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Pupil and reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733957/disentangling-reward-anticipation-with-simultaneous-pupillometry-fmri
#1
Max Schneider, Laura Leuchs, Michael Czisch, Philipp G Sämann, Victor I Spoormaker
The reward system may provide an interesting intermediate phenotype for anhedonia in affective disorders. Reward anticipation is characterized by an increase in arousal, and previous studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to arousal responses such as dilation of the pupil. Here, we examined pupil dynamics during a reward anticipation task in forty-six healthy human subjects and evaluated its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pupil size showed a strong increase during monetary reward anticipation, a moderate increase during verbal reward anticipation and a decrease during control trials...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709582/differential-effects-of-sustained-and-transient-effort-triggered-by-reward-a-combined-eeg-and-pupillometry-study
#2
Mariam Kostandyan, Klaas Bombeke, Thomas Carsten, Ruth M Krebs, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
In instrumental task contexts, incentive manipulations such as posting reward on successful performance usually trigger increased effort, which is signified by effort markers like increased pupil size. Yet, it is not fully clear under which circumstances incentives really promote performance, and which role effort plays therein. In the present study, we compared two schemes of associating reward with a Flanker task, while simultaneously acquiring electroencephalography (EEG) and pupillometry data in order to explore the contribution of effort-related processes...
April 28, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695987/physiological-measures-of-dopaminergic-and-noradrenergic-activity-during-attentional-set-shifting-and-reversal
#3
Péter Pajkossy, Ágnes Szőllősi, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány
Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) are important neurotransmitters, which are suggested to play a vital role in modulating the neural circuitry involved in the executive control of cognition. One way to investigate the functions of these neurotransmitter systems is to assess physiological indices of DA and NA transmission. Here we examined how variations of spontaneous eye-blink rate and pupil size, as indirect measures of DA and NA activity, respectively, are related to performance in a hallmark aspect of executive control: attentional set shifting...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601889/sleep-deprivation-increases-the-costs-of-attentional-effort-performance-preference-and-pupil-size
#4
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Sleep deprivation (SD) consistently degrades performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, resulting in slower and more variable response times that worsen with time-on-task. Loss of motivation to exert effort may exacerbate performance degradation during SD. To test this, we evaluated sustained performance on a vigilance task, combining this with an effort-based decision-making task and pupillometry. Vigilance was tested at rest and after sleep deprivation, under different incentive conditions (1, 5 or 15 cents for fast responses)...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247487/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-as-pacemaker-of-attention-a-developmental-mechanism-of-derailed-attentional-function-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Nico Bast, Luise Poustka, Christine M Freitag
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit diminished visual engagement to environmental stimuli. Aberrant attentional function provides an explanation by reduced phasic alerting and orienting to exogenous stimuli. We review aberrant attentional function (alerting, orienting and attentional control) in children with ASD as studied by neurocognitive and neurophysiological tasks as well as magnetic resonance imaging studies. The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is outlined as a pacemaker of attentional function...
January 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107773/midfrontal-theta-and-pupil-dilation-parametrically-track-subjective-conflict-but-also-surprise-during-intertemporal-choice
#6
Hause Lin, Blair Saunders, Cendri A Hutcherson, Michael Inzlicht
Many everyday choices are based on personal, subjective preferences. When choosing between two options, we often feel conflicted, especially when trading off costs and benefits occurring at different times (e.g., saving for later versus spending now). Although previous work has investigated the neurophysiological basis of conflict during inhibitory control tasks, less is known about subjective conflict resulting from competing subjective preferences. In this pre-registered study, we investigated subjective conflict during intertemporal choice, whereby participants chose between smaller immediate versus larger delayed rewards (e...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992268/propranolol-reduces-reference-dependence-in-intertemporal-choice
#7
Karolina M Lempert, Sandra F Lackovic, Russell H Tobe, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961277/individual-differences-in-eye-blink-rate-predict-both-transient-and-tonic-pupil-responses-during-reversal-learning
#8
Joanne C Van Slooten, Sara Jahfari, Tomas Knapen, Jan Theeuwes
The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil responses are modulated by reward and loss while participants (N = 30) performed a Pavlovian reversal learning task. In fast (transient) pupil responses, we observed arousal-based influences on pupil size both during the expectation of upcoming value and the evaluation of unexpected monetary outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755458/tonic-noradrenergic-activity-modulates-explorative-behavior-and-attentional-set-shifting-evidence-from-pupillometry-and-gaze-pattern-analysis
#9
Péter Pajkossy, Ágnes Szőllősi, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány
A constant task for every living organism is to decide whether to exploit rewards associated with current behavior or to explore the environment for more rewarding options. Current empirical evidence indicates that exploitation is related to phasic whereas exploration is related to tonic firing mode of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. In humans, this exploration-exploitation trade-off is subserved by the ability to flexibly switch attention between task-related and task-irrelevant information. Here, we investigated whether this function, called attentional set shifting, is related to exploration and tonic noradrenergic discharge...
July 29, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733248/pupil-dilations-induced-by-barely-conscious-reward-goal-priming
#10
Yudai Takarada, Daichi Nozaki
The topic of unconscious influences on behavior has long been explored as a way of understanding human performance and the neurobiological correlates of intention, motivation and action. Previous research using transcranial magnetic stimulation has demonstrated that barely visible priming of an action concept, when combined with reward in the form of a consciously perceived positive stimulus, can alter the state of the motor system and enhance the maximal voluntary force level. One possible explanation is that positive stimulus-induced reward signals are processed by the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia, motivating individuals to increase the effort they invest in particular behaviors, or to recruit the resources necessary for maintaining those behaviors...
August 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882927/global-gain-modulation-generates-time-dependent-urgency-during-perceptual-choice-in-humans
#11
Peter R Murphy, Evert Boonstra, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Decision-makers must often balance the desire to accumulate information with the costs of protracted deliberation. Optimal, reward-maximizing decision-making can require dynamic adjustment of this speed/accuracy trade-off over the course of a single decision. However, it is unclear whether humans are capable of such time-dependent adjustments. Here, we identify several signatures of time-dependency in human perceptual decision-making and highlight their possible neural source. Behavioural and model-based analyses reveal that subjects respond to deadline-induced speed pressure by lowering their criterion on accumulated perceptual evidence as the deadline approaches...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807173/correlation-between-pupil-size-and-subjective-passage-of-time-in-non-human-primates
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tomoki W Suzuki, Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
Our daily experience of time is strongly influenced by internal states, such as arousal, attention, and mood. However, the underlying neuronal mechanism remains largely unknown. To investigate this, we recorded pupil diameter, which is closely linked to internal factors and neuromodulatory signaling, in monkeys performing the oculomotor version of the time production paradigm. In the self-timed saccade task, animals were required to make a memory-guided saccade during a predetermined time interval following a visual cue...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571023/-shifts-in-attention-during-mental-fatigue-evidence-from-subjective-behavioral-physiological-and-eye-tracking-data-correction-to-hopstaken-et-al-2016
#13
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Shifts in attention during mental fatigue: Evidence from subjective, behavioral, physiological, and eye-tracking data" by Jesper F. Hopstaken, Dimitri van der Linden, Arnold B. Bakker, Michiel A. J. Kompier and Yik Kiu Leung ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance , 2016[Jun], Vol 42[6], 878-889). In the article, there were formatting errors in columns 1 through 8 of Table 2. The correct table is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-01220-001...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545409/incentives-and-children-s-dietary-choices-a-field-experiment-in-primary-schools
#14
Michèle Belot, Jonathan James, Patrick Nolen
We conduct a field experiment in 31 primary schools in England to test the effectiveness of different temporary incentives on increasing choice and consumption of fruit and vegetables at lunchtime. In each treatment, pupils received a sticker for choosing a fruit or vegetable at lunch. They were eligible for an additional reward at the end of the week depending on the number of stickers accumulated, either individually (individual scheme) or in comparison to others (competition). Overall, we find no significant effect of the individual scheme, but positive effects of competition...
December 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498294/rewards-boost-sustained-attention-through-higher-effort-a-value-based-decision-making-approach
#15
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Maintaining sustained attention over time is an effortful process limited by finite cognitive resources. Recent theories describe the role of motivation in the allocation of such resources as a decision process: the costs of effortful performance are weighed against its gains. We examined this hypothesis by combining methods from attention research and decision neuroscience. Participants first performed a sustained attention task at different levels of reward. They then performed a reward-discounting task, measuring the subjective costs of performance...
October 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26882337/emotional-arousal-predicts-intertemporal-choice
#16
Karolina M Lempert, Eli Johnson, Elizabeth A Phelps
People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it...
August 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26874940/human-ventromedial-prefrontal-lesions-alter-incentivisation-by-reward
#17
Sanjay G Manohar, Masud Husain
Although medial frontal brain regions are implicated in valuation of rewards, evidence from focal lesions to these areas is scant, with many conflicting results regarding motivation and affect, and no human studies specifically examining incentivisation by reward. Here, 19 patients with isolated, focal damage in ventral and medial prefrontal cortex were selected from a database of 453 individuals with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using a speeded saccadic task based on the oculomotor capture paradigm, we manipulated the maximum reward available on each trial using an auditory incentive cue...
March 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26540448/children-teach-methods-they-could-not-discover-for-themselves
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Samuel Ronfard, Alexandra M Was, Paul L Harris
Across three studies (N=100), we explored whether and, if so, under what circumstances children's self-discovered knowledge impacts their transmission of taught information. All participants were taught one of several methods for extracting rewards from a box. Half of the participants were also given an opportunity to discover their own method prior to receiving such instruction. Across studies, we varied the transparency of the taught method relative to the method children could discover on their own. When asked to teach a naive pupil about the box, children who did not explore the box always transmitted what they were taught...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26493339/threats-rewards-and-attention-deployment-in-anxious-youth-and-adults-an-eye-tracking-study
#19
Tomer Shechner, Johanna M Jarcho, Stuart Wong, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Eric E Nelson
The current study examines anxiety and age associations with attention allocation and physiological response to threats and rewards. Twenty-two healthy-adults, 20 anxious-adults, 26 healthy-youth, and 19 anxious-youth completed two eye-tracking tasks. In the Visual Scene Task (VST), participants' fixations were recorded while they viewed a central neutral image flanked by two threatening or two rewarding stimuli. In the Negative Words Task (NWT), physiological response was measured by means of pupil diameter change while negative and neutral words were presented...
January 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26312893/mechanisms-underlying-apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Kinan Muhammed, Sanjay Manohar, Masud Husain
BACKGROUND: Apathy is a common syndrome observed in many neurological conditions, including in up to 70% of patients with Parkinson's disease. Mechanisms underlying apathy are poorly understood and clinically we lack robust, objective detection methods. We aimed to address this using novel objective measures of motivation and reward sensitivity in relation to apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Saccadic velocity and pupil modulation by reward were used as objective metrics of motivation in patients with Parkinson's disease...
February 26, 2015: Lancet
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