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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458158/toll-like-receptor-tlr-9-promotor-polymorphisms-and-gene-expression-are-associated-with-persistent-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage
#1
Dennis Nurjadi, Klaus Heeg, Alexander N R Weber, Philipp Zanger
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptor (TLR) -9 could have importance in human S. aureus immunity, but population level evidence for this hypothesis is missing. METHODS: We phenotyped 603 volunteers for S. aureus nasal carriage using four consecutive swabs, genotyped TLR9 promotor variants in 106 persistent carriers and 219 non-carriers, measured TLR9-mRNA expression in whole blood after stimulation with viable S. aureus, and studied mutual associations of carriage, transcriptional activity, and single nucleotide polymorphisms while accounting for sex and hormonal contraceptive use (HCU+/- )...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458072/influence-of-xenorhabdus-gamma-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-symbionts-on-gonad-postembryonic-development-in-steinernema-nematoda-steinernematidae-nematodes
#2
Alexandra C Roder, S Patricia Stock
Steinernema nematodes and their Xenorhabdus partners form an obligate mutualistic association. This partnership is insecticidal to a wide range of insects. Steinernema rely on their Xenorhabdus partner to produce toxins inside the insect cadaver to liberate nutrients from the insect, as well as antimicrobials to sterilize the cadaver, thus creating a suitable environment for reproduction. In return, Steinernema vector their Xenorhabdus between insect hosts. Disruption of this partnership may affect the success of both partners...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457631/non-invasive-genetic-censusing-and-monitoring-of-primate-populations
#3
REVIEW
Mimi Arandjelovic, Linda Vigilant
Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457529/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-associated-with-2-year-mortality-from-both-cardiovascular-and-non-cardiovascular-origins-in-prevalent-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#4
Chihiro Kawagoe, Yuji Sato, Tatsunori Toida, Hideto Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Yamashita, Akihiro Fukuda, Shuji Iwatsubo, Shouichi Fujimoto
N-terminal-pro-B-type-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was a predictive marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related death in chronic dialysis patients. NT-proBNP was also correlated with markers of inflammation, malnutrition and protein-energy wasting. We hypothesized whether NT-proBNP was also associated with non-CVD death in chronic dialysis patients. A prospective observational study for incidence of death in chronic dialysis patients was conducted. Prevalent chronic dialysis patients (n = 1310) were enrolled and followed for 24 months...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457497/prevalence-and-demographic-correlates-of-overweight-physical-activity-and-screen-time-among-school-aged-children-in-urban-china-the-shanghai-study
#5
Xihe Zhu, Justin A Haegele, Yan Tang, Xueping Wu
This study reports the prevalence and demographic correlates of overweight, as well as meeting physical activity and screen time guidelines, in Chinese children. A representative sample of school-aged children ( n = 49 549) in Shanghai were participants. Children's anthropometrics were objectively measured; their physical activity and screen time, and demographic variables including age, sex, skill proficiency, sport affiliation, and transportation mode were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457307/iron-and-infection-an-investigation-of-the-optimal-iron-hypothesis-in-lima-peru
#6
Achsah F Dorsey, Amanda L Thompson, Ronald E Kleinman, Christopher P Duggan, Mary E Penny
OBJECTIVES: This article explores the optimal iron hypothesis through secondary data analysis of the association between hemoglobin levels and morbidity among children living in Canto Grande, a peri-urban community located on the outskirts of Lima, Peru. METHODS: Risk ratios were used to test whether lower iron status, assessed using the HemoCue B-Hemoglobin System, was associated with an increased relative risk of morbidity symptoms compared to iron replete status, controlling for infant age, sex, weight for height z-score, maternal education, and repeated measures in 515 infants aged 6-12 months...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456896/factors-associated-with-elevated-blood-pressure-or-hypertension-in-afro-caribbean-youth-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Trevor S Ferguson, Novie O M Younger-Coleman, Marshall K Tulloch-Reid, Nadia R Bennett, Amanda E Rousseau, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Maureen E Samms-Vaughan, Deanna E Ashley, Rainford J Wilks
Background: Although several studies have identified risk factors for high blood pressure (BP), data from Afro-Caribbean populations are limited. Additionally, less is known about how putative risk factors operate in young adults and how social factors influence the risk of high BP. In this study, we estimated the relative risk for elevated BP or hypertension (EBP/HTN), defined as BP ≥ 120/80 mmHg, among young adults with putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Jamaica and evaluated whether relative risks differed by sex...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456888/an-observational-study-on-risk-of-secondary-cancers-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients-in-the-tki-era-in-the-united-states
#8
Vivek Kumar, Mohit Garg, Neha Chaudhary, Abhinav Binod Chandra
Introduction: The treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically improved the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. This study was conducted to examine the risk of secondary cancers (SCs) in the CML patients who were diagnosed and treated in the TKI era in the United States. Methods: The surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database was used to identify CML patients who were diagnosed and received treatment during January 2002-December 2014...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456696/infectious-mononucleosis-and-hepatic-function
#9
Li Zhang, Pingping Zhou, Zhaowei Meng, Chongjie Pang, Lu Gong, Qing Zhang, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song
Abnormal hepatic function is common in infectious mononucleosis (IM). However, it remains unknown why increased transferase levels are more common than bilirubin abnormalities in IM. The current study aimed to investigate these associations in the Chinese population. A total of 95 patients with IM (47 males and 48 females) were enrolled in the current study, as well as 95 healthy controls. Patients were sorted by sex. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine cut-off values for IM diagnosis and prediction...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456543/no-interactions-of-stacked-bt-maize-with-the-non-target-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi-and-the-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#10
Yinghua Shu, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
In the agroecosystem, genetically engineered plants producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with non-target herbivores and other elements of the food web. Stacked Bt crops expose herbivores to multiple Cry proteins simultaneously. In this study, the direct interactions between SmartStax® Bt maize producing six different Cry proteins and two herbivores with different feeding modes were investigated. Feeding on leaves of Bt maize had no effects on development time, fecundity, or longevity of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and no effects on the egg hatching time, development time, sex ratio, fecundity, and survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456222/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-cote-d-ivoire-an-analytic-study-conducted-in-the-department-of-internal-medicine
#11
Hubert Kouame Yao, Serge Didier Konan, Sindou Sanogo, Sery Patrick Diopoh, Amadou Demba Diallo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health problem because of its increasing prevalence. The objective of this study was to describe the current profile of CKD in our working conditions. This is a descriptive retrospective study of patients admitted for CKD during the period from January 2010 to December 2014 in the Internal Medicine Department of the university hospital of Treichville in Abidjan. CKD was defined by a glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min lasting for at least three months...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456209/assessment-of-prevalence-and-clinical-outcome-of-frailty-in-an-elderly-predialysis-cohort-using-simple-tools
#12
Hatem Ali, Tarek Abdelaziz, Fatima Abdelaal, Jyoti Baharani
The relationship between frailty and chronic kidney disease in elderly population has been recognized; however, studies concentrating on frailty in predialysis patients are limited. For nephrologists, the recognition of frailty is important as it has impact on decisions on the choice of dialysis modality and sometimes on whether dialysis is indeed in the patients' best interests. Many of the tools for routine assessment of frailty are not easily applicable to those clinicians not practicing elderly care medicine...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456208/morbidity-and-mortality-of-hospitalized-hip-fractures-in-chronic-hemodialysis
#13
Georgios Vlachopanos, Theodoras Kassimatis, Anastasia Kokkona, Adamantia Zerva, Eirini Stavroulaki, Charilaos Zacharogiannis, Athanasios Agrafiotis
Abnormal bone architecture contributes to high incidence of hip fractures in chronichemodialysis (HD) patients. Their clinical epidemiology is incompletely described. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the implications ofhospitalization with hip fracture in HD patients compared to the nonchronic kidney disease population. Thirty-three chronic HD patients admitted with hip fracture overfiveyears were age- and sex-matched on a 1:1 ratio with controls that had hip fracture and normal renal function...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456193/changes-in-shoulder-girdle-strength-in-3-consecutive-years-in-elite-adolescent-swimmers-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
Fernanda A P Habechian, Kim Van Malderen, Paula R Camargo, Ann M Cools
BACKGROUND: The shoulder complex is highly loaded during swimming. No studies were found analyzing the changes in shoulder girdle strength in young swimmers, through the years. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in strength of internal rotators and external rotators of the arm, lower trapezius and supraspinatus and in the external rotators/internal rotators ratio in young elite swimmers through 3 years. METHODS: 31 adolescent elite swimmers (14-18 years, of both sexes) participated in the study...
February 6, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455688/early-life-nutritional-status-and-metabolic-syndrome-gender-specific-associations-from-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#15
Bruna Lucas Briskiewicz, Sandhi Maria Barreto, Joana Ferreira do Amaral, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander Diniz, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Sheila Maria Alvim Matos, Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Maria Inês Schmidt, Luana Giatti
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we investigated gender-specific associations of low birth weight (LBW) and shorter relative leg length with metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviours. We also investigated whether these associations are independent of age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SUBJECTS: Baseline data from 12 602 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), 2008-2010...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455572/safer-conception-among-hiv-1-serodiscordant-couples-in-east-africa-understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-experiences
#16
Kerry Hancuch, Jared Baeten, Kenneth Ngure, Connie Celum, Nelly Mugo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Renee Heffron
For HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, HIV-1 exposure and risk of transmission is heightened during pregnancy attempts, but safer conception strategies can reduce risk. As safer conception programs are scaled up, understanding couples' preferences and experiences can be useful for programmatic recommendations. We followed 1013 high-risk, heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda for two years in an open-label delivery study of integrated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), the Partners Demonstration Project...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454927/syndemics-among-individuals-enrolled-in-the-prep-brasil-study
#17
Raquel B De Boni, Iona K Machado, Mauricio T L De Vasconcellos, Brenda Hoagland, Esper G Kallas, José Valdez Madruga, Nilo M Fernandes, Natalia B Cerqueira, Ronaldo I Moreira, Silvia P Goulart, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Paula M Luz
BACKGROUND: Concurrent psychosocial problems may synergistically increase the risk of HIV infection (syndemics), representing a challenge for prevention. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of syndemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) enrolled in the Brazilian pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration study (PrEP Brasil Study). METHODS: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of the PrEP Brasil Study was performed...
February 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454221/-13-c-phenylalanine-breath-test-and-serum-biopterin-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Toshiya Teraishi, Masahiro Kajiwara, Hiroaki Hori, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Hidese, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Yasuhiro Kajiwara, Yuji Ozeki, Miho Ota, Kotaro Hattori, Teruhiko Higuchi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Phenylalanine is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. The rate-limiting step for phenylalanine metabolism is catalyzed by phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. We aimed to detect altered phenylalanine metabolism in major psychiatric disorders using the l-[1-13 C]phenylalanine breath test (13 C-PBT) and serum biopterin levels. We also investigated association of PAH mutations with schizophrenia and phenylalanine metabolism...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453873/association-between-pemphigus-and-neurologic-diseases
#19
Khalaf Kridin, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D Cohen
Importance: The association between pemphigus and neurologic diseases was not evaluated systematically in the past. In a recent uncontrolled cross-sectional study, Parkinson disease was found to be significantly associated with pemphigus; in the same study, epilepsy had a nonsignificant association with pemphigus. Several case reports have suggested that pemphigus coexists with multiple sclerosis and dementia. Objective: To estimate the association between pemphigus and 4 neurologic conditions (dementia, epilepsy, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis), using one of the largest cohorts of patients with pemphigus...
February 16, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453868/coexistent-solid-malignancies-in-pemphigus-a-population-based-study
#20
Khalaf Kridin, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D Cohen
Importance: The association of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus with comorbid malignancies is yet to be firmly established. Objective: To estimate the association between pemphigus and a wide range of nonhematologic malignancies using one of the largest cohorts of patients with pemphigus to date. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this cross-sectional study, we used the computerized database of Clalit Health Services, the largest public health care provider organization in Israel insuring 4...
February 16, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
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