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Drugs on Dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777723/effect-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-donepezil-and-rivastigmine-on-the-activity-and-expression-of-cyclooxygenases-in-a-model-of-the-inflammatory-action-of-fluoride-on-macrophages-obtained-from-thp-1-monocytes
#1
Marta Goschorska, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Izabela Gutowska, Maciej Tarnowski, Katarzyna Piotrowska, Emilia Metryka, Krzysztof Safranow, Dariusz Chlubek
Inflammation is an important factor in the development of many diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. ‪Given that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are also currently believed to have anti-inflammatory properties, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil) on cyclooxygenase activity and expression using the proinflammatory action of fluoride (F- ) on cultured macrophages obtained from THP-1 monocytes...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777097/gwas-on-family-history-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Riccardo E Marioni, Sarah E Harris, Qian Zhang, Allan F McRae, Saskia P Hagenaars, W David Hill, Gail Davies, Craig W Ritchie, Catharine R Gale, John M Starr, Alison M Goate, David J Porteous, Jian Yang, Kathryn L Evans, Ian J Deary, Naomi R Wray, Peter M Visscher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a public health priority for the 21st century. Risk reduction currently revolves around lifestyle changes with much research trying to elucidate the biological underpinnings. We show that self-report of parental history of Alzheimer's dementia for case ascertainment in a genome-wide association study of 314,278 participants from UK Biobank (27,696 maternal cases, 14,338 paternal cases) is a valid proxy for an AD genetic study. After meta-analysing with published consortium data (n = 74,046 with 25,580 cases across the discovery and replication analyses), three new AD-associated loci (P < 5 × 10-8 ) are identified...
May 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772021/analysis-of-risk-factors-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-word-list-memory-test-results-and-questionnaire-responses-in-healthy-japanese-individuals-registered-in-an-online-database
#3
Masayo Ogawa, Daichi Sone, Kazushi Maruo, Hiroyuki Shimada, Keisuke Suzuki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Matsuda, Hidehiro Mizusawa
Although the development of effective therapeutic drugs and radical treatment options for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains urgent, progress in recent clinical trials of AD drugs has been less than adequate. In order to advance the progress of clinical trials, it is necessary to establish more efficient methods of recruitment. In Japan, there are registration systems stratified by mild cognitive impairment and preclinical and clinical stages of early and advanced stage dementia, but there is no registration system for healthy individuals yet...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770579/cholinesterase-targeting-by-polyphenols-a-therapeutic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Nasimudeen R Jabir, Fayaz Rahman Khan, Shams Tabrez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by excessive deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), comprising of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. The cholinergic system has been suggested as the earliest and most affected molecular mechanism that describes AD pathophysiology. Moreover, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the potential class of drugs that can amplify cholinergic activity to improve cognition and global performance and reduce psychiatric and behavioral disturbances...
May 16, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769783/trichotillomania-ranging-from-ritual-to-illness-and-as-a-rare-clinical-manifestation-of-frontotemporal-dementia-review-of-literature-and-case-report
#5
Thomas Gregor Issac, Ashay Vivek Telang, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia in the younger age group and often exists with comorbid obsessions and compulsions in up to 80% of the patients. Trichotillomania or compulsive "hair-pulling" disorder is a rare manifestation of FTD and is a poorly evaluated symptom in this condition. The release of "grooming functions" due to frontal disinhibition is often attributed to the evolutionary perspective; however, recent findings also implicate the role of neurotransmitter dysfunction...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763806/a-review-on-flavonoid-based-scaffolds-as-multi-target-directed-ligands-mtdls-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Leili Jalili-Baleh, Elaheh Babaei, Shahin Abdpour, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Alireza Foroumadi, Ali Ramazani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mehdi Khoobi
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. The target enzymes inhibition including cholinesterase, beta-secretase, monoamine oxidase and inhibition of amyloid-β aggregation as well as oxidative stress and metal chelation play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Chroman-4-one scaffold with benzo-γ-pyrone network is a privileged structure in organic synthesis and drug design. A large number of research has been carried out on modified naturally occurring chromanone scaffolds and/or synthesized new analogues, to obtain effective drugs for AD management...
May 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755923/epigenetic-alterations-impact-on-antipsychotic-treatment-in-elderly-patients
#7
Bryan M McClarty, Daniel W Fisher, Hongxin Dong
Purpose of the review: Antipsychotics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of psychosis as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in elderly patients. However, elderly patients often experience decreased antipsychotic efficacy and increased side effects, though the mechanisms underlying these changes with age are not clear. Recent findings: Although aging can affect drug metabolism and clearance through changes in renal and hepatic function, additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes due to aging-induced epigenetic alterations also impact processes important for antipsychotic function...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747139/prevalence-of-anxiety-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Chunli Chen, Zhiping Hu, Zheng Jiang, Fangfang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of anxiety in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) varied widely across studies and may confer a higher likelihood of progression to dementia. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety in MCI and identify reasons for heterogeneity in the reported results. METHODS: A computerized search in PubMed, EMBASE, and Psyc INFO for studies on anxiety in MCI was performed up to March 2017. The overall prevalence of anxiety in patients with MCI was pooled using a random-effects model...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738432/neuroimmunology-research-a-report-from-the-cuban-network-of-neuroimmunology
#9
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease&rsquo;s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur&rsquo;s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738272/fall-episodes-in-elderly-patients-with-asthma-and-copd-a-pilot-study
#10
Andrzej Bozek, Jerzy Jarzab, Ewa Hadas, Marek Jakalski, Giorgio Walter Canonica
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of an increased risk of falls in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists; however, this has not been studied in elderly asthmatic patients. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of falls in elderly patients who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma compared to subjects with COPD. METHODS: A 12 - month prospective observational study in elderly outpatients with diagnosis of either asthma or COPD was conducted...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736156/safety-and-efficacy-of-anti-dementia-agents-in-the-extremely-elderly-patients-with-dementia
#11
Eun-Ye Lim, Dong-Won Yang, Jung-Seok Kim, A-Hyun Cho
Background: There are debates on representation and generalizability of previous randomized controlled trials about anti-dementia agents in the oldest old population. In this context, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of anti-dementia agents in the very elderly patients with dementia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with dementia 1) who were 85 years or older, 2) got started anti-dementia agents, and 3) went through follow-up evaluation about one year thereafter...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734664/blood-ammonia-as-a-possible-etiological-agent-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Yan Yan Jin, Parul Singh, Hea-Jong Chung, Seong-Tschool Hong
Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD), characterized by cognitive decline and devastating neurodegeneration, is the most common age-related dementia. Since AD is a typical example of a complex disease that is affected by various genetic and environmental factors, various factors could be involved in preventing and/or treating AD. Extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (A&beta;) and intracellular accumulation of tau undeniably play essential roles in the etiology of AD. However, interestingly enough, medications targeting A&beta; or tau all failed and the only clinically efficient medications for AD are drugs targeting the cholinergic pathway...
May 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734182/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-and-memantine-in-treating-the-cognitive-symptoms-of-dementia
#13
Ruth Knight, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicholas Magill, Robert Stewart, Sabine Landau
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are commonly used in the management of dementia. In routine clinical practice, dementia is often monitored via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of these drugs on MMSE scores. SUMMARY: Eighty trials were identified. Pooled effect estimates were in favour of both AChEIs and memantine at 6 months. Meta-regression indicated that dementia subtype was a moderator of AChEI treatment effect, with the effect of treatment versus control twice as high for patients with Parkinson disease dementia/ dementia with Lewy bodies (2...
May 7, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729025/anticholinergic-medications-in-patients-admitted-with-cognitive-impairment-or-falls-amici-the-impact-of-hospital-admission-on-anticholinergic-cognitive-medication-burden-results-of-a-multicentre-observational-study
#14
I Weichert, R Romero-Ortuno, J Tolonen, T Soe, C Lebus, S Choudhury, C V Nadarajah, P Nanayakkara, M Orrù, S Di Somma
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drugs with anticholinergic properties increase the risk of falls, delirium, chronic cognitive impairment, and mortality and counteract procholinergic medications used in the treatment of dementia. Medication review and optimisation to reduce anticholinergic burden in patients at risk is recommended by specialist bodies. Little is known how effective this review is in patients who present acutely and how often drugs with anticholinergic properties are used temporarily during an admission...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727467/pharmacological-interventions-for-apathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Myuri T Ruthirakuhan, Nathan Herrmann, Eleenor H Abraham, Sarah Chan, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of apathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and its harmful effects, there are currently no therapies proven to treat this symptom. Recently, a number of pharmacological therapies have been investigated as potential treatments for apathy in AD. OBJECTIVES: Objective 1: To assess the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapies for the treatment of apathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD).Objective 2: To assess the effect on apathy of pharmacotherapies investigated for other primary outcomes in the treatment of AD...
May 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714994/issues-in-geriatric-care-alzheimer-disease
#16
Kathy Kemle, Richard J Ackermann
Alzheimer disease (AD) occurs in 8.8% of older US adults and is the sixth leading cause of death among older adults. Medicare annual wellness visits require screening for cognitive impairment but do not specify screening methods. Numerous screening instruments are available. If results are positive, evaluation with well-validated assessment tools is needed. If cognitive impairment is confirmed, laboratory tests and imaging studies should be obtained to rule out reversible etiologies. If patients meet diagnostic criteria for AD, clinicians should educate patients and families on the expected course and help them complete advance directives...
May 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713339/exercise-intervention-associated-with-cognitive-improvement-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Meng Ying Cui, Yang Lin, Ji Yao Sheng, Xuewen Zhang, Ran Ji Cui
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the syndrome of cognitive and functional decline. Pharmacotherapy has always been in a dominant position for the treatment of AD. However, in most cases, drug therapy is accompanied with clinical delays when older adults have suffered from cognitive decline in episodic memory, working memory, and executive function. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that exercise intervention may ameliorate the progression of cognitive impairment in aging ones while the standard strategy is lacking based on different levels of cognitive decline especially in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710726/effectiveness-of-anti-dementia-drugs-in-extremely-severe-alzheimer-s-disease-a-12-week-multicenter-randomized-single-blind-study
#18
Yun Jeong Hong, Seong Hye Choi, Jee Hyang Jeong, Kyung Won Park, Hae Ri Na
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is insufficient evidence to guide decisions concerning how long anti-dementia drug (ADD) regimens should be maintained in severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether patients with extremely severe AD who were already receiving donepezil or memantine benefited from continuing treatment. METHODS: In this randomized and rater-blinded trial, 65 AD patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination score from 0 to 5 and a score of 6c or worse on Functional Assessment Staging were randomly assigned to an ADD-continuation group (N = 30) or an ADD-discontinuation group (N = 35)...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702305/all-cause-mortality-in-older-adults-with-affective-disorders-and-dementia-under-treatment-with-antipsychotic-drugs-a-matched-cohort-study
#19
Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Augusto Ferraris, Agustín Rodriguez, Lucía Campos Cervera, Macarena Lopez Gonzalez, Federico Man, Federico Angriman, Diego Martino
We aimed to compare the mortality risk between patients with affective disorders and dementia under treatment with antipsychotics. To do this, a matched-cohort study based on an electronic database of a tertiary teaching hospital in Argentina was performed. Antipsychotic exposure was defined as any antipsychotic drug initiated by the patient. Primary outcome was defined as all-cause mortality during the 5-year follow-up period. To estimate the association between baseline diagnosis (affective disorders vs. dementia) and all-cause mortality, we used a multivariate generalized linear model with robust standard errors...
April 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697780/new-horizons-in-fall-prevention
#20
Stephen R Lord, Jacqueline C T Close
Falls pose a major threat to the well-being and quality of life of older people. Falls can result in fractures and other injuries, disability and fear and can trigger a decline in physical function and loss of autonomy. This article synthesises recent published findings on fall risk and mobility assessments and fall prevention interventions and considers how this field of research may evolve in the future. Fall risk topics include the utility of remote monitoring using wearable sensors and recent work investigating brain activation and gait adaptability...
April 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
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