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Drugs on Dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147963/inappropriate-anticholinergic-drugs-prescriptions-in-older-patients-analysing-a-hospital-database
#1
Laurie Ferret, Gregoire Ficheur, Emeline Delaviez, Michel Luyckx, Sophie Quenton, Regis Beuscart, Emmanuel Chazard, Jean-Baptiste Beuscart
Background Although many anticholinergics are inappropriate in older patients, the prescription of these drugs in a hospital setting has not been extensively studied. Objective To describe prescriptions of anticholinergic drugs in terms of frequency, at risk situations and constipation in hospitalized, older adults. Setting Using a database from a French general hospital (period 2009-2013), we extracted information on 14,090 hospital stays by patients aged 75 and over. Methods Anticholinergic drug prescriptions were automatically detected, with a focus on prescriptions in three well-known at-risk situations: falls, dementia, and benign prostatic hyperplasia...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145549/generational-differences-in-the-5-year-incidence-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Karen J Cruickshanks, David M Nondahl, Lauren J Johnson, Dayna S Dalton, Mary E Fisher, Guan-Hua Huang, Barbara E Klein, Ronald Klein, Carla R Schubert
Importance: Whether a reported decline in the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD) continued for people born during the Baby Boom years (1946-1964) or later is unknown. These data are important to plan for ocular health care needs in the 21st century. Objectives: To determine whether the 5-year risk for AMD declined by generation and to identify factors that contributed to improvement in risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data came from the longitudinal cohort Beaver Dam Eye Study (March 1, 1988, through September 15, 1990, and March 1, 1993, through June 15, 1995) and the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (June 8, 2005, through August 4, 2008, and July 12, 2010, through March 21, 2013)...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#3
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138876/lower-risk-of-dementia-with-pioglitazone-compared-with-other-second-line-treatments-in-metformin-based-dual-therapy-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#4
Chieh-Hsiang Lu, Chen-Yi Yang, Chung-Yi Li, Cheng-Yang Hsieh, Huang-Tz Ou
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The effect of pioglitazone was compared with that of other second-line glucose-lowering drugs on the risk of dementia among individuals with type 2 diabetes receiving metformin-based dual therapy. METHODS: A total of 204,323 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years who were stable metformin users and dementia-free before the initiation of second-line glucose-lowering medication were identified in the period 2000-2011 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and followed to the end of 2013...
November 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133699/referral-practice-reporting-standards-and-the-impact-of-dopamine-transporter-scans-done-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#5
Shakya Bhattacharjee, Albi J Chalissery, Tim Barry, Donagh O'Sullivan, Martin O'Connell, Timothy Lynch
AIMS: We studied the referral practice, reporting standards, and the impact of 123 ioflupane single photon emission computed tomogram dopamine transporters (DAT-SPECT) scans conducted for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The present study was a retrospective, non-interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the DAT scan referral and the official reports available from the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital over 1 year (2013)...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133497/comparative-associations-between-measures-of-anti-cholinergic-burden-and-adverse-clinical-outcomes
#6
Wen-Han Hsu, Yu-Wen Wen, Liang-Kung Chen, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
PURPOSE: No consensus has been reached regarding which anticholinergic scoring system works most effectively in clinical settings. The aim of this population-based cohort study was to examine the association between anticholinergic medication burden, as defined by different scales, and adverse clinical outcomes among older adults. METHODS: From Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, we retrieved data on monthly anticholinergic drug use measured by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB), and the Drug Burden Index - Anticholinergic component (DBI-Ach) for 116,043 people aged 65 years and older during a 10-year follow-up...
November 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128115/chronic-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-adverse-events-and-potential-biological-mechanisms-a-translational-analysis
#7
Farid Kheloufi, Diane Frankel, Elise Kaspi, Marion Lepelley, Michel Mallaret, Quentin Boucherie, Patrice Roll, Joelle Micallef
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. Even if PPI are usually considered as safe, there is a growing concern for a range of adverse effects of chronic PPI therapy often in the absence of appropriate indications. We propose, after a summary of renal, cardiovascular and neurological complications (dementia, chronic kidney disease, myocardial infarction and stroke), an integrative overview of the potential biological mechanisms involved. Eleven positive pharmacoepidemiological studies, mainly based on health insurance database linkage to hospital database, reported an increased risk of complications associated to PPI use and often a graded association suggesting also a possible dose-response relationship...
October 14, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124116/toward-common-mechanisms-for-risk-factors-in-alzheimer-s-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Miguel Medina, Zaven S Khachaturian, Martin Rossor, Jesús Avila, Angel Cedazo-Minguez
The global strategic goal of reducing health care cost, especially the prospects for massive increases due to expanding markets for health care services demanded by aging populations and/or people with a wide range of chronic disorders-disabilities, is a complex and formidable challenge with many facets. Current projections predict marked increases in the demand for health driven by both the exponential climb in the prevalence of chronic disabilities and the increases in the absolute numbers of people in need of some form of health care...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123404/effects-of-dopaminergic-drug-adjustment-on-executive-function-in-different-clinical-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Hidetomo Murakami, Tetsuhito Nohara, Hidenobu Shozawa, Yoshiyuki Owan, Takeshi Kuroda, Satoshi Yano, Machiko Kezuka, Mitsuru Kawamura, Kenjiro Ono
Background: Effects of dopaminergic medication on executive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the effect of dopaminergic medication on executive function in 24 drug-naïve PD patients (de novo group) and in 21 PD patients on chronic dopaminergic medication (chronic medication group). Methods: PD patients without dementia were included in this study. For the de novo group patients, dopaminergic medication was initiated, and the dose was increased to improve motor symptoms...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113362/plga-nanoparticles-modified-with-a-bbb-penetrating-peptide-co-delivering-a%C3%AE-generation-inhibitor-and-curcumin-attenuate-memory-deficits-and-neuropathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#10
Na Huang, Shuai Lu, Xiao-Ge Liu, Jie Zhu, Yu-Jiong Wang, Rui-Tian Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by the formation of extracellular senile plaques and neuronal loss caused by amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates in the brains of AD patients. Conventional strategies failed to treat AD in clinical trials, partly due to the poor solubility, low bioavailability and ineffectiveness of the tested drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, AD is a complex, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease; one-target strategies may be insufficient to prevent the processes of AD...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110334/frontotemporal-dementia-with-trans-activation-response-dna-binding-protein-43-presenting-with-catatonic-syndrome
#11
Ryohei Watanabe, Ito Kawakami, Mitsumoto Onaya, Shinji Higashi, Nobutaka Arai, Haruhiko Akiyama, Masato Hasegawa, Tetsuaki Arai
Catatonia is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms such as immobility, mutism, stupor, stereotypy, echophenomena, catalepsy, automatic obedience, posturing, negativism, gegenhalten and ambitendency. This syndrome occurs mostly in mood disorder and schizophrenic patients, and is related to neuronal dysfunction involving the frontal lobe. Some cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with catatonia have been reported, but these cases were not examined by autopsy. Here, we report on a FTD case which showed catatonia after the first episode of brief psychotic disorder...
November 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109789/nucleic-acid-based-theranostics-for-tackling-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Madhuri Chakravarthy, Suxiang Chen, Peter R Dodd, Rakesh N Veedu
Nucleic acid-based technologies have received significant interest in recent years as novel theranostic strategies for various diseases. The approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of Nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide drug, for the treatment of spinal muscular dystrophy highlights the potential of nucleic acids to treat neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of cognitive function and behavior...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107872/inflammation-and-gut-brain-axis-link-obesity-to-cognitive-dysfunction-plausible-pharmacological-interventions
#13
REVIEW
Maite Solas, Fermin I Milagro, María J Ramírez, J Alfredo Martínez
Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096539/the-role-of-participatory-music-making-in-supporting-people-with-dementia-in-hospital-environments
#14
Norma Daykin, Barbara Parry, Kerry Ball, David Walters, Ann Henry, Bronwyn Platten, Rachel Hayden
Background Improving the quality of care for people with dementia in general hospitals is a key priority. Creative activities including music have been examined for their potential role in enhancing quality of life for people with dementia, although relatively few studies have evaluated their use in acute hospital settings. Methods A mixed methods study examined the effects of a ten week period of weekly music sessions on the wellbeing of patients with dementia and on the ward environment in an acute elderly care service in a UK hospital...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094046/association-between-antihypertensive-drug-use-and-the-incidence-of-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#15
REVIEW
Guangli Xu, Feng Bai, Xin Lin, Qiongying Wang, Qiang Wu, Shougang Sun, Cheng Jiang, Qiang Liang, Bingren Gao
Background: Antihypertensive drug use is inconsistently associated with the risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of available prospective cohort studies to summarize the evidence on the strength of these relationships. Methods: Three electronic databases including MedLine, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies from inception to April 2017. Only prospective cohort studies that reported effect estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline for antihypertensive drug use versus not using antihypertensive drugs were included...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078760/in-silico-repurposing-of-antipsychotic-drugs-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Shivani Kumar, Suman Chowdhury, Suresh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia and represents one of the highest unmet requirements in medicine today. There is shortage of novel molecules entering into market because of poor pharmacokinetic properties and safety issues. Drug repurposing offers an opportunity to reinvigorate the slowing drug discovery process by finding new uses for existing drugs. The major advantage of the drug repurposing approach is that the safety issues are already investigated in the clinical trials and the drugs are commercially available in the marketplace...
October 27, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078750/blood-pressure-at-age-60-65-versus-age-70-75-and-vascular-dementia-a-population-based-observational-study
#17
Mingkai Peng, Guanmin Chen, Karen L Tang, Hude Quan, Eric E Smith, Peter Faris, Vladimir Hachinski, Norm R C Campbell
BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia. However, there were mixed evidences about the association between blood pressure (BP) and risk of VaD in midlife and late life and limited evidence on the association between pulse pressure and VaD. METHODS: This is a population-based observational study. 265,897 individuals with at least one BP measurement between the ages of 60 to 65 years and 211,116 individuals with at least one BP measurement between the ages of 70 to 75 years were extracted from The Health Improvement Network in United Kingdom...
October 27, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077923/do-individual-and-geographical-deprivation-have-the-same-impact-on-the-risk-of-dementia-a-25-year-follow-up-study
#18
Camille Ouvrard, Céline Meillon, Jean-François Dartigues, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Hélène Amieva, Deborah Carr
Objectives: To determine the impact of both individual psychosocioeconomic precariousness and geographical deprivation on risk of dementia in older adults followed-up for 25 years. Method: The sample consisted of 3,431 participants aged 65 years or over from the PAQUID cohort study. Individual psychosocioeconomic precariousness was measured computing eight economic and psychosocial indicators. Geographical deprivation was assessed by the FDep99 index, consisting of four community socioeconomic variables...
October 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077483/risk-of-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-by-plasma-cholesterol-rational-in-silico-drug-investigation-of-pyrrole-based-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors
#19
Sajad Shahbazi, Jagdeep Kaur, Ananya Kuanar, Dattatreya Kar, Shikha Singh, Ranbir Chander Sobti
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a worldwide renowned progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia. There are several studies on the important role of cholesterol metabolism in AD pathogenesis, which indicated that the high concentrations of serum cholesterol increase the risk of AD. Biosynthesis of the plasma cholesterol and other isoprenoids is catalyzed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid in mevalonate pathway. Normally, the high level of plasma cholesterol is downregulated by HGMCR inhibition as the result of degradation of LDL, but in abnormal conditions, for example, high blood glucose, the HMGCR over activated resulting in uncontrolled blood cholesterol...
October 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075638/citalopram-ameliorates-impairments-in-spatial-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-female-3xtgad-mice
#20
Zhang Wei, Guo Junhong, Niu Xiaoyuan, Wang Jie, Wang Zhaojun, Wu Meina, Yang Wei, Zhang Jun, Qi Jinshun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia. There is no effective treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and thus strategies suppressing Aβ production and accumulation seem promising. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug and can decrease Aβ production and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice of AD and humans. Whether citalopram can ameliorate memory deficit was not known yet. We tested the effects of citalopram on behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity in female 3xTgAD mice, a well-characterized model of AD...
2017: BioMed Research International
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