar
In the present study, press mud, a sugar industry waste, was explored for biobutanol production to strengthen agricultural economy. The fermentative production of biobutanol was investigated via series of steps, viz. characterization, drying, acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation. Press mud contains an adequate amount of cellulose (22.3%) and hemicellulose (21.67%) on dry basis, and hence, it can be utilized for further acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production. Drying experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 60-120 °C to circumvent microbial spoilage and enhance storability of press mud...
May 5, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472745/the-temperature-dependence-of-adsorption-coefficients-of-222-rn-on-activated-charcoal-an-experimental-study
#19
Lu Guo, Yunxiang Wang, Lei Zhang, Zhi Zeng, Wenbin Dong, Qiuju Guo
The radon adsorption coefficient of activated charcoal (K) has exponential relationship with temperature theoretically, but few experiment results of K at temperature below 0 ℃ were given. In this study, K were measured using a flow-through system with activated charcoal in cylindrical adsorption beds at temperature adjusted from room temperature to -48°C using liquid nitrogen. Results are consistent with theory and show that the adsorption coefficient at -48°C is nearly 25 times higher than that at 23 ℃...
April 20, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472561/effect-of-steroid-and-serum-starvation-on-a-human-breast-cancer-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#20
Maryam Nakhjavani, David J Stewart, Farshad H Shirazi
Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women. Although there are many treatment protocols for this disease, there are still many patients who do not respond satisfactorily to the current treatment protocols. A better understanding of the nature of the tumor cells might provide a guide for better therapeutic procedures. In this study, the effect of metabolic stress was assessed on the human adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line. The cells were seeded in culture plates and after reaching log phase of their growth, cells were exposed to phenol red free-media supplemented with 10%, 0...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
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