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Parker Magin, Rebecca Stewart, Allison Turnock, Amanda Tapley, Elizabeth Holliday, Nick Cooling
Underperforming trainees requiring remediation may threaten patient safety and are challenging for vocational training programs. Decisions to institute remediation are high-stakes-remediation being resource-intensive and emotionally demanding on trainees. Detection of underperformance requiring remediation is particularly problematic in general (family) practice. We sought to establish early-training assessment instruments predictive of general practice (GP) trainees' subsequently requiring formal remediation...
October 21, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Yvonne T M Vanneste, Jolanda J P Mathijssen, Ien A M van de Goor, Carin M C Rots-de Vries, Frans J M Feron
BACKGROUND: Students' health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary education. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on students' medical absenteeism, compared to "medical absenteeism policy as usual". METHODS: A quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (493 students) and a control group (445 students) was applied...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Kaarina Korhonen, Hanna Remes, Pekka Martikainen
PURPOSE: There is inconsistent evidence for social differentials in the risk of depression in youth, and little is known about how education at this age influences the risk. We assess how parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and education predict depression from late adolescence to early adulthood, a time of major educational transitions. METHODS: We followed a nationally representative 20 % sample of Finnish adolescents born in 1986-1990 (n = 60,829) over two educational transitory stages at the age of 17-19 and 20-23 covering the years 2003-2011...
October 19, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Achim Elfering, Anita C Keller, Martial Berset, Laurenz L Meier, Simone Grebner, Wolfgang Kälin, Françoise Monnerat, Franziska Tschan, Norbert K Semmer
Core self-evaluations (CSE) might account for relative gains in job resources across time, especially in situations when these individual differences affect behavior that is relevant for development of job resources. This longitudinal study tests CSE as an individual resource that predicts relative gain in job resources and job satisfaction among job beginners who change or stay with their employer. A questionnaire was filled in by 513 adolescents shortly before the end of vocational training and one year later...
2016: SpringerPlus
David B Nicholas, Sandra Hodgetts, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Leann E Smith, Paul Shattuck, Jeremy R Parr, Olivia Conlon, Tamara Germani, Wendy Mitchell, Lori Sacrey, Margot E Stothers
Research related to supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under-developed. As an example, system and service development to support successful transition to adulthood and meaningful vocation for adults has received relatively little research scrutiny until recently, with practitioners and program developers lacking evidence-informed approaches guiding service delivery. A Special Interest Group (SIG) was convened at the International Meeting for Autism Research in May 2014 and May 2015, with a focus on transitional and vocational issues in ASD...
October 17, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Mark B Warren, Kathryn M Schak
A diagnosis of Huntington's disease has broad social, vocational, reproductive and psychological implications. The ability to accurately diagnose the illness via genetic testing is not new. However, given a persistent lack of robustly effective interventions, it remains an area of ethical concern. The difficulty is compounded in cases of intellectual disability. This paper presents a case of genetic testing for Huntington's disease conducted on a patient with intellectual disability with guardian consent, but without the patient's direct knowledge and how the family illness narrative and psychiatric care were employed in the eventual disclosure of the patient's diagnosis and subsequent management...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
M Schuler, M Lukasczik, H Laterveer, F Weilbach, M Presl, M Presl, J Knörzer, S Neuderth
Objectives: The MBO(®) Kompakt-Neurowoche is offered as a work-related medical rehabilitation measure (based on allocation by a physician) following a regular neurological rehabilitation program with a duration of 7 days. Program access, process, and outcomes were examined in terms of a formative evaluation. Method: Pre-post-questionnaire data from 5 data points were used: start of regular rehabilitation (T0); start of work-related rehabilitation (T1); end of work-related rehabilitation (T2); 6-months follow-up (T3); 12-months follow-up (T4)...
October 2016: Die Rehabilitation
C Hetzel, M Streibelt
Background: Studies about the impact of the labour market on return to work (RTW) after vocational retraining are contradictory. We examined if (1) RTW after vocational retraining depends on regional labour markets and if (2) the regional labour markets variance affects the influence of personal characteristics on RTW. Methods: The data consisted of the scientific use file (completed rehabilitation in the course of health insurance 2002-2009) of the German Federal Pension Insurance (51 626 persons of 7 year cohorts) and regional economic data (412 districts)...
October 2016: Die Rehabilitation
Vinayak Singh, Stefano Donini, Angela Pacitto, Claudia Sala, Ruben C Hartkoorn, Neeraj Dhar, Gyorgy Keri, David B Ascher, Guillaume Mondésert, Anthony Vocat, Andréanne Lupien, Raphael Sommer, Hélène Vermet, Sophie Lagrange, Joe Buechler, Digby F Warner, John D McKinney, Janos Pato, Stewart T Cole, Tom L Blundell, Menico Rizzi, Valerie Mizrahi
VCC234718, a molecule with growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), was identified by phenotypic screening of a 15344-compound library. Sequencing of a VCC234718-resistant mutant identified a Y487C substitution in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, GuaB2, which was subsequently validated to be the primary molecular target of VCC234718 in Mtb. VCC234718 inhibits Mtb GuaB2 with a Ki of 100 nM and is uncompetitive with respect to IMP and NAD(+). This compound binds at the NAD(+) site, after IMP has bound, and makes direct interactions with IMP; therefore, the inhibitor is by definition uncompetitive...
September 8, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Ulrika Bejerholm, Maria E Larsson, Suzanne Johanson
BACKGROUND: While effective vocational methods for gaining employment exist for people with schizophrenia and similar conditions, no evidence exists with regard to people with affective disorders. We aimed to study the effectiveness of a newly developed Individual Enabling and Support (IES) model adapted for the target group and compared to traditional vocational rehabilitation (TVR). METHODS: An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a parallel design was performed...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jay Champlin, Rachael Edwards, Sudhakar Pipavath
Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Lewis J Kerwin, Christine Estes, Clara Oromendia, Paul Christos, Lucian Sulica
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the long-term impact of vocal fold hemorrhage (VFH) on vocal function and health, and compare these parameters to those in similar patients who have not had VFH. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients with a history of VFH (N = 41) were characterized through a review of records and assessed by means of a survey for vocal health and professional functioning as well as the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and, if appropriate (n = 30, 73...
October 7, 2016: Laryngoscope
Ritva Ahomäki, Arja Harila-Saari, Jaakko Matomäki, Päivi M Lähteenmäki
BACKGROUND: In order to assess neurocognitive and social outcomes after childhood cancer, we explored the educational and vocational attainments of Finnish survivors in comparison to matched population controls. METHODS: From national registries, we identified survivors (n = 3243) born from 1960 to 1992 and aged below 16 at cancer diagnosis (years 1964-2009) as well as their controls (n = 16,215). Data on educational achievements, yearly income, employment status, and retirement were retrieved from Statistics Finland...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Anthony Foo, Sandeep J Sebastin
Care of the reconstructed hand following mutilating injury is akin to the care of a vintage car. Its mechanisms are delicate, spare parts are limited, touch-ups are required often, and a major overhaul is indicated rarely. Secondary interventions are indicated for completion of staged primary procedures, management of complications, targeted improvement of function, and enhancement of appearance of the reconstructed hand. The approach to secondary reconstruction depends on the patient's age, and vocational and recreational requirements...
November 2016: Hand Clinics
Piotr Nowakowski
Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
M I Bal, J N T Sattoe, N R van Schaardenburgh, M C S G Floothuis, M E Roebroeck, H S Miedema
BACKGROUND: Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical disabilities. The study aims to explore their experienced barriers and facilitators for finding and maintaining employment after starting this program, the participant-perceived beneficial attributes of the program and participants' recommendations for additional intervention components...
October 5, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Benjamin Banai, Višnja Perin
Psychological correlates of academic performance have always been of high relevance to psychological research. The relation between psychometric intelligence and academic performance is one of the most consistent and well-established findings in psychology. It is hypothesized that intelligence puts a limit on what an individual can learn or achieve. Moreover, a growing body of literature indicates a relationship between personality traits and academic performance. This relationship helps us to better understand how an individual will learn or achieve their goals...
2016: PloS One
E Brooks, M H Gendel, A L Parry, S Humphreys, S R Early
BACKGROUND: Physicians are not immune to cognitive impairment. Because of the risks created by practising doctors with these issues, some have suggested developing objective, population-specific measures of evaluation and screening guidelines to assess dysfunction. However, there is very little published information from which to construct such resources. AIMS: To highlight the presentation characteristics and provide evaluation recommendations specific to the needs of physicians with actual or presumed cognitive impairment...
September 30, 2016: Occupational Medicine
Shankar Ganesh, Deepak Chhabra, Nitika Kumari
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that farming is associated with many agricultural workers experiencing low back pain (LBP). The rehabilitation of these workers should facilitate their functioning, activities and level of participation in an adequate way. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to identify the health components associated with LBP and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions in returning agricultural workers with LBP to their vocation using the International Classification of Function (ICF) -based tools...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Bryony Sales, Alexandra Macdonald, Samantha Scallan, Sue Crane
CONTEXT: Burnout impacts adversely on professional and personal life, and holds implications for patient care. Current research on burnout mainly focuses on established general practitioners but it is unclear how early the signs of burnout really start. This work seeks to identify whether specific GP trainee groups are particularly at risk of burnout and the aspects of training they find stressful. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study, collecting qualitative and quantitative data through a single mode of data collection (questionnaire) took place with trainees from all GP training years (ST1-3), across a vocational training scheme (n = 48)...
August 10, 2016: Education for Primary Care
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