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Pupil and reward

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Reports an error in "Shifts in attention during mental fatigue: Evidence from subjective, behavioral, physiological, and eye-tracking data" by Jesper F. Hopstaken, Dimitri van der Linden, Arnold B. Bakker, Michiel A. J. Kompier and Yik Kiu Leung (, 2016[Jun], Vol 42[6], 878-889). In the article, there were formatting errors in columns 1 through 8 of Table 2. The correct table is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) There is an increasing amount of evidence that during mental fatigue, shifts in motivation drive performance rather than reductions in finite mental energy...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Michèle Belot, Jonathan James, Patrick Nolen
We conduct a field experiment in 31 primary schools in England to test the effectiveness of different temporary incentives on increasing choice and consumption of fruit and vegetables at lunchtime. In each treatment, pupils received a sticker for choosing a fruit or vegetable at lunch. They were eligible for an additional reward at the end of the week depending on the number of stickers accumulated, either individually (individual scheme) or in comparison to others (competition). Overall, we find no significant effect of the individual scheme, but positive effects of competition...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Maintaining sustained attention over time is an effortful process limited by finite cognitive resources. Recent theories describe the role of motivation in the allocation of such resources as a decision process: the costs of effortful performance are weighed against its gains. We examined this hypothesis by combining methods from attention research and decision neuroscience. Participants first performed a sustained attention task at different levels of reward. They then performed a reward-discounting task, measuring the subjective costs of performance...
October 2016: Biological Psychology
Karolina M Lempert, Eli Johnson, Elizabeth A Phelps
People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it...
August 2016: Emotion
Sanjay G Manohar, Masud Husain
Although medial frontal brain regions are implicated in valuation of rewards, evidence from focal lesions to these areas is scant, with many conflicting results regarding motivation and affect, and no human studies specifically examining incentivisation by reward. Here, 19 patients with isolated, focal damage in ventral and medial prefrontal cortex were selected from a database of 453 individuals with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using a speeded saccadic task based on the oculomotor capture paradigm, we manipulated the maximum reward available on each trial using an auditory incentive cue...
March 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Samuel Ronfard, Alexandra M Was, Paul L Harris
Across three studies (N=100), we explored whether and, if so, under what circumstances children's self-discovered knowledge impacts their transmission of taught information. All participants were taught one of several methods for extracting rewards from a box. Half of the participants were also given an opportunity to discover their own method prior to receiving such instruction. Across studies, we varied the transparency of the taught method relative to the method children could discover on their own. When asked to teach a naive pupil about the box, children who did not explore the box always transmitted what they were taught...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Tomer Shechner, Johanna M Jarcho, Stuart Wong, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Eric E Nelson
The current study examines anxiety and age associations with attention allocation and physiological response to threats and rewards. Twenty-two healthy-adults, 20 anxious-adults, 26 healthy-youth, and 19 anxious-youth completed two eye-tracking tasks. In the Visual Scene Task (VST), participants' fixations were recorded while they viewed a central neutral image flanked by two threatening or two rewarding stimuli. In the Negative Words Task (NWT), physiological response was measured by means of pupil diameter change while negative and neutral words were presented...
October 19, 2015: Biological Psychology
Kinan Muhammed, Sanjay Manohar, Masud Husain
BACKGROUND: Apathy is a common syndrome observed in many neurological conditions, including in up to 70% of patients with Parkinson's disease. Mechanisms underlying apathy are poorly understood and clinically we lack robust, objective detection methods. We aimed to address this using novel objective measures of motivation and reward sensitivity in relation to apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Saccadic velocity and pupil modulation by reward were used as objective metrics of motivation in patients with Parkinson's disease...
February 26, 2015: Lancet
Mónika Gergelyfi, Benvenuto Jacob, Etienne Olivier, Alexandre Zénon
Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jesper F Hopstaken, Dimitri van der Linden, Arnold B Bakker, Michiel A J Kompier
Although mental fatigue is a complex, multi-facetted state that involves changes in motivation, cognition, and mood, one of its main characteristics is reduced task engagement. Despite its relevance for performance and safety, knowledge about the underlying neurocognitive processes in mental fatigue is still limited. Inspired by the idea that central norepinephrine plays an important role in regulating task engagement, we test a set of predictions that have been derived from recent studies that relate pupil dynamics to the levels of norepinephrine in the brain...
September 2015: Biological Psychology
Alexandre Zénon, Mariam Sidibé, Etienne Olivier
The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities...
June 10, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chiara Varazzani, Aurore San-Galli, Sophie Gilardeau, Sebastien Bouret
Motivation determines multiple aspects of behavior, including action selection and energization of behavior. Several components of the underlying neural systems have been examined closely, but the specific role of the different neuromodulatory systems in motivation remains unclear. Here, we compare directly the activity of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and noradrenergic neurons from the locus coeruleus in monkeys performing a task manipulating the reward/effort trade-off. Consistent with previous reports, dopaminergic neurons encoded the expected reward, but we found that they also anticipated the upcoming effort cost in connection with its negative influence on action selection...
May 20, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Valentyna Erstenyuk, Meghan R Swanson, Michael Siller
Measures of pupillary dilation provide a temporally sensitive, quantitative indicator of cognitive resource allocation. The current study included 39 typically developing children between 3 and 9 years of age. Children completed a free-viewing task designed to elicit gaze following, a core deficit of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Results revealed a negative association between children's pupil dilation and a standardized measure of nonverbal intelligence, suggesting that children with lower intelligence allocated more cognitive resources than children with higher intelligence...
June 1, 2014: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Karolina M Lempert, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
Many decisions involve weighing immediate gratification against future consequences. In such intertemporal choices, people often choose smaller, immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. It has been proposed that emotional responses to immediate rewards lead us to choose them at our long-term expense. Here we utilize an objective measure of emotional arousal-pupil dilation-to examine the role of emotion in these decisions. We show that emotional arousal responses, as well as choices, in intertemporal choice tasks are reference-dependent and reflect the decision-maker's recent history of offers...
April 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Jesper F Hopstaken, Dimitri van der Linden, Arnold B Bakker, Michiel A J Kompier
Mental fatigue is often characterized by reduced motivation for effortful activity and impaired task performance. We used subjective, behavioral (performance), and psychophysiological (P3, pupil diameter) measures during an n-back task to investigate the link between mental fatigue and task disengagement. After 2 h, we manipulated the rewards to examine a possible reengagement effect. Analyses showed that, with increasing fatigue and time-on-task, performance, P3 amplitude, and pupil diameter decreased. After increasing the rewards, all measures reverted to higher levels...
March 2015: Psychophysiology
Alexandre Zénon, Mariam Sidibé, Etienne Olivier
It has long been established that the pupil diameter increases during mental activities in proportion to the difficulty of the task at hand. However, it is still unclear whether this relationship between the pupil size and effort applies also to physical effort. In order to address this issue, we asked healthy volunteers to perform a power grip task, at varied intensity, while evaluating their effort both implicitly and explicitly, and while concurrently monitoring their pupil size. Each trial started with a contraction of imposed intensity, under the control of a continuous visual feedback...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
C T McEvoy, J Lawton, F Kee, I S Young, J V Woodside, J McBratney, M C McKinley
Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower socioeconomic areas within Northern Ireland and involved 90 pupils aged 11-12 years (54 girls, 36 boys). Our findings indicated a high degree of acceptability for a reward scheme but there was major diversity in the type of rewards valued by pupils, largely defined by geographical area and socio-cultural differences...
October 2014: Health Education Research
R Becket Ebitz, John M Pearson, Michael L Platt
Complex natural environments favor the dynamic alignment of neural processing between goal-relevant stimuli and conflicting but biologically salient stimuli like social competitors or predators. The biological mechanisms that regulate dynamic changes in vigilance have not been fully elucidated. Arousal systems that ready the body to respond adaptively to threat may contribute to dynamic regulation of vigilance. Under conditions of constant luminance, pupil diameter provides a peripheral index of arousal state...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Peter H Rudebeck, Philip T Putnam, Teresa E Daniels, Tianming Yang, Andrew R Mitz, Sarah E V Rhodes, Elisabeth A Murray
The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (subgenual ACC) plays an important role in regulating emotion, and degeneration in this area correlates with depressed mood and anhedonia. Despite this understanding, it remains unknown how this part of the prefrontal cortex causally contributes to emotion, especially positive emotions. Using Pavlovian conditioning procedures in macaque monkeys, we examined the contribution of the subgenual ACC to autonomic arousal associated with positive emotional events. After such conditioning, autonomic arousal increases in response to cues that predict rewards, and monkeys maintain this heightened state of arousal during an interval before reward delivery...
April 8, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xing Zhou, Rao-Sheng Chen, De-Ren Zheng, Jian-Ren Li, Xiao-Bo Cheng, Jian-Qiu Ao, He-Xing Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new mode of health education in schools. METHODS: In the Zhaiqian Primary School, Yanrui Town, Yushan County in a hilly schistosomiasis endemic area, a new mode of health education intervention, i. e. "rewards and punishment + advise others by using one's experience + teachers' participation" was carried out, and the knowledge, attitude and practice of schistosomiasis prevention of the pupils, and the schistosome infection rates of the pupils were investigated and the results were analyzed and compared before and after the intervention...
December 2013: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
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