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Drugs on Dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432017/dual-functional-nanoparticles-for-precise-drug-delivery-to-alzheimer-s-disease-lesions-targeting-mechanisms-pharmacodynamics-and-safety
#1
Xiaoyao Zheng, Chi Zhang, Qian Guo, Xu Wan, Xiayan Shao, Qingfeng Liu, Qizhi Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by the cerebral accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques. In a previous study, this histopathological hallmark was used as a target on a dual-functional nanoparticle (TQNP) to deliver biotechnological drugs, such as the H102 peptide, a β-sheet breaker, to AD lesions precisely. This delivery system could reduce the amyloid-β (Aβ) burden in the brains of AD model mice, as well as ameliorated the memory impairment of the mice...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431913/use-of-medications-of-questionable-benefit-during-the-last-year-of-life-of-older-adults-with-dementia
#2
Lucas Morin, Davide L Vetrano, Giulia Grande, Laura Fratiglioni, Johan Fastbom, Kristina Johnell
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with the use of medications of questionable benefit throughout the final year of life of older adults who died with dementia. DESIGN: Register-based, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Entire Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: All older adults (≥75 years) who died with dementia between 2007 and 2013 (n = 120,067). MEASUREMENTS: Exposure to medications of questionable benefit was calculated for each of the last 12 months before death, based on longitudinal data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430857/repurposed-drugs-targeting-eif2%C3%AE-p-mediated-translational-repression-prevent-neurodegeneration-in-mice
#3
Mark Halliday, Helois Radford, Karlijn A M Zents, Collin Molloy, Julie A Moreno, Nicholas C Verity, Ewan Smith, Catharine A Ortori, David A Barrett, Martin Bushell, Giovanna R Mallucci
Signalling through the PERK/eIF2α-P branch of the unfolded protein response plays a critical role in controlling protein synthesis rates in cells. This pathway is overactivated in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target for these currently untreatable conditions. Thus, in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease, prolonged overactivation of PERK/eIF2α-P signalling causes sustained attenuation of protein synthesis, leading to memory impairment and neuronal loss...
April 19, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#4
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429235/regulation-of-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cell-adhesion-and-barrier-functions-by-memantine
#5
Fei Wang, Zhirong Zou, Yi Gong, Dong Yuan, Xun Chen, Tao Sun
Vascular risk factors have been linked to cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly. Microvascular inflammation, especially of the endothelium, may contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is a licensed drug used for the treatment of moderate to severe AD. However, little information is available regarding its anti-inflammatory effects on the endothelium. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine on human brain microvascular endothelial dysfunction induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429077/-implementation-of-the-german-s3-guidelines-on-dementia-in-clinical-practice-wish-or-reality
#6
H Lohmann, F Kulessa, H Holling, A Johnen, S Reul, G Lueg, T Duning
BACKGROUND: Published in 2009, the German S3 guidelines on dementia define a milestone in quality improvement of the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. In clinical practice patients suffering from dementia are primarily treated by physicians in private practice; therefore, this study examined how the guidelines are implemented in outpatient clinical settings. Furthermore, it aimed at the identification of behavioral determinants that govern the actual diagnostic and therapeutic approach in clinical practice...
April 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424611/modafinil-induced-changes-in-functional-connectivity-in-the-cortex-and-cerebellum-of-healthy-elderly-subjects
#7
Miriam Punzi, Tommaso Gili, Laura Petrosini, Carlo Caltagirone, Gianfranco Spalletta, Stefano L Sensi
In the past few years, cognitive enhancing drugs (CEDs) have gained growing interest and the focus of investigations aimed at exploring their use to potentiate the cognitive performances of healthy individuals. Most of this exploratory CED-related research has been performed on young adults. However, CEDs may also help to maintain optimal brain functioning or compensate for subtle and or subclinical deficits associated with brain aging or early-stage dementia. In this study, we assessed effects on resting state brain activity in a group of healthy elderly subjects undergoing acute administration of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422298/bridging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-assembling-the-puzzle-pieces-in-the-quest-for-the-molecules-with-therapeutic-and-preventive-potential
#8
REVIEW
Ana Marta de Matos, Maria Paula de Macedo, Amélia Pilar Rauter
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two age-related amyloid diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Broadly supported by epidemiological data, the higher incidence of AD among type 2 diabetic patients led to the recognition of T2D as a tangible risk factor for the development of AD. Indeed, there is now growing evidence on brain structural and functional abnormalities arising from brain insulin resistance and deficiency, ultimately highlighting the need for new approaches capable of preventing the development of AD in type 2 diabetic patients...
April 19, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416036/exploring-dementia-management-attitudes-in-primary-care-a-key-informant-survey-to-primary-care-physicians-in-25-european-countries
#9
Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Shlomo Vinker, Tuomas H Koskela, Thomas Frese, Nicola Buono, Jean Karl Soler, Jette Ahrensberg, Radost Asenova, Quintí Foguet Boreu, Gülsen Ceyhun Peker, Claire Collins, Miro Hanževački, Kathryn Hoffmann, Claudia Iftode, Donata Kurpas, Jean Yves Le Reste, Bjørn Lichtwarck, Davorina Petek, Daniel Pinto, Diego Schrans, Sven Streit, Eugene Yee Hing Tang, Athina Tatsioni, Péter Torzsa, Pemra C Unalan, Harm van Marwijk, Hans Thulesius
BACKGROUND: Strategies for the involvement of primary care in the management of patients with presumed or diagnosed dementia are heterogeneous across Europe. We wanted to explore attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) when managing dementia: (i) the most popular cognitive tests, (ii) who had the right to initiate or continue cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine treatment, and (iii) the relationship between the permissiveness of these rules/guidelines and PCP's approach in the dementia investigations and assessment...
April 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413414/comedication-and-treatment-length-in-users-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors
#10
Anne Sverdrup Efjestad, Hege Ihle-Hansen, Vidar Hjellvik, Hege Salvesen Blix
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reduced clinical effect on cognitive decline in dementia by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) may be due to concurrent use of drugs with anticholinergic properties. The aim was to analyze the incidence of AChEI use and comedication with drugs with anticholinergic properties and other potential unfavorable effects. METHODS: A prospective study applying drug use data from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were used as a measure of overall anticholinergic burden...
January 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408880/a-bayesian-model-for-the-prediction-and-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Athanasios Alexiou, Vasileios D Mantzavinos, Nigel H Greig, Mohammad A Kamal
Alzheimer's disease treatment is still an open problem. The diversity of symptoms, the alterations in common pathophysiology, the existence of asymptomatic cases, the different types of sporadic and familial Alzheimer's and their relevance with other types of dementia and comorbidities, have already created a myth-fear against the leading disease of the twenty first century. Many failed latest clinical trials and novel medications have revealed the early diagnosis as the most critical treatment solution, even though scientists tested the amyloid hypothesis and few related drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407520/anticholinergic-drug-use-is-associated-with-episodic-memory-decline-in-older-adults-without-dementia
#12
Goran Papenberg, Lars Bäckman, Laura Fratiglioni, Erika J Laukka, Johan Fastbom, Kristina Johnell
Anticholinergic drug use is common in older adults and has been related to increased dementia risk. This suggests that users of these drugs may experience accelerated cognitive decline. So far, however, longitudinal data on this topic are absent and the available evidence is inconclusive with respect to effects on specific cognitive domains due to suboptimal control of confounding variables. We investigated whether anticholinergic medication use is associated with cognitive decline over 6 years in a population-based study of older adults (aged 60-90; n = 1473) without dementia...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387447/withdrawn-interventions-for-fatigue-and-weight-loss-in-adults-with-advanced-progressive-illness
#13
REVIEW
Cathy Payne, Philip J Wiffen, Suzanne Martin
BACKGROUND: Fatigue and unintentional weight loss are two of the commonest symptoms experienced by people with advanced progressive illness. Appropriate interventions may bring considerable improvements in function and quality of life to seriously ill people and their families, reducing physical, psychological and spiritual distress. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an overview of the evidence available on the efficacy of interventions used in the management of fatigue and/or unintentional weight loss in adults with advanced progressive illness by reviewing the evidence contained within Cochrane reviews...
April 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384267/association-between-different-anticholinergic-drugs-and-subsequent-dementia-risk-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Yu-Wan Yang, Hsin-Ho Liu, Tien-Huang Lin, Hsun-Yang Chuang, Tengfu Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The effects of oxybutynin, solifenacin and tolterodine on dementia risk in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remain unknown. We investigated the effects of oxybutynin, solifenacin and tolterodine on dementia risk in patients with DM. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study by using the diabetes dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1 January, 2002 to 31 December, 2013. We included 10,938 patients received one type of oxybutynin, solifenacin, or tolterodine, while 564,733 had not...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383687/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-associations-with-caregiver-burden-and-treatment-outcomes
#15
Chao Tung Chen, Chiung-Chih Chang, Wen-Neng Chang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chih-Cheng Huang, Ya-Ting Chang, Hung-Chen Wang, Chia-Te Kung, Yu-Jih Su, Wei-Che Lin, Ben-Chung Cheng, Chih-Min Su, Sheng-Yuan Hsiao, Che-Wei Hsu, Cheng-Hsien Lu
Background: Caregivers play a major role in providing care for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are themselves at higher risk of health comorbidities. Aim: To address the impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms of patients in different stages of AD on their caregivers' burden. Design: This prospective study enrolled 260 AD patients with clinical dementia rating of 0.5, 1, and 2 at a tertiary medical center. Methods: All patients were tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR)...
April 5, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381728/the-effects-of-psychoeducation-on-long-term-inpatients-with-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder
#16
Nobuhiko Yanagida, Toshiro Uchino, Naohisa Uchimura
This study aimed to examine the significance of intervention to improve medication adherence in long-term inpatients by providing psychoeducation and then elucidating the effects of this training in terms of patient knowledge and attitudes. Subjects were patients who had been hospitalized for more than 1 year after being admitted to a psychiatric hospital, had been diagnosed as F2 (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder) according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, and were capable of verbal communication...
April 3, 2017: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372635/trends-in-the-prescribing-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-elderly-patients-with-dementia-in-korea%C3%A2
#17
Namjoo Seo, Inmyung Song, Heyekyung Park, Dongmun Ha, Ju-Young Shin
OBJECTIVE: In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration warned that atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia. We investigated AAP prescribing in elderly patients with dementia in the ambulatory setting in Korea and the factors affecting AAP prescribing in elderly patients with dementia. METHODS: Subjects ≥ 65 years of age with at least one diagnosis of dementia (ICD-10: F00-F03, G30, G31.8) from January 1 to December 31, 2013 were identified from a health insurance database...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361438/drug-utilization-of-japanese-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia-an-administrative-database-analysis
#18
Stephane Cheung, Yukinobu Hamuro, Jörg Mahlich, Takanobu Nakahara, Rosarin Sruamsiri, Sunny Tsukazawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient characteristics require consideration for optimal treatment in order to achieve clinical remission for an improved quality of life and social functioning. Prior evidence supports long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) in the relapse prevention of schizophrenia. This study aimed to characterize Japanese patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and to compare the outcomes of LAIs and oral antipsychotics (AP) in re-hospitalization or emergency room visit rates...
March 30, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359852/lithium-and-memantine-improve-spatial-memory-impairment-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-%C3%AE-amyloid-1-42-oligomers-in-rats
#19
J Budni, D P Feijó, H Batista-Silva, M L Garcez, F Mina, T Belletini-Santos, L R Krasilchik, A P Luz, G L Schiavo, J Quevedo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The main hallmarks of this disease include progressive cognitive dysfunction and an accumulation of soluble oligomers of β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 peptide. In this research, we show the effects of lithium and memantine on spatial memory and neuroinflammation in an Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced animal model of dementia in rats. Aβ 1-42 oligomers were administered intrahippocampally to male wistar rats to induce dementia. Oral treatments with memantine (5mg/kg), lithium (5mg/kg), or both drugs in combination were performed over a period of 17days...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351932/seeding-and-transgenic-overexpression-of-alpha-synuclein-triggers-dendritic-spine-pathology-in-the-neocortex
#20
Sonja Blumenstock, Eva F Rodrigues, Finn Peters, Lidia Blazquez-Llorca, Felix Schmidt, Armin Giese, Jochen Herms
Although misfolded and aggregated α-synuclein (α-syn) is recognized in the disease progression of synucleinopathies, its role in the impairment of cortical circuitries and synaptic plasticity remains incompletely understood. We investigated how α-synuclein accumulation affects synaptic plasticity in the mouse somatosensory cortex using two distinct approaches. Long-term in vivo imaging of apical dendrites was performed in mice overexpressing wild-type human α-synuclein. Additionally, intracranial injection of preformed α-synuclein fibrils was performed to induce cortical α-syn pathology...
March 28, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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