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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029344/the-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-attaining-national-hiv-aids-strategy-treatment-targets-in-the-united-states
#1
Ethan D Borre, Emily P Hyle, A David Paltiel, Anne M Neilan, Paul E Sax, Kenneth A Freedberg, Milton C Weinstein, Rochelle P Walensky
Background: The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) aims for 72% (90% diagnosed times 80% of those virally suppressed) viral suppression among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by 2020. We examined the clinical and economic impact of reaching this target, in the general US population and among black men who have sex with men (MSM), the group with the highest HIV prevalence. Methods: Using a mathematical simulation, we project the 5- and 20-year clinical outcomes, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for (1) Current Pace of detection, linkage, retention, and virologic suppression and (2) NHAS investments in expanded testing ($24-$74 per test) and adherence ($400 per person-year), calibrated to achieve 72% suppression by 2020...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029150/antibiotic-use-and-new-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-olmsted-county-minnesota-a-population-based-case-control-study
#2
Satimai Aniwan, William J Tremaine, Laura E Raffals, Sunanda V Kane, Edward V Loftus
Background and Aims: Several studies have suggested significant associations between environmental factors and the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data supporting the role of antibiotics are conflicting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and new-onset IBD. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study using the Rochester Epidemiology Project of Olmsted County, Minnesota. We identified 736 county residents diagnosed with IBD between 1980 and 2010 who were matched to 1472 controls, based on age, sex and date of IBD diagnosis...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029118/potential-side-effects-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-anisopliae-on-the-egg-parasitoid-trichogramma-pretiosum-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-under-controlled-conditions
#3
M Potrich, L F A Alves, E R Lozano, A K Bonini, P M O J Neves
The purpose was to evaluate the side effects of strains Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin sensu lato Unioeste 43 and M. anisopliae sensu stricto ESALQ 1641 on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) under controlled conditions. A free-choice test for parasitism was performed, with the confinement of T. pretiosum females mated with cards (1 × 5 cm) containing age-standardized Anagasta kuehniella Zeller eggs, either sprayed with a fungal strain (109 conidia/ml) or 0.01% v/v Tween 80 (control)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029099/biomarkers-of-mineral-and-bone-metabolism-and-20-year-risk-for-hospitalization-with-infection-the-aric-study
#4
Junichi Ishigami, Bernard G Jaar, Casey M Rebholz, Morgan E Grams, Erin D Michos, Myles Wolf, Csaba P Kovesdy, Shinichi Uchida, Josef Coresh, Pamela L Lutsey, Kunihiro Matsushita
Context: Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may be relevant in the etiology of infection. Objective: To determine whether MBD biomarkers were associated with incidence of hospitalization with infection. We also assessed the cross-sectional association between levels of MBD biomarkers and kidney function. Design: Setting, Participants: Community-based cohort study using 11,218 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029035/long-term-survival-and-causes-of-death-in-patients-with-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome-without-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#5
Hedvig Bille Andersson, Frants Pedersen, Thomas Engstrøm, Steffen Helqvist, Morten Kvistholm Jensen, Erik Jørgensen, Henning Kelbæk, Sune Bernd Emil Werner Räder, Kari Saunamäki, Eric Bates, Peer Grande, Lene Holmvang, Peter Clemmensen
Aims: We aimed to study survival and causes of death in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS) with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: We included 4793 consecutive patients with STE-ACS triaged for acute coronary angiography at a large cardiac invasive centre (2009-2014). Of these, 88% had obstructive CAD (stenosis ≥50%), 6% had non-obstructive CAD (stenosis 1-49%), and 5% had normal coronary arteries...
September 23, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029021/aetiological-heterogeneity-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-infections-smoking-and-alcohol
#6
Nada J Farsi, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Nicolas Schlecht, Geneviève Castonguay, Paul Allison, Phuc Félix Nguyen-Tan, Denis Soulieres, Francois Coutlée, Michael Hier, Sreenath Madathil, Eduardo L Franco, Belinda Nicolau
Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the main risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a causal role in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), a subset of HNSCC. We assessed the independent effects of tobacco, alcohol, and HPV infection on OPC risk in the Head and Neck Cancer(HeNCe) Life study, a hospital-based case-control study of HNSCC with frequency-matched controls by age and sex from four Montreal hospitals. Interviewers collected information on socio-demographic and behavioural factors...
September 28, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028790/imaging-factors-that-distinguish-between-patients-with-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-with-mild-to-moderate-cervical-spinal-cord-compression
#7
Jun Ming Cao, Jing Tao Zhang, Da Long Yang, Yi Peng Yang, He Huan Xia, Liu Yang
BACKGROUND Not all patients with spinal cord compression due to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) have clinical symptoms and signs. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the imaging findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with CSM with mild to moderate cervical spinal cord compression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective clinical study included 68 patients. Group A (n=30) had no symptoms and signs; group B (n=38) had symptoms and signs of cervical myelopathy. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of steroid treatment, duration of symptoms, number of spondylotic cervical segments, Torg ratio, range of motion (ROM), incidence of cervical segmental instability, overall curvature of the cervical spine, direction of spinal cord compression, and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity were compared...
October 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028680/association-between-dioxin-and-metabolic-syndrome-by-age-and-sex-in-an-endemic-area-of-exposure-in-taiwan
#8
Chien-Yuan Huang, Ching-Chang Lee, Jung-Wei Chang, Ya-Yun Cheng, Yau-Chang Kuo, How-Ran Guo, Chen-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: Some of the effects of dioxins seem to be different between men and women, and exposures starting at an early age seem to have more prominent effects. Therefore, we conducted a study in Taiwan to evaluate the associations between exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) starting at different ages in both sexes. METHODS: We recruited participants from an area where residents were exposed to PCDD/Fs released from a factory and defined serum PCDD/Fs levels ≥20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid as high dioxin levels...
October 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028675/the-risk-of-stroke-in-physicians-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#9
Hon-Pheng Tam, Hung-Jung Lin, Shih-Feng Weng, Chien-Chin Hsu, Jhi-Joung Wang, Shih-Bin Su, Chien-Cheng Huang, How-Ran Guo
BACKGROUND: Physicians in Taiwan work in stressful workplaces and have heavy workloads, both of which may contribute to the occurrence of a stroke. However, it is not clear whether they have a higher risk of stroke. Therefore, we conducted a population-based cohort study to compare the risks of stroke between physicians and the general population and among subgroups of physicians in Taiwan. METHODS: In the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we identified 28,062 physicians and selected 84,186 age- and sex-matched nonmedical staff beneficiaries as the references...
October 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028659/differences-in-acute-retroviral-syndrome-by-hiv-1-subtype-in-a-multicentre-cohort-study-in-africa
#10
Eduard J Sanders, Matthew A Price, Etienne Karita, Anatoli Kamali, William Kilembe, Linda-Gail Bekker, Shabir Lakhi, Mubiana Inambao, Omu Anzala, Patricia E Fast, Jill Gilmour, Kimberly A Powers
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) may be used to identify patients with acute HIV-1 infection who seek care. ARS symptoms in African adults differ by region. We assessed whether reporting of ARS was associated with HIV-1 subtype in a multicentre African cohort study representing countries with predominant HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D. METHODOLOGY: ARS symptoms were assessed in adults enrolling ≤6 weeks after the estimated date of infection (EDI) in an acute and early HIV-1 infection cohort study...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028631/sexual-behavior-and-pregnancy-among-adolescents-in-foster-family-homes
#11
Weihai Zhan, Susan R Smith, Lynette C Warner, Fred North, Sara Wilhelm, Amanda Nowak
Objective To examine the prevalence of and factors associated with sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement among adolescents in foster family homes. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of children living in foster family homes. Logistic regression with Firth's correction was used to determine factors associated with sexual risk behavior and pregnancy involvement (i.e. having been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant). Results About half of adolescents (aged 13-18 years) in foster family homes ever had sex, of whom, one third had first sex before the age of 14 and one sixth had two or more sexual partners in the past 3 months...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028483/circulating-levels-of-sgp130-and-sex-hormones-in-male-patients-with-coronary-atherosclerotic-disease
#12
Yan Cui, Wen Dai, Yan Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammation and endocrine disorders are considered as major pathogenic factors of coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD). Sgp130, a natural antagonist of IL-6 trans-signaling, and sex hormones, especially testosterone and estradiol, are prominently considered as anti-atherosclerotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between serum sgp130 and testosterone and estradiol in male CAD patients. METHODS: A total of 254 male patients with CAD and 122 male controls were recruited for this study...
September 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028124/atrazine-feminizes-sex-ratio-in-blanchard-s-cricket-frogs-acris-blanchardi-at-concentrations-as-low-as-0-1%C3%A2-%C3%AE-g-l
#13
Tyler D Hoskins, Michelle D Boone
We exposed Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) to ecologically relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/L) of a commercial formulation of atrazine throughout the larval period to determine effects on survival, somatic growth and development (time to metamorphosis and mass at metamorphosis), and gonadal development (sex ratio at metamorphosis and the prevalence of testicular ova in phenotypic males). We tested the following hypotheses: 1) atrazine feminizes the sex ratio, 2) atrazine increases the proportion of phenotypic males with testicular ova, and 3) atrazine differentially affects somatic growth (mass at metamorphosis) and development (time to metamorphosis) for males and females...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027612/penetrance-of-a-rare-familial-mutation-predisposing-to-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#14
Donika Saporito, Pamela Brock, Heather Hampel, Jennifer Sipos, Soledad Fernandez, Sandya Liyanarachchi, Albert de la Chapelle, Rebecca Nagy
Familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is clinically defined as two or more first-degree relatives with NMTC and appears to follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Approximately 5-7% of NMTC is hereditary and affects multiple generations with a young age of onset. The primary aim of this study was to determine the age-specific penetrance of NMTC in individuals from a large family with FNMTC with a previously identified private mutation at 4q32, with a secondary aim to determine the penetrance for benign thyroid disease in this family...
October 12, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027356/relationship-between-neighbourhood-socioeconomic-status-and-venous-thromboembolism-results-from-a-population-based-study
#15
D Kort, N van Rein, F J M van der Meer, H W Vermaas, N Wiersma, S C Cannegieter, W M Lijfering
BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic status and arterial cardiovascular disease is well established. However, despite its high burden of disability-adjusted life years, little research has been done to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism. OBJECTIVE: To determine if neighbourhood socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism in a population-based study from the Netherlands. METHODS: We identified all patients aged 15 years and older with a first event of venous thromboembolism from inhabitants who lived in the urban districts of The Hague, Leiden and Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2008-2012...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027324/circulating-microrna-132-levels-improve-risk-prediction-for-heart-failure-hospitalization-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#16
Serge Masson, Sandor Batkai, Julia Beermann, Christian Bär, Angelika Pfanne, Sabrina Thum, Michela Magnoli, Giovanna Balconi, Gian Luigi Nicolosi, Luigi Tavazzi, Roberto Latini, Thomas Thum
AIMS: Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Since they are measurable in most body fluids, they have been proposed as circulating biomarkers. We examined the prognostic value of a specific candidate miRNA in a large cohort of patients with chronic heart failure (HF) enrolled in a multicentre clinical trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of miR-132 were measured using miRNA-specific PCR-based technologies at randomization in 953 patients with chronic, symptomatic HF from the GISSI-Heart Failure trial...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027208/occurrence-of-acute-renal-failure-on-the-same-day-as-immune-globulin-product-administrations-during-2008-to-2014
#17
Bola F Ekezue, Gayathri Sridhar, Richard A Forshee, Hector S Izurieta, Nandini Selvam, Paul D Mintz, Steven A Anderson, Mikhail D Menis
BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rare serious adverse event after immune globulin (IG) use. Our large claims-based study evaluated occurrence of same-day ARF after administration of different IGs and ascertained potential risk factors, during the 2008 to 2014 study period. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large commercial administrative database. The cohort included individuals exposed to IG products as identified by procedure codes...
October 12, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027036/risk-factors-of-ceftriaxone-associated-biliary-pseudolithiasis-in-adults-influence-of-renal-dysfunction
#18
Aya Imafuku, Naoki Sawa, Akinari Sekine, Masahiro Kawada, Rikako Hiramatsu, Masayuki Yamanouchi, Eiko Hasegawa, Noriko Hayami, Jyunichi Hoshino, Yoshifumi Ubara, Kenmei Takaichi
BACKGROUND: Ceftriaxone (CTRX) is a known cause of biliary pseudolithiasis (BPL) mainly in children. Biliary elimination of CTRX increases in patients with renal dysfunction. However, the influence of renal dysfunction on the incidence of CTRX-associated BPL has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative incidence of CTRX-associated BPL in adults and to assess if renal dysfunction is a risk factor. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 478 patients treated with CTRX to assess the incidence and risk factors of CTRX-associated BPL...
October 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026786/the-relationship-between-type-2-diabetes-and-platelet-indicators
#19
Xiangyu Chen, Le Fang, Hongbo Lin, Peng Shen, Tao Zhang, Hui Li, Xiaoyong Li, Min Yu, Chunxiao Xu, Jie Zhang, Feng Lu, Xiaofu DU, Ruying Hu, Jieming Zhong
BACKGROUND: Currently, the studies on the relationship between type 2 diabetes and platelets indicators were carried out on a selective small sample population generally. Large sample studies in this area are rare, especially in Chinese population. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetes and the mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet count (PLT) and platelet distribution width (PDW). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the routine health examination data from 20128 participants with complete baseline data in Yinzhou District 2013...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026764/a-case-control-study-on-environmental-and-biological-risk-factors-for-renal-calculi-persisting-in-a-coastal-union-territory-india
#20
Prakash Mathiyalagen, Anand Neelakantan, Karthik Balusamy, Kavita Vasudevan, Johnson Cherian, Bhuvaneswary Sunderamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Renal stone disease is a common disorder of the urinary tract and also a significant problem because of incidence, recurrence, and severe consequences. The complex pathogenetic mechanisms of renal stone formation involve both biologic and environmental risk factors. The present study was performed to identify the role of these parameters among renal stone patients and normal individuals from a coastal union territory region in South India. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study of renal stone disease among outpatient department patients more than 30 years of age using systematic random sampling procedure with 100 study participants (50 subjects for each group)...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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