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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897991/the-double-role-of-p53-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity-and-its-potential-as-therapeutic-target
#1
REVIEW
Alessandra Fierabracci, Marsha Pellegrino
p53 is a sequence-specific short-lived transcription factor expressed at low concentrations in various tissues while it is upregulated in damaged, tumoral or inflamed tissue. In normally proliferating cells, p53 protein levels and function are tightly controlled by main regulators, i.e., MDM2 (mouse double minute 2) and MDM4 proteins. p53 plays an important role due to its ability to mediate tumor suppression. In addition to its importance as a tumor suppressor, p53 coordinates diverse cellular responses to stress and damage and plays an emerging role in various physiological processes, including fertility, cell metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, autophagy, cell adhesion, stem cell maintenance and development...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668600/-inhibiting-the-pro-tumor-and-transcription-factor-fact-mechanisms
#2
N V Maluchenko, H W Chang, M T Kozinova, M E Valieva, N S Gerasimova, A V Kitashov, M P Kirpichnikov, P G Georgiev, V M Studitsky
Conventional antitumor therapy is often complicated by the emergence of the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are characterized by low metabolic rates and high resistance to almost all existing therapies. Many problems of clinical oncology and a poor efficacy of current treatments in particular are ascribed to CSCs. Therefore, it is important to develop new compounds capable of eliminating both rapidly proliferating tumor cells and standard treatment-resistant CSCs. Curaxins have been demonstrated to manifest various types of antitumor activity...
July 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624499/an-overview-of-pet-mr-focused-on-clinical-applications
#3
Onofrio Antonio Catalano, William Roger Masch, Ciprian Catana, Umar Mahmood, Dushyant Vasudeo Sahani, Michael Stanley Gee, Leon Menezes, Andrea Soricelli, Marco Salvatore, Debra Gervais, Bruce Robert Rosen
Hybrid PET/MR scanners are innovative imaging devices that simultaneously or sequentially acquire and fuse anatomical and functional data from magnetic resonance (MR) with metabolic information from positron emission tomography (PET) (Delso et al. in J Nucl Med 52:1914-1922, 2011; Zaidi et al. in Phys Med Biol 56:3091-3106, 2011). Hybrid PET/MR scanners have the potential to greatly impact not only on medical research but also, and more importantly, on patient management. Although their clinical applications are still under investigation, the increased worldwide availability of PET/MR scanners, and the growing published literature are important determinants in their rising utilization for primarily clinical applications...
September 13, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614498/-conformal-radiotherapy-for-vertebral-bone-metastasis
#4
J C Faivre, J F Py, G Vogin, G Martinage, J Salleron, P Royer, N Grandgirard, D Pasquier, S Thureau
Analgesic external beam radiation therapy is a standard of care for patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases and/or prevention of bone complications. In case of fracture risk, radiation therapy is performed after surgery in a consolidation of an analgesic purpose and stabilizing osteosynthesis. Radiotherapy is mandatory after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Spinal cord compression - the only emergency in radiation therapy - is indicated postoperatively either exclusively for non surgical indication...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605411/use-of-sigmoid-colon-in-orthotopic-neobladder-reconstruction-long-term-results
#5
Giulio Nicita, Alberto Martini, Maria T Filocamo, Calogero Saieva, Aldo Tosto, Niceta Stomaci, Barbara Bigazzi, Donata Villari
OBJECTIVES: To present our experience with a sigmoid orthotopic neobladder. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the functional and oncological outcomes of 160 patients who underwent orthotopic neobladder reconstruction using a detubularized 20-25-cm sigmoid segment at our institution. Each patient was evaluated every 3 months the first year, every 6 months for the next 4 years and annually thereafter. Urodynamic studies of all consenting patients were carried out after 6 months, and 2, 5 and 10 years...
December 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557539/imaging-of-tumor-metabolism-using-positron-emission-tomography-pet
#6
Ivayla Apostolova, Florian Wedel, Winfried Brenner
Molecular imaging employing PET/CT enables in vivo visualization, characterization, and measurement of biologic processes in tumors at a molecular and cellular level. Using specific metabolic tracers, information about the integrated function of multiple transporters and enzymes involved in tumor metabolic pathways can be depicted, and the tracers can be directly applied as biomarkers of tumor biology. In this review, we discuss the role of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as an in vivo glycolytic marker which reflects alterations of glucose metabolism in cancer cells...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557537/metabolic-features-of-cancer-treatment-resistance
#7
Andrea Viale, Giulio F Draetta
A major barrier to achieving durable remission and a definitive cure in oncology patients is the emergence of tumor resistance, a common outcome of different disease types, and independent from the therapeutic approach undertaken. In recent years, subpopulations of slow-cycling cells endowed with enhanced tumorigenic potential and multidrug resistance have been isolated in different tumors, and mounting experimental evidence suggests these resistant cells are responsible for tumor relapse. An in-depth metabolic characterization of resistant tumor stem cells revealed that they rely more on mitochondrial respiration and less on glycolysis than other tumor cells, a finding that challenges the assumption that tumors have a primarily glycolytic metabolism and defective mitochondria...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496023/mid-term-oncologic-outcome-of-a-novel-approach-for-locally-advanced-colon-cancer-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-surgery
#8
J Arredondo, J Baixauli, C Pastor, A Chopitea, J J Sola, I González, J A-Cienfuegos, P Martínez, J Rodriguez, J L Hernández-Lizoain
PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being actively tested as an emerging alternative for the treatment of locally advanced colon cancer (LACC) patients, resembling its use in other gastrointestinal tumors. This study assesses the mid-term oncologic outcome of LACC patients treated with oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines-based preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Patients with radiologically resectable LACC treated with neoadjuvant therapy between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...
August 5, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475897/laser-therapy-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-mice-by-promoting-immune-surveillance-and-vessel-normalization
#9
Giulia Ottaviani, Valentina Martinelli, Katia Rupel, Nicoletta Caronni, Asma Naseem, Lorenzo Zandonà, Giuseppe Perinetti, Margherita Gobbo, Roberto Di Lenarda, Rossana Bussani, Federica Benvenuti, Mauro Giacca, Matteo Biasotto, Serena Zacchigna
Laser therapy, recently renamed as photobiomodulation, stands as a promising supportive treatment for oral mucositis induced by oncological therapies. However, its mechanisms of action and, more importantly, its safety in cancer patients, are still unclear. Here we explored the anti-cancer effect of 3 laser protocols, set at the most commonly used wavelengths, in B16F10 melanoma and oral carcinogenesis mouse models. While laser light increased cell metabolism in cultured cells, the in vivo outcome was reduced tumor progression...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475805/the-obesity-paradox-in-cancer-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Hannah Lennon, Matthew Sperrin, Ellena Badrick, Andrew G Renehan
There is a common perception that excess adiposity, commonly approximated by body mass index (BMI), is associated with reduced cancer survival. A number of studies have emerged challenging this by demonstrating that overweight and early obese states are associated with improved survival. This finding is termed the "obesity paradox" and is well recognized in the cardio-metabolic literature but less so in oncology. Here, we summarize the epidemiological findings related to the obesity paradox in cancer. Our review highlights that many observations of the obesity paradox in cancer reflect methodological mechanisms including the crudeness of BMI as an obesity measure, confounding, detection bias, reverse causality, and a specific form of the selection bias, known as collider bias...
September 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395773/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-melanoma-preclinical-rationale-and-novel-therapeutic-insights
#11
REVIEW
Gongda Xue, Emanuela Romano, Daniela Massi, Mario Mandalà
WNT signaling regulates embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in the adult stage. Evolutionarily, activation of the WNT pathway is triggered by a large family of cytokines and activates a broad spectrum of downstream targets through two independent branches mediated by β-catenin (defined as canonical pathway) or PLC and small GTPase (defined as non-canonical pathway), respectively. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of WNT in the maintenance of cell metabolism and stemness as well as its deregulation in tumourigenesis and malignant transformation through oncogenic reprogramming, which contributes to cancer cell proliferation and differentiation, survival, stress response and resistance...
September 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289382/impact-of-intracellular-ion-channels-on-cancer-development-and-progression
#12
Roberta Peruzzo, Lucia Biasutto, Ildikò Szabò, Luigi Leanza
Cancer research is nowadays focused on the identification of possible new targets in order to try to develop new drugs for curing untreatable tumors. Ion channels have emerged as "oncogenic" proteins, since they have an aberrant expression in cancers compared to normal tissues and contribute to several hallmarks of cancer, such as metabolic re-programming, limitless proliferative potential, apoptosis-resistance, stimulation of neo-angiogenesis as well as cell migration and invasiveness. In recent years, not only the plasma membrane but also intracellular channels and transporters have arisen as oncological targets and were proposed to be associated with tumorigenesis...
June 11, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275364/correlation-between-apparent-diffusion-coefficients-and-standardized-uptake-values-in-hybrid-18-f-fdg-pet-mr-preliminary-results-in-rectal-cancer
#13
Ju Hye Jeong, Ihn Ho Cho, Kyung Ah Chun, Eun Jung Kong, Sang Don Kwon, Jae Hwang Kim
PURPOSE: Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) share the same role in clinical oncology and it is feasible to obtain the standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) simultaneously by emerging the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). This study investigated the correlation between the ADCs of rectal cancer lesions and their SUVs derived from hybrid PET/MR...
June 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237441/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-tumors
#14
REVIEW
Pınar Özgen Kiratli, Murat Tuncel, Zvi Bar-Sever
Nuclear medicine has an important role in the management of many cancers in pediatric age group with multiple imaging modalities and radiopharmaceuticals targeting various biological uptake mechanisms. 18-Flourodeoxyglucose is the radiotracer of choice especially in patients with sarcoma and lymphoma. (18)FDG-PET, for sarcoma and lymphomas, is proved to be superior to conventional imaging in staging and therapy response. Although studies are limited in pediatric population, (18)FDG-PET/CT has found its way through international guidelines...
July 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222021/update-on-advances-in-molecular-pet-in-urological-oncology
#15
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Shingo Yamamoto, Kazuhito Fukushima, Ryogo Minamimoto, Takao Kamai, Hossein Jadvar
Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) has emerged as a powerful tool for the combined metabolic and anatomic evaluation of many cancers. In urological oncology, however, the use of (18)F-FDG has been limited by a generally low tumor uptake, and physiological excretion of FDG through the urinary system. (18)F-FDG PET/CT is useful when applied to specific indications in selected patients with urological malignancy. New radiotracers and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) are expected to further improve the performance of PET in uro-oncology...
July 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222020/present-and-future-roles-of-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-the-management-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#16
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Hiroshi Doi, Kozo Kuribayashi
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) integrated with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) has emerged as a powerful tool for combined metabolic and anatomic evaluations in clinical oncologic imaging. This review discusses the utility of (18)F-FDG PET/CT as a tool to manage patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. We discuss different stages of patient management in malignant pleural mesothelioma, including diagnosis, initial staging, therapy planning, early treatment response assessment, re-staging, and prognosis...
August 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208064/current-and-emerging-clinical-applications-of-multispectral-optoacoustic-tomography-msot-in-oncology
#17
REVIEW
Lacey R McNally, Megan Mezera, Desiree E Morgan, Peter J Frederick, Eddy S Yang, Isam-Eldin Eltoum, William E Grizzle
Accurate detection and characterization of cancers are key for providing timely intervention and effective treatments. Current imaging technologies are particularly limited when it comes to detecting very small tumors in vivo, i.e., very early cancers or metastases, differentiating viable tumor from surrounding dead tumor tissue, and evaluating tumor metabolism within tissue. Optoacoustic imaging offers potential solutions to these imaging problems because of its ability to image optical absorption properties of both intrinsic tissue chromophores and exogenous contrast agents without the involvement of ionizing radiation...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121156/present-and-future-roles-of-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-the-management-of-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Hiroshi Doi, Tomonori Kanda, Tomohiko Yamane, Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Hayato Kaida, Yukihisa Tamaki, Kozo Kuribayashi
Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) has emerged as a powerful tool for combined metabolic and anatomic evaluation in clinical oncologic imaging. This review discusses the utility of (18)F-FDG PET/CT as a tool for managing patients with lung cancer. We discuss different patient management stages, including diagnosis, initial staging, therapy planning, early treatment response assessment, re-staging, and prognosis.
June 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853158/targeting-arachidonic-acid-pathway-by-natural-products-for-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#19
Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi, Pallu Reddanna, Arunasree M Kalle, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Kaladhar S V G K Dowluru, Ramakrishna Chintala, Govinda Rao Duddukuri
Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A2s (PLA2s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles...
February 4, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848559/hyperpolarization-mri-preclinical-models-and-potential-applications-in-neuroradiology
#20
REVIEW
Vesselin Z Miloushev, Kayvan R Keshari, Andrei I Holodny
Hyperpolarization is a novel technology that can dramatically increase signal to noise in magnetic resonance. The method is being applied to small injectable endogenous molecules, which can be used to monitor transient in vivo metabolic events, in real time. The emergence of hyperpolarized C-labeled probes, specifically C pyruvate, has enabled monitoring of core cellular metabolic events. Neuro-oncological applications have been demonstrated in preclinical models. Many more applications of this technology are envisioned, with transformative potential in magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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