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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938120/prion-like-domains-program-ewing-s-sarcoma
#1
James Shorter
Prion-like domains have emerged as important drivers of neurodegenerative disease. Now, Boulay et al. establish that the translocated prion-like domain of the oncogenic EWS-FLI1 fusion protein enables phase-separation events, which inappropriately recruit chromatin-remodeling factors to elicit the aberrant transcriptional programs underlying Ewing's sarcoma.
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936674/conditional-modulation-of-biological-processes-by-low-temperature-degrons
#2
Nico Dissmeyer
Conditional modulation of biological processes plays key roles in basic and applied research and in translation. It can be achieved on various levels via a multitude of approaches. One of the directions is manipulating target protein levels and activity by transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational control. Because in most of these techniques, the synthesis of the target proteins is adjusted to the needs, they all rely on the specific half-life of the target protein and its turn-over...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934292/hawaiian-skirt-controls-size-and-floral-organ-number-by-modulating-cuc1-and-cuc2-expression
#3
Zinnia H González-Carranza, Xuebin Zhang, Janny L Peters, Veronique Boltz, Judit Szecsi, Mohammed Bendahmane, Jeremy A Roberts
The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box gene HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS) affects organ growth and the timing of floral organ abscission. The loss-of-function hws-1 mutant exhibits fused sepals and increased organ size. To understand the molecular mechanisms of HWS during plant development, we mutagenized hws-1 seeds with ethylmethylsulphonate (EMS) and screened for mutations suppressing hws-1 associated phenotypes. We isolated the shs1/hws-1 (suppressor of hws-1) mutant in which hws-1 sepal fusion phenotype was suppressed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931913/cell-free-synthesis-of-functional-antibodies-using-a-coupled-in-vitro-transcription-translation-system-based-on-cho-cell-lysates
#4
M Stech, O Nikolaeva, L Thoring, W F M Stöcklein, D A Wüstenhagen, M Hust, S Dübel, S Kubick
Antibodies are indispensable tools for basic research as well as diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Consequently, the development of alternative manufacturing strategies which circumvent the hurdles connected to conventional antibody production technologies is of enormous interest. To address this issue, we demonstrate the synthesis of complex antibody formats, in particular immunoglobulin G (IgG) and single-chain variable fragment Fc fusion (scFv-Fc), in a microsome-containing cell-free system based on translationally active chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lysates...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929370/a-termite-symbiotic-mushroom-maximizing-sexual-activity-at-growing-tips-of-vegetative-hyphae
#5
Huei-Mei Hsieh, Mei-Chu Chung, Pao-Yang Chen, Fei-Man Hsu, Wen-Wei Liao, Ai-Ning Sung, Chun-Ru Lin, Chung-Ju Rachel Wang, Yu-Hsin Kao, Mei-Jane Fang, Chi-Yung Lai, Chieh-Chen Huang, Jyh-Ching Chou, Wen-Neng Chou, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Yu-Ming Ju
BACKGROUND: Termitomyces mushrooms are mutualistically associated with fungus-growing termites, which are widely considered to cultivate a monogenotypic Termitomyces symbiont within a colony. Termitomyces cultures isolated directly from termite colonies are heterokaryotic, likely through mating between compatible homokaryons. RESULTS: After pairing homokaryons carrying different haplotypes at marker gene loci MIP and RCB from a Termitomyces fruiting body associated with Odontotermes formosanus, we observed nuclear fusion and division, which greatly resembled meiosis, during each hyphal cell division and conidial formation in the resulting heterokaryons...
September 19, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927164/hyalinizing-clear-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Susanne K Jeffus, Jerad M Gardner, Matthew A Steliga, Akeesha A Shah, Edward B Stelow, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis
Objectives: Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is common in head and neck sites but extremely rare in the lung. This case report describes an HCCC in the lung of a 54-year-old female patient. Methods: We summarize the histomorphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features for our and three previously reported HCCCs of the lung with emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls. Results: Sections of a well-circumscribed 3.5-cm lung mass were characterized by a bronchocentric tumor growing in sheets, nests, and cords in a background of hyalinized stroma...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925398/functional-significance-and-therapeutic-implication-of-ring-type-e3-ligases-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
REVIEW
L Liu, C C Wong, B Gong, J Yu
Accumulative studies revealed that E3 ubiquitin ligases have important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. The pathogenic mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression are complex and heterogeneous, involving somatic mutations, abnormal gene fusion, deletion or amplification and epigenetic alteration, which may cause aberrant expression or altered function of E3 ligases in CRC. Defects of E3 ligases have been reported to be involved in the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of CRC. The aberrant expressed E3 ligases can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending on ubiquiting target substrates in CRC...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923978/mcam-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-cell-autonomous-polarity-in-myogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation
#8
Artal Moreno-Fortuny, Laricia Bragg, Giulio Cossu, Urmas Roostalu
Cell polarity has a fundamental role in shaping the morphology of cells and growing tissues. Polarity is commonly thought to be established in response to extracellular signals. Here we used a minimal in vitro assay that enabled us to monitor the determination of cell polarity in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in the absence of external signalling gradients. We demonstrate that the initiation of cell polarity is regulated by melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM). We found highly polarized localization of MCAM, Moesin (MSN), Scribble (SCRIB) and Van-Gogh-like 2 (VANGL2) at the distal end of elongating myotubes...
September 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919981/regulation-of-cancer-epigenomes-with-a-histone-binding-synthetic-transcription-factor
#9
David B Nyer, Rene M Daer, Daniel Vargas, Caroline Hom, Karmella A Haynes
Chromatin proteins have expanded the mammalian synthetic biology toolbox by enabling control of active and silenced states at endogenous genes. Others have reported synthetic proteins that bind DNA and regulate genes by altering chromatin marks, such as histone modifications. Previously, we reported the first synthetic transcriptional activator, the "Polycomb-based transcription factor" (PcTF) that reads histone modifications through a protein-protein interaction between the polycomb chromodomain motif and trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3)...
2017: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916764/rapid-and-reversible-epigenome-editing-by-endogenous-chromatin-regulators
#10
Simon M G Braun, Jacob G Kirkland, Emma J Chory, Dylan Husmann, Joseph P Calarco, Gerald R Crabtree
Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916718/potential-sperm-contributions-to-the-murine-zygote-predicted-by-in-silico-analysis
#11
Panagiotis Ntostis, Deborah Carter, David Iles, J D Huntriss, Maria Tzetis, David Miller
Paternal contributions to the zygote are thought to extend beyond delivery of the genome and paternal RNAs have been linked to epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in different species. In addition, sperm-egg fusion activates several downstream processes that contribute to zygote formation, including PLC zeta-mediated egg activation and maternal RNA clearance. Since a third of the preimplantation developmental period in the mouse occurs prior to the first cleavage stage, there is ample time for paternal RNAs or their encoded proteins potentially to interact and participate in early zygotic activities...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915671/integration-of-alv-into-ctdspl-and-ctdspl2-genes-in-b-cell-lymphomas-promotes-cell-immortalization-migration-and-survival
#12
Shelby Winans, Alyssa Flynn, Sanandan Malhotra, Vidya Balagopal, Karen L Beemon
Avian leukosis virus induces tumors in chickens by integrating into the genome and altering expression of nearby genes. Thus, ALV can be used as an insertional mutagenesis tool to identify novel genes involved in tumorigenesis. Deep sequencing analysis of viral integration sites has identified CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 as common integration sites in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas, suggesting a potential role in driving oncogenesis. We show that in tumors with integrations in these genes, the viral promoter is driving the expression of a truncated fusion transcript...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915648/synergistic-suppression-of-t-8-21-positive-leukemia-cell-growth-by-combining-oridonin-and-mapk1-erk2-inhibitors
#13
Pavel Spirin, Timofey Lebedev, Natalia Orlova, Alexey Morozov, Nadezhda Poymenova, Sergey E Dmitriev, Anton Buzdin, Carol Stocking, Olga Kovalchuk, Vladimir Prassolov
One of the most common chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia is t(8;21)(q22;q22), which results in the appearance of abnormal transcripts encoding for the fusion protein RUNX1-ETO. Therefore, this oncoprotein is considered to be a pertinent and promising target for treating t(8;21) leukemia. Previously, we have shown that downregulation of RUNX1-ETO leads to activation of intracellular signaling pathways enhancing cell survival and determined that the protein ERK2 can mediate activation of most of these pathways...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914981/fna-cytology-of-solitary-fibrous-tumors-and-the-diagnostic-value-of-stat6-immunocytochemistry
#14
Edneia Tani, Johan Wejde, Kristina Åström, Inga-Lill Wingmo, Olle Larsson, Felix Haglund
BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors commonly located in the pleura, soft tissues, or meninges and are characterized by the NGFI-A-binding protein 2 (NAB2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) fusion gene. Recent studies have indicated that nuclear STAT6 immunohistochemistry is a specific marker for SFTs. METHODS: The authors reviewed fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from extracranial SFTs diagnosed at their institution between 1993 and 2017...
September 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914467/cloning-expression-pattern-analysis-and-subcellular-localization-of-capra-hircus-scd1-gene-with-production-of-transgenic-mice
#15
Qisheng Zuo, Kai Jin, Jiuzhou Song, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
This study aimed to clone the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) gene derived from Xuhuai goat (Capra hircus), and analyze the sub-cellular localization in cells and tissues. The cDNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). pEGFP-SCD1 vector was constructed to detect sub-cellular localization and tissue distribution. pEGFP-SCD1 was transfected into NIH-3T3 cells using polyethylene imine (PEI) and observed under fluorescence inversion microscope system 48 h after transfection. The expression level of SCD1 was detected by RT-PCR...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906492/ndrg1-inhibition-sensitizes-osteosarcoma-cells-to-combretastatin-a-4-through-targeting-autophagy
#16
Hongsheng Wang, Wen Li, Jing Xu, Tao Zhang, Dongqing Zuo, Zifei Zhou, Binhui Lin, Gangyang Wang, Zhuoying Wang, Wei Sun, Mengxiong Sun, Shimin Chang, Zhengdong Cai, Yingqi Hua
Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), a tubulin-depolymerizing agent, shows promising antitumor efficacy and has been under several clinical trials in solid tumors for 10 years. Autophagy has an important pro-survival role in cancer therapy, thus targeting autophagy may improve the efficacy of antitumor agents. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a significant stress regulatory gene, which mediates cell survival and chemoresistance. Here we reported that CA-4 could induce cell-protective autophagy, and combination treatment of CA-4 and autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) exerted synergistic cytotoxic effect on human osteosarcoma (OS) cells...
September 14, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906004/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-fab-aml-m4eo-with-cryptic-insertion-of-cbfb-resulting-in-cbfb-myh11-fusion
#17
Nathalie Douet-Guilbert, Aurelie Chauveau, Nadia Gueganic, Gaëlle Guillerm, Corine Tous, Marie-Josee Le Bris, Audrey Basinko, Frederic Morel, Valerie Ugo, Marc De Braekeleer
Inv(16)(p13q22) and t(16;16)(p13;q22) are cytogenetic hallmarks of acute myelomonoblastic leukaemia, most of them associated with abnormal bone marrow eosinophils [acute myeloid leukaemia French-American-British classification M4 with eosinophilia (FAB AML-M4Eo)] and a relatively favourable clinical course. They generate a 5'CBFB-3'MYH11 fusion gene. However, in a few cases, although RT-PCR identified a CBFB-MYH11 transcript, normal karyotype and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses using commercially available probes are found...
September 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905215/gmmyb58-and-gmmyb205-are-seed-specific-activators-for-isoflavonoid-biosynthesis-in-glycine-max
#18
Xiaoyan Han, Qinggang Yin, Jinyue Liu, Wenbo Jiang, Shaokang Di, Yongzhen Pang
GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are key positive regulators that are involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis in seeds of Glycine max, and they activate the expression of several structural genes in the isoflavonoid pathway. MYB transcription factors (TFs) are major regulators involved in flavonoid/isoflavonoid biosynthesis in many plant species. However, functions of most MYB TFs remain unknown in flavonoid/isoflavonoid pathway in Glycine max. In this study, we identified 321 MYB TFs by genome-wide searching, and further isolated and functionally characterized two MYB TFs, GmMYB58 and GmMYB205...
September 13, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905209/expression-differences-of-genes-in-the-pi3k-akt-wnt-b-catenin-shh-notch-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-cd34-hematopoietic-cells-obtained-from-chronic-phase-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-and-from-healthy-controls
#19
R de Cássia Viu Carrara, A M Fontes, K J Abraham, M D Orellana, S K Haddad, P V B Palma, R A Panepucci, M A Zago, D T Covas
PURPOSE: The fusion gene BRC-ABL has an important role to the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and several signaling pathways have been characterized as responsible for the terminal blastic phase (BP). However, the initial phase, the chronic phase (CP), is long lasting and there is much yet to be understood about the critical role of BRC-ABL in this phase. This study aims to evaluate transcriptional deregulation in CD34+ hematopoietic cells (CD34+ cells) from patients with untreated newly diagnosed CML compared with CD34+HC from healthy controls...
September 13, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904365/rnai-mediated-silencing-of-a-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-enhances-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-in-the-oleaginous-marine-alga-nannochloropsis-salina
#20
Xiaonian Ma, Lina Yao, Bo Yang, Yuan Kun Lee, Feng Chen, Jin Liu
Oleaginous microalgae have been emerging as the third-generation feedstocks for biofuel production. Genetic manipulation for improving triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation represents a promising approach towards the economics of microalgal biofuels. Acetyl-CoA, the essential carbon precursor for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, can be derived from pyruvate catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is negatively regulated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). In the present study, we characterized a PDK gene (NsPDK) from Nannochloropsis salina...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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