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oncologic metabolic emergencies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130149/is-lipidomic-the-answer-to-the-search-of-a-biomarker-for-organ-preservation-protocol-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Ana Carolina Laus, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro da Silva, Fernanda Bertuccez Cordeiro, Edson Guimarães Lo Turco, Luciano de Souza Viana, André Lopes Carvalho
In the last decade organ preservation protocols based on chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been showing the possibility of preserving function without jeopardizing survival for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Still, only a percentage of the patients will benefit from this approach and, to date, no biomarkers are known to correctly predict these patients. More recently, modern mass spectrometry method has been used to determine metabolic profiles, and lipidomics, in particular, emerged as a new field of study in oncology and other diseases...
November 13, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130003/spontaneous-tumor-lysis-syndrome-due-to-uterine-leiomyosarcoma-with-lung-metastases
#2
Vivek Alaigh, Debapriya Datta
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency characterized by a combination of metabolic derangements (hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia) caused by rapid turnover from cell destruction in certain cancers. These metabolic derangements can lead to seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, renal failure, and death. TLS is usually seen after the initiation of chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. TLS occurring spontaneously, without initiation of chemotherapy, is rare and its occurrence in solid tumors is rarer still...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097931/uptake-of-18-f-fet-and-18-f-fch-in-human-glioblastoma-t98g-cell-line-after-irradiation-with-photons-or-carbon-ions
#3
Francesca Pasi, Marco Giovanni Persico, Federica Eleonora Buroni, Carlo Aprile, Marina Hodolic, Franco Corbella, Rosanna Nano, Angelica Facoetti, Lorenzo Lodola
The differential diagnosis between recurrence of gliomas or brain metastases and this phenomenon is important in order to choose the best therapy and predict the prognosis but is still a big problem for physicians. The new emerging MRI, CT, and PET diagnostic modalities still lack sufficient accuracy. Radiolabeled choline and amino acids have been reported to show great tumor specificity. We studied the uptake kinetics of [(18)F]fluoromethyl-choline (FCH) and O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) by the T98G human glioblastoma cells from 20 to 120 min after irradiation either with photons at 2-10-20 Gy or with carbon ions at 2 Gy (at the National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO), Pavia, Italy)...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078931/oncologic-metabolic-emergencies
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Wagner, Sanjay Arora
Cancer and its therapies may lead to several metabolic emergencies that emergency providers (EPs) should be well-versed in identifying and managing. With prompt recognition and treatment initiation in the emergency department, lives can be saved and quality of life maintained. Most oncologic metabolic emergencies occur in advanced cancer states, but some follow initiation of treatment or may be the presenting syndrome that leads to the cancer diagnosis. This article reviews the 2 most emergent oncologic metabolic diagnoses: tumor lysis syndrome and hypercalcemia of malignancy...
December 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022502/pathophysiological-role-of-mitochondrial-potassium-channels-and-their-modulation-by-drugs
#5
Valentina Citi, Vincenzo Calderone, Alma Martelli, Maria Cristina Breschi, Lara Testai
Mitochondria play a central role in ATP-generating processes. Indeed, in mammalian tissues, up to 90% of ATP is generated by mitochondria through the process of oxidative phosphorylation; furthermore, mitochondria are involved in multiple signal transduction pathways. A rapidly expanding body of literature has confirmed that mitochondria play a pivotal role in apoptosis, cardio- and neuro-protection, and various neurodegenerative disorders, ranging from Parkinson's to Alzheimer's disease. It is evident that mitochondria are also the targets of multiple drugs; some of these are exactly designed to influence mitochondrial function, while others have primary targets in other cellular locations but may interact with mitochondria because of the presence of numerous targets on this organelle...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939071/intraindividual-homogeneity-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-parameters-in-hpv-positive-opscc
#6
Shachi Jenny Sharma, Claus Wittekindt, Jennifer Knuth, Dagmar Steiner, Nora Wuerdemann, Maren Laur, Tobias Kroll, Steffen Wagner, Jens Peter Klussmann
OBJECTIVES: (18)F-FDG PET/CT is widely used in clinical oncology. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) represents an emerging disease that differs from HPV-negative OPSCC in clinical behavior and tumour biology. In these tumours, HPV-oncogenes might lead to distinct alterations in metabolic pathways. Therefore, we compared metabolic parameters using (18)F-FDG PET/CT in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC in relation to histopathological findings...
October 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929002/spontaneous-tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-a-dedifferentiated-endometrial-adenocarcinoma
#7
Shinichi Harada, Keiki Nagaharu, Youichirou Baba, Tetsuya Murata, Toshiro Mizuno, Keiki Kawakami
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncological emergency caused by massive cytolysis of malignant cells. This syndrome eventually induces metabolic abnormalities. TLS is observed mainly among tumors with rapid cell proliferation or high sensitivity to antineoplastic treatment. In rare cases, TLS occurs without any cytotoxic treatment. Previous reports have shown that alternative stress including proceeding infection or an operation might play a role in TLS. However, exact mechanism of spontaneous TLS remains unknown...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754000/the-role-of-tumor-microenvironment-in-chemoresistance-to-survive-keep-your-enemies-closer
#8
REVIEW
Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Hendrina Shipanga, Daniella Munro, Mohammad A M Al Mazeedi, Hashim A M Almazyadi, Karlien Kallmeyer, Collet Dandara, Michael S Pepper, M Iqbal Parker, Kevin Dzobo
Chemoresistance is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer and it continues to be a challenge in cancer treatment. Chemoresistance is influenced by genetic and epigenetic alterations which affect drug uptake, metabolism and export of drugs at the cellular levels. While most research has focused on tumor cell autonomous mechanisms of chemoresistance, the tumor microenvironment has emerged as a key player in the development of chemoresistance and in malignant progression, thereby influencing the development of novel therapies in clinical oncology...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541512/the-interplay-between-metabolic-remodeling-and-immune-regulation-in-glioblastoma
#9
Pravin Kesarwani, Shiva Kant, Antony Prabhu, Prakash Chinnaiyan
The fields of tumor metabolism and immune oncology have both independently received considerable attention over the last several years. The majority of research in tumor metabolism has largely focused on the Warburg effect and its resulting biologic consequences, including energy and macromolecule production. However, recent investigations have identified elegant, multifaceted strategies by which alterations in tumor metabolism can also contribute to a potent tolerogenic immune environment. One of the most notable is increased tryptophan metabolism through activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO)...
October 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495639/safety-and-tolerability-of-the-first-in-class-agent-cpi-613-in-combination-with-modified-folfirinox-in-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-a-single-centre-open-label-dose-escalation-phase-1-trial
#10
Angela Alistar, Bonny B Morris, Rodwige Desnoyer, Heidi D Klepin, Keyanoosh Hosseinzadeh, Clancy Clark, Amy Cameron, John Leyendecker, Ralph D'Agostino, Umit Topaloglu, Lakmal W Boteju, Asela R Boteju, Rob Shorr, Zuzana Zachar, Paul M Bingham, Tamjeed Ahmed, Sandrine Crane, Riddhishkumar Shah, John J Migliano, Timothy S Pardee, Lance Miller, Gregory Hawkins, Guangxu Jin, Wei Zhang, Boris Pasche
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer statistics are dismal, with a 5-year survival of less than 10%, and more than 50% of patients presenting with metastatic disease. Metabolic reprogramming is an emerging hallmark of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CPI-613 is a novel anticancer agent that selectively targets the altered form of mitochondrial energy metabolism in tumour cells, causing changes in mitochondrial enzyme activities and redox status that lead to apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy of tumour cells...
June 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459041/advancing-cancer-therapy-with-present-and-emerging-immuno-oncology-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Jeff Kamta, Maher Chaar, Anusha Ande, Deborah A Altomare, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Immuno-oncology (I-O) is a young and growing field on the frontier of cancer therapy. Contrary to cancer therapies that directly target malignant cells, I-O therapies stimulate the body's immune system to target and attack the tumor, which is otherwise invisible to, or inhibiting the immune response. To this end, several methods have been developed: First, passive therapies that enable T-cells to fight the tumor without direct manipulation, typically through binding and modifying the intracellular signaling of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366810/a-nutritional-perspective-of-ketogenic-diet-in-cancer-a-narrative-review
#12
Camila L P Oliveira, Stephanie Mattingly, Ralf Schirrmacher, Michael B Sawyer, Eugene J Fine, Carla M Prado
The predominant use of glucose anaerobically by cancer cells (Warburg effect) may be the most important characteristic the majority of these cells have in common and, therefore, a potential metabolic pathway to be targeted during cancer treatment. Because this effect relates to fuel oxidation, dietary manipulation has been hypothesized as an important strategy during cancer treatment. As such, the concept of a ketogenic diet (KD) in cancer emerged as a metabolic therapy (ie, targeting cancer cell metabolism) rather than a dietary approach...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350329/harnessing-solute-carrier-transporters-for-precision-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Michael D Nyquist, Bhagwat Prasad, Elahe A Mostaghel
Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are a large superfamily of transmembrane carriers involved in the regulated transport of metabolites, nutrients, ions and drugs across cellular membranes. A subset of these solute carriers play a significant role in the cellular uptake of many cancer therapeutics, ranging from chemotherapeutics such as antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, platinum-based drugs and taxanes to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. SLC transporters are co-expressed in groups and patterns across normal tissues, suggesting they may comprise a coordinated regulatory circuit serving to mediate normal tissue functions...
March 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266268/p2x7-receptor-orchestrates-multiple-signalling-pathways-triggering-inflammation-autophagy-and-metabolic-trophic-responses
#14
REVIEW
Elisa Orioli, Elena De Marchi, Anna Lisa Giuliani, Elena Adinolfi
P2X7 receptor is an ion channel activated by extracellular adenosine trisphosphate (eATP) that attracted increasing attention for its role in immune reactions, neurobiology and oncology. As receptor for an extracellular ligand, P2X7 activates a series of intracellular signalling pathways mainly via alterations of the ion permeability, but also through formation of a large unselective pore and direct interaction with other proteins. Here we wish to give an overview on the main biochemical paths initiated by P2X7 activation by revising recent and established literature on P2X7-triggered signalling cascades leading to cell death, inflammatory and immune response activation, proliferation and metabolism modulation...
2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264138/structure-based-design-and-synthesis-of-harmine-derivatives-with-different-selectivity-profiles-in-kinase-versus-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition
#15
Balázs Bálint, Csaba Wéber, Francisco Cruzalegui, Mike Burbridge, Andras Kotschy
Dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is an emerging biological target with implications in diverse therapeutic areas such as neurological disorders (Down syndrome, in particular), metabolism, and oncology. Harmine, a natural product that selectively inhibits DYRK1A amongst kinases, could serve as a tool compound to better understand the biological processes that arise from DYRK1A inhibition. On the other hand, harmine is also a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A)...
June 21, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220805/meta-analysis-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
M Gacci, G I Russo, C De Nunzio, A Sebastianelli, M Salvi, L Vignozzi, A Tubaro, G Morgia, S Serni
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer (PCa) are highly prevalent conditions worldwide. Current evidence suggests the emerging hypothesis that MetS could play a role in the development and progression of several neoplasms. The aims of this study are to evaluate the impact of MetS and MetS factors on PCa incidence, on the risk of high-grade PCa and to analyze the role of MetS and single MetS components on the development of aggressive PCa features. METHODS: A systematic literature search and analysis on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Academic One File databases until September 2015 was performed by 2 independent reviewers to evaluate the associations between MetS and PCa incidence, and between MetS and high-grade PCa incidence (bioptical Gleason Score⩾8, Prognostic Group 4-5 according to the novel prostate cancer grading system)...
June 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080202/chemical-probes-targeting-epigenetic-proteins-applications-beyond-oncology
#17
REVIEW
Suzanne Ackloo, Peter J Brown, Susanne Müller
Epigenetic chemical probes are potent, cell-active, small molecule inhibitors or antagonists of specific domains in a protein; they have been indispensable for studying bromodomains and protein methyltransferases. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), comprising scientists from academic and pharmaceutical laboratories, has generated most of the current epigenetic chemical probes. Moreover, the SGC has shared about 4 thousand aliquots of these probes, which have been used primarily for phenotypic profiling or to validate targets in cell lines or primary patient samples cultured in vitro...
May 4, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897991/the-double-role-of-p53-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity-and-its-potential-as-therapeutic-target
#18
REVIEW
Alessandra Fierabracci, Marsha Pellegrino
p53 is a sequence-specific short-lived transcription factor expressed at low concentrations in various tissues while it is upregulated in damaged, tumoral or inflamed tissue. In normally proliferating cells, p53 protein levels and function are tightly controlled by main regulators, i.e., MDM2 (mouse double minute 2) and MDM4 proteins. p53 plays an important role due to its ability to mediate tumor suppression. In addition to its importance as a tumor suppressor, p53 coordinates diverse cellular responses to stress and damage and plays an emerging role in various physiological processes, including fertility, cell metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, autophagy, cell adhesion, stem cell maintenance and development...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668600/-inhibiting-the-pro-tumor-and-transcription-factor-fact-mechanisms
#19
N V Maluchenko, H W Chang, M T Kozinova, M E Valieva, N S Gerasimova, A V Kitashov, M P Kirpichnikov, P G Georgiev, V M Studitsky
Conventional antitumor therapy is often complicated by the emergence of the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are characterized by low metabolic rates and high resistance to almost all existing therapies. Many problems of clinical oncology and a poor efficacy of current treatments in particular are ascribed to CSCs. Therefore, it is important to develop new compounds capable of eliminating both rapidly proliferating tumor cells and standard treatment-resistant CSCs. Curaxins have been demonstrated to manifest various types of antitumor activity...
July 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624499/an-overview-of-pet-mr-focused-on-clinical-applications
#20
REVIEW
Onofrio Antonio Catalano, William Roger Masch, Ciprian Catana, Umar Mahmood, Dushyant Vasudeo Sahani, Michael Stanley Gee, Leon Menezes, Andrea Soricelli, Marco Salvatore, Debra Gervais, Bruce Robert Rosen
Hybrid PET/MR scanners are innovative imaging devices that simultaneously or sequentially acquire and fuse anatomical and functional data from magnetic resonance (MR) with metabolic information from positron emission tomography (PET) (Delso et al. in J Nucl Med 52:1914-1922, 2011; Zaidi et al. in Phys Med Biol 56:3091-3106, 2011). Hybrid PET/MR scanners have the potential to greatly impact not only on medical research but also, and more importantly, on patient management. Although their clinical applications are still under investigation, the increased worldwide availability of PET/MR scanners, and the growing published literature are important determinants in their rising utilization for primarily clinical applications...
February 2017: Abdominal Radiology
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