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Activated charcoal

Michael S Toce, Michele M Burns, Katherine A O'Donnell
CONTEXT: Exploratory buprenorphine ingestions in young children have been associated with clinically significant toxicity. However, detailed data on the clinical presentation and management of these patients are lacking. In an attempt to obtain more comprehensive data, we sought to examine a single center cohort of patients with report of buprenorphine exposure and provide descriptive analysis of rates of respiratory depression, time to respiratory depression, interventions, disposition, and outcomes...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Sandeep Tak, Manoj Lakhotia, Alok Gupta, Amit Sagar, Gopal Bohra, Rajesh Bajari
A 55-year-old male presented with history of nausea, vomiting, palpitation paresthesis and profuse sweating in emergency department 2h after ingestion of "Bachnaag" (Aconite) root. Examination revealed shock with irregular pulses. Initial ECG showed frequent multifocal ventricular ectopics (VE), which later turned to short runs of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Immediate gastric lavage was done and activated charcoal given. Patient was treated with fluid resuscitation without any improvement in blood pressure...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
S Gibiino, A Trappoli, B Balzarro, A R Atti, D De Ronchi
A 71-year-old man developed coma with severe respiratory failure, hypotension, and tachycardia induced by the intentional ingestion of quetiapine fumarate extended release (XR) 20 g. At the time, he had been treated for bipolar depression with venlafaxine 75 mg/day, lamotrigine 100 mg/day, pregabalin 75 mg/day, and quetiapine XR 400 mg/day for approximately 1 year. Comorbidities were hypertension treated with metoprolol, diabetes mellitus type 2 treated with metformin, and benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with silodosin...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Ndinomholo Hamatui, Rajen N Naidoo, Nnenesi Kgabi
BACKGROUND: Charcoal processing activities can increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine dose-response relationships between occupational exposure to charcoal dust, respiratory symptoms and lung function among charcoal-processing workers in Namibia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 307 workers from charcoal factories in Namibia. All respondents completed interviewer-administered questionnaires...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Alma Akhmetova, Timur Saliev, Iain U Allan, Matthew J Illsley, Talgat Nurgozhin, Sergey Mikhalovsky
The process of wound healing is often accompanied by bacterial infection or critical colonization, resulting in protracted inflammation, delayed reepithelization, and production of pungent odors. The malodor produced by these wounds may lower health-related quality of life and produce psychological discomfort and social isolation. Current management focuses on reducing bacterial activity within the wound site and absorbing malodorous gases. For example, charcoal-based materials have been incorporated into dressing for direct adsorption of the responsible gases...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Amsalu Degu, Ephrem Engidawork, Workineh Shibeshi
BACKGROUND: Traditional healers in Ethiopia use a wide range of medicinal plants with antidiarrheal properties. Among these, Croton macrostachyus is one such plant claimed to have an antidiarrheal activity in Ethiopian folklore medicine. Previous studies showed that the crude extract is endowed with the claimed property. The present study was undertaken to further the claim by screening different fractions for the said activity so that it could serve as a basis for subsequent studies...
September 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Dennis Gacigi Kinuthia, Anne W Muriithi, Peter Waweru Mwangi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY: Diarrhea remains one of the main killers of children aged below five years. Traditional antidiarrheal remedies form a potentially viable source of novel low cost efficacious treatments in low resource settings. There is therefore a pressing need to scientifically evaluate these remedies. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiarrheal activity of freeze dried Bidens biternata, a herb used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine in the management of diarrhea...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Gillian A Beauchamp, Benjamin T Kerrey, Matthew R Mittiga, Andrea S Rinderknecht, Shan Yin
OBJECTIVE: Few studies of children with toxicological emergencies describe those undergoing acute resuscitation, and most describe exposures to single agents. We describe a 12-month sample of patients evaluated in the resuscitation area of a pediatric emergency department (ED) for a toxicological emergency. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a high-volume, academic pediatric ED. We identified patients evaluated in the ED resuscitation area for toxicological exposure and conducted structured chart reviews to collect relevant data...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Wen Liu, Zhengqing Cai, Xiao Zhao, Ting Wang, Fan Li, Dongye Zhao
We report a novel composite material, referred to as activated charcoal supported titanate nanotubes (TNTs@AC), for highly efficient adsorption and photodegradation of a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrene. TNTs@AC was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal method, and is composed of an activated charcoal core and a shell of carbon-coated titanate nanotubes. TNTs@AC offered a maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 12.1 mg/g for phenanthrene (a model PAH), which is ∼11 times higher than the parent activated charcoal...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Motahareh Soltani, Seyed F Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed V Shetab-Boushehri
OBJECTIVES: Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. METHODS: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014...
August 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Li-Jun Hu, Xiao-Fang Li, Jin-Qing Hu, Xiao-Jia Ni, Hao-Yang Lu, Jia-Jia Wang, Xiang-Ning Huang, Chao-Xian Lin, De-Wei Shang, Yu-Guan Wen
The kynurenine pathway, in which tryptophan is metabolized to kynurenine and kynurenic acid, has been linked to depression. A rapid and highly reproducible liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method were established for determining tryptophan, kynurenine and kynurenic acid in human serum. Biological samples were precipitated with methanol before separation on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18. The stable-isotope-labeled internal standards (kynurenine-(13)C4 (15)N and kynurenic acid-d5) were used for quantification...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Élen Landgraf Guiguer, Paulo Sérgio Marinelli, Patrícia Cincotto do Santos Bueno, Leticia Maria Pescinini-Salzedas, Mirele Cristine Batista Dos Santos, Marie Oshiiwa, Claudemir Gregório Mendes, Manoel Lima de Menezes, Cláudia Cristina Teixeira Nicolau, Alda Maria Otoboni, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart
Pereskia aculeata Miller is known in Brazil as ora-pro-nobis (OPN) and has been used commonly in the folklore medicine. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the composition and the effects of OPN flour on the metabolic profile and intestinal motility of Wistar rats. Animals were divided randomly into five groups (n = 10): G1 (control group) and G2 (treated with OPN flour). For the intestinal motility: G3 (control group), G4 (treated with senne), and G5 (treated with OPN flour). After 40 days, G1 and G2 were euthanized and metabolic profiles were analyzed (glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein [HDL-c], C reactive protein, AST, ALT, Lee Index, weight, and visceral fat)...
September 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Kaylee K Marino, Raul A Santiago, Richard B Dew, Nancy Berliner, Jean M Connors, Nathan T Connell, John Kevin Tucker
Vitamin K antagonists have been a mainstay of treatment for patients requiring anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, but direct oral anticoagulants, such as dabigatran, have become increasingly prescribed. Compared with warfarin, dabigatran has a significantly lower risk of life-threatening bleeding; however, bleeding events can still occur, supporting the need for effective reversal strategies. Idarucizumab was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to reverse the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran when life-threatening bleeding occurs or an urgent need for an invasive medical procedure exists...
October 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Luma C S R Soares, Anuj K Chandel, Fernando C Pagnocca, Swapnil C Gaikwad, Mahendra Rai, Silvio S da Silva
Many toxic compounds are produced and released in the hemicellulosic hydrolyzates during the acid pretreatment step, which are required for the disruption of the lignocelluloses matrix and sugars release. The conventional methods of detoxification i.e. overliming, activated charcoal, ion exchange or even membrane-based separations have the limitations in removal of these toxic inhibitors in fermentation process. Hence, it is imperative to explore biological methods to overcome the inhibitors by minimizing the filtration steps, sugar loss and chemical additions...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Fang Jia, Chunyang Liao, Jiaying Xue, Allison Taylor, Jay Gan
Sediment contamination by persistent organic pollutants from historical episodes is widespread and remediation is often needed to clean up severely contaminated sites. Measuring contaminant bioavailability in a before-and-after manner lends to improved assessment of remediation effectiveness. However, a number of bioavailability measurement methods have been developed, posing a challenge in method selection for practitioners. In this study, three different bioavailability measurement methods, i.e., solid phase microextraction (SPME), Tenax desorption, and isotope dilution method (IDM), were compared in evaluating changes in bioavailability of DDT and its degradates in sediment following simulated remediation treatments...
August 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Kenichi Katabami, Mineji Hayakawa, Satoshi Gando
Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease...
2016: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Gabriela Corcoran, Betty Chan, Angela Chiew
OBJECTIVE: The use of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC) as a means of gastric decontamination is declining. The present study examined the potential use of SDAC in common overdose scenarios by Australian emergency doctors, compared with clinical toxicologists and current guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of emergency doctors and toxicologists on the use of SDAC. The survey covered demographic data, education and previous use of SDAC and six clinical scenarios...
October 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Tian Xia, Xinyi Gao, Caiqin Wang, Xiangyang Xu, Liang Zhu
In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Teshager Yacob, Workineh Shibeshi, Teshome Nedi
BACKGROUND: In the Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aerial part of Ajuga remota Benth is used in the treatment of diarrhea. There are different mechanisms by which Ajuga remota may have antidiarrheal effect. Some of the possible mechanisms are through its anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the antidiarrheal effect of the plant also include antimotility and antisecretory effect using 80 % methanol extract of A. remota (MEAR). METHODS: The MEAR was administered at doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg to four groups of mice (six animals per group) orally in castor oil diarrhea model...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Emily Woollen, Casey M Ryan, Sophia Baumert, Frank Vollmer, Isla Grundy, Janet Fisher, Jone Fernando, Ana Luz, Natasha Ribeiro, Sá N Lisboa
African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique...
September 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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