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Drugs on Dementia

Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Xiao-Juan Wang, Yin-Ping Gao, Nan-Nan Lu, Wei-Shuo Li, Ji-Fang Xu, Xiao-Ying Ying, Gang Wu, Mei-Hua Liao, Chao Tan, Ling-Xiao Shao, Ying-Mei Lu, Chen Zhang, Kohji Fukunaga, Feng Han, Yong-Zhong Du
Clinical treatment for vascular dementia still remains a challenge mainly due to Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). Here, a micelle based on polysialic acid (PSA) which is a hydrophilic and endogenous carbohydrate polymer, was designed to deliver calmodulin antagonist for therapy of vascular dementia. PSA was firstly chemically conjugated with octadecylamine (ODA), and the obtained PSA-ODA copolymer could self-assemble into micelle in aqueous solution with a 120.0 μg/mL critical micelle concentration. The calmodulin antagonist loaded PSA-ODA micelle, featuring sustained drug release behaviour over a period of 72 h with 3...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Catherine Shaw, Brendan McCormack, Carmel M Hughes
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in how culture may affect the quality of healthcare services, and previous research has shown that 'treatment culture'-of which there are three categories (resident centred, ambiguous and traditional)-in a nursing home may influence prescribing of psychoactive medications. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore and understand treatment culture in prescribing of psychoactive medications for older people with dementia in nursing homes...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
X Jégouzo, M Desbordes, S Delègue, G Le Vacon, M Patrick, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms have a high prevalence in dementia. They include mood disorders, psychotic disorders and behavioral disorders such as aggression or screaming. Despite a number of side effects and an increased mortality, antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for treatment of this disorder. In France, this increased risk of mortality led in 2009 to the adoption of guidelines concerning all antipsychotics. The guidelines propose a sensible use of antipsychotics after the establishment of non-pharmacological measures...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Moustapha Dramé, Jean-Luc Novella, Thierry Trenque, Clarisse Joachim, Pierre Nazeyrollas, Damien Jolly, Rachid Mahmoudi
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) based on geriatric evaluation. DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective study from May 2010 to November 2011. SETTING: Dedicated acute geriatric care unit specializing in the management of patients with dementia syndrome (Alzheimer disease or related syndromes) at the University Hospital of Reims, France. PARTICIPANTS: Older patients with dementia syndrome (Alzheimer disease or related syndromes)...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Eva Sönnerstam, Maria Sjölander, Maria Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Older people are more sensitive to drugs and adverse drug reactions than younger people because of age-related physiological changes such as impaired renal function. As people with dementia are particularly vulnerable to the effects of drugs, it is especially important to evaluate the dosages of renally cleared medications in this group. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired renal function and inappropriate prescriptions on the basis of renal function among older patients with dementia or cognitive impairment...
October 12, 2016: Drugs & Aging
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Pia Basaure, Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Maria Cabré, Ingrid Reverte, Maria Teresa Colomina
Cholinesterases (ChE) are common targets of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and play a critical role in the pathology of some dementias. While chlorpyrifos (CPF) remains one of the most commonly used OPs in the world, numerous investigations have reported its neurotoxic potential and highlighted behavioral disturbances upon its administration. Rivastigmine currently serves to treat Alzheimer's disease, but it may induce cholinergic overstimulation in non-demented individuals. The present investigation aimed to compare the acute and delayed effects caused by both ChE inhibitors in adult C57BL/6 male mice...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
G N Tayupova, A R Saitgareeva, A R Baitimerov, O S Levin
This review presents the results of studies investigating the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TKMS) on motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been found that TKMS reduces the severity of both motor and non-motor disorders without causing serious side-effects. Magnetic field therapy can be combined with pharmacological and non-drug therapies, including the use of dopaminergic therapy, antidepressants and anti-dementia drugs, as well as stereotactic operations. It is necessary to continue the study of the influence of TKMS on the severity of PD symptoms using different electromagnetic characteristics...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Diana Wucherer, Tilly Eichler, Johnanes Hertel, Ingo Kilimann, Steffen Richter, Bernhard Michalowsky, Jochen René Thyrian, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in older people is a risk factor for adverse drug effects. This risk is even higher in older people with dementia (PWD). OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence of PIM among primary care patients who were screened positive for dementia and (2) the sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with the use of PIM. METHODS: DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) is a general practitioner-based, cluster-randomized, controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in Germany...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Luís F J R Miranda, Karina B Gomes, Pedro A L Tito, Josianne N Silveira, Gerson A Pianetti, Ricardo M D Byrro, Patrícia R H Peles, Fernando H Pereira, Thiago R Santos, Arthur G Assini, Valéria V Ribeiro, Edgar N Moraes, Paulo Caramelli
The clinical response to donepezil in patients with mild and moderate dementia was investigated in relation to the drug plasma concentration and of APOE and CYP2D6 polymorphisms. In a prospective naturalistic observational study, 42 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD with cerebrovascular disease who took donepezil (10 mg) for 12 months were evaluated. Their DNA was genotyped, and the donepezil plasma concentrations were measured after 3, 6, and 12 months. Good responders scored ≥-1 on the Mini-Mental State Examination at 12 months in comparison to the baseline score...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Annika Öhrfelt, Ann Brinkmalm, Julien Dumurgier, Gunnar Brinkmalm, Oskar Hansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, Jacques Hugon, Claire Paquet, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: Synaptic degeneration is a central pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease that occurs early during the course of disease and correlates with cognitive symptoms. The pre-synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin-1 appears to be essential for the maintenance of an intact synaptic transmission and cognitive function. Synaptotagmin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid is a candidate Alzheimer biomarker for synaptic dysfunction that also may correlate with cognitive decline. METHODS: In this study, a novel mass spectrometry-based assay for measurement of cerebrospinal fluid synaptotagmin-1 was developed, and was evaluated in two independent sample sets of patients and controls...
October 3, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Kazuhiko Nakayama
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine psychosocial and clinico-demographic factors related to each symptomatic cluster (i.e., aggressiveness, psychosis, apathy/eating problems, and emotion/disinhibition) of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) needing interventional treatment against their agitation or psychotic symptoms. These clusters were classified from 12 Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscores in our previous study using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Karen Ritchie, Michael Ropacki, B Albala, John Harrison, Jeffrey Kaye, Joel Kramer, Christopher Randolph, C W Ritchie
The Horizon 2020/IMI European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) project will undertake large-scale proof-of-concept trials in predementia AD. Within EPAD, the monitoring of cognitive trajectories in the preclinical period will constitute a central outcome measure; however, there are currently no clear guidelines as to how this should be achieved as most measures have been developed for the period around dementia diagnosis. The EPAD Scientific Advisory Group for Clinical and Cognitive Outcomes identified appropriate cognitive measures based on a literature search covering both cognitive correlates of preclinical brain changes from imaging studies and cognitive changes observed over time in nondementia population cohorts developing incident dementia...
October 1, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Robert H Howland
Methylene blue was the first synthetic drug ever used in medicine, having been used to treat clinical pain syndromes, malaria, and psychotic disorders more than one century ago. Methylene blue is a cationic thiazine dye with redox-cycling properties and a selective affinity for the nervous system. This drug also inhibits the activity of monoamine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, and guanylyl cyclase, as well as tau protein aggregation; increases the release of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine; reduces amyloid-beta levels; and increases cholinergic transmission...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Katherine Warren, Helena Burden, Paul Abrams
Overactive bladder is a common condition, which significantly affects people's quality of life. The use of anticholinergic medication has been the mainstay of managing overactive bladder when conservative measures are not enough. Many patients stop anticholinergic medication because of the side effects and more recently the concerns about the effect of an anticholinergic burden and the development of dementia have been studied. Activation of β3 adrenoceptors has been shown to relax the detrusor muscle and subsequently lead to the development of the first β3 adrenoceptor agonist...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Jean-Pierre Michel
Already in the 90s, Khachaturian stated that postponing dementia onset by five years would decrease the prevalence of the late onset dementia by 50%. After two decades of lack of success in dementia drug discovery and development, and knowing that worldwide, currently 36 million patients have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, a number that will double by 2030 and triple by 2050, the World Health Organization and the Alzheimer's Disease International declared that prevention of cognitive decline was a 'public health priority...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Jindong Ding Petersen, Volkert Siersma, Connie Thurøe Nielsen, Mikkel Vass, Frans Boch Waldorff
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Joanna P MacEwan, Seth Seabury, Myrlene Sanon Aigbogun, Siddhesh Kamat, Emma van Eijndhoven, Clement Francois, Crystal Henderson, Leslie Citrome
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the level of private and public investment in research and development of treatments for schizophrenia and other mental disorders compared to other diseases in order to present data on the economic burden and pharmaceutical innovation by disease area, and to compare the level of investment relative to burden across different diseases. DESIGN: The levels of investment and pharmaceutical innovation relative to burden across different diseases were assessed...
July 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
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