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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676637/epigenomic-alterations-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-human-respiratory-epithelial-cells-mediated-by-hookah-and-cigarette-smoke
#1
Yin Xiong, Sichuan Xi, Jigui Shan, Elvin Hekimoglu, Shih-Hsin Hsiao, Mary Zhang, Julie A Hong, Chris Tao, Haobin Chen, R Taylor Ripley, Chuong D Hoang, David S Schrump
RATIONALE: The effects of hookah smoke on respiratory epithelia have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To characterize and compare the effects of hookah tobacco smoke and conventional cigarette smoke on the epigenome and transcriptome of human respiratory epithelia. METHODS: Normal human small airway epithelial cells and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured for 5 days in normal media in the presence or absence of water pipe condensates or cigarette smoke condensates under relevant exposure conditions...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668306/dosage-compensation-of-the-x-chromosome-a-complex-epigenetic-assignment-involving-chromatin-regulators-and-long-noncoding-rnas
#2
Maria Samata, Asifa Akhtar
X chromosome regulation represents a prime example of an epigenetic phenomenon where coordinated regulation of a whole chromosome is required. In flies, this is achieved by transcriptional upregulation of X chromosomal genes in males to equalize the gene dosage differences in females. Chromatin-bound proteins and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constituting a ribonucleoprotein complex known as the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex or the dosage compensation complex mediate this process. MSL complex members decorate the male X chromosome, and their absence leads to male lethality...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659581/an-interplay-between-multiple-sirtuins-promotes-completion-of-dna-replication-in-cells-with-short-telomeres
#3
Antoine Simoneau, Étienne Ricard, Hugo Wurtele
The evolutionarily-conserved sirtuin family of histone deacetylases regulates a multitude of DNA-associated processes. A recent genome-wide screen conducted in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified Yku70/80, which regulate nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and telomere structure, as being essential for cell proliferation in the presence of the pan-sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM). Here, we show that sirtuin-dependent deacetylation of both histone H3 lysine 56 and H4 lysine 16 promotes growth of yku70Δ and yku80Δ cells, and that the NAM sensitivity of these mutants is not caused by defects in double-strand break repair by NHEJ, but rather by their inability to maintain normal telomere length...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507413/dysregulation-of-the-epigenetic-landscape-of-normal-aging-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Raffaella Nativio, Greg Donahue, Amit Berson, Yemin Lan, Alexandre Amlie-Wolf, Ferit Tuzer, Jon B Toledo, Sager J Gosai, Brian D Gregory, Claudio Torres, John Q Trojanowski, Li-San Wang, F Brad Johnson, Nancy M Bonini, Shelley L Berger
Aging is the strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The chromatin state, in particular through the mark H4K16ac, has been implicated in aging and thus may play a pivotal role in age-associated neurodegeneration. Here we compare the genome-wide enrichment of H4K16ac in the lateral temporal lobe of AD individuals against both younger and elderly cognitively normal controls. We found that while normal aging leads to H4K16ac enrichment, AD entails dramatic losses of H4K16ac in the proximity of genes linked to aging and AD...
April 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410391/the-role-of-autophagy-during-murine-primordial-follicle-assembly
#5
Yuan-Chao Sun, Yong-Yong Wang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Shun-Feng Cheng, Lan Li, Yong Zhao, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
It is generally accepted that significant germ cell loss occurs during the establishment of the primordial follicle pool in most mammalian ovaries around the time of birth. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these processes remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we explored the role of autophagy during the establishment of the primordial follicle pool and found that autophagy was active in this process. Our data suggested that 17.5 dpc ovaries treated with rapamycin displayed a delay in germ cell cyst breakdown resulting in more oocytes at day 5 of treatment, while, ovaries that treated with 3-MA showed the opposite effect...
February 5, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383100/sirt1-regulates-mxd1-during-malignant-melanoma-progression
#6
Fabiana M Meliso, Danilo Micali, Camila T Silva, Thaís S Sabedot, Simon G Coetzee, Adrian Koch, Fabian B Fahlbusch, Houtan Noushmehr, Regine Schneider-Stock, Miriam G Jasiulionis
In a murine melanoma model, malignant transformation promoted by a sustained stress condition was causally related to increased levels of reactive oxygen species resulting in DNA damage and massive epigenetic alterations. Since the chromatin modifier Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a protein attracted to double-stranded DNA break (DSB) sites and can recruit other components of the epigenetic machinery, we aimed to define the role of SIRT1 in melanomagenesis through our melanoma model. The DNA damage marker, γH2AX was found increased in melanocytes after 24 hours of deadhesion, accompanied by increased SIRT1 expression and decreased levels of its target, H4K16ac...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364237/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-chip-of-histone-modifications-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Meagan Jezek, Alison Jacques, Deepika Jaiswal, Erin M Green
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation, are dynamically regulated by a series of enzymes that add or remove these marks in response to signals received by the cell. These PTMS are key contributors to the regulation of processes such as gene expression control and DNA repair. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (chIP) has been an instrumental approach for dissecting the abundance and localization of many histone PTMs throughout the genome in response to diverse perturbations to the cell...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331390/the-tet2-e-cadherin-%C3%AE-catenin-regulatory-loop-confers-growth-and-invasion-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#8
Guohua Yang, Xiang Zeng, Mengchuan Wang, Aiguo Wu
The poor outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly due to the development of fast growth, invasion and metastasis. The role of TET2 has been implicated in some cancer types, but its role and mechanisms in HCC remains elusive. In this study, our findings indicated that TET2 expression frequently increased in HCC and that TET2 expressional upregulation correlated with HCC progression. TET2 knockdown inhibited HCC cells proliferation in vitro and growth in vivo, and inhibited the invasion potential of HCC cells...
February 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186293/early-histone-h4-acetylation-during-chromatin-remodeling-in-equine-spermatogenesis
#9
Chelsea C Ketchum, Casey D Larsen, Alexis McNeil, Mirella L Meyer-Ficca, Ralph G Meyer
Chromatin remodeling during spermatogenesis culminates in the exchange of nucleosomes for transition proteins and protamines as an important part of spermatid development to give rise to healthy sperm. Comparative immunofluorescence analyses of equine and murine testis histological sections were used to characterize nucleoprotein exchange in the stallion. Histone H4 hyperacetylation is considered a key event of histone removal during the nucleoprotein transition to a protamine-based sperm chromatin structure...
January 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133117/application-of-mixed-peptide-arrays-to-study-combinatorial-readout-of-chromatin-modifications
#10
Rebekka Mauser, Goran Kungulovski, David Meral, Daniel Maisch, Albert Jeltsch
The N-terminal tails of histone proteins are massively decorated with post-translational modifications (PTMs), which play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Several highly conserved chromatin interacting proteins can bind to histone modifications in a sequence and modification specific manner employing specific reading domains. These proteins often contain several reading domains, which can cooperate in the readout of different PTMs. To gain a better insight into the combinatorial readout of PTMs, we developed a method to study the binding of double reading domains to mixed peptide arrays containing two different peptides in each spot...
November 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984873/rnf20-controls-astrocytic-differentiation-through-epigenetic-regulation-of-stat3-in-the-developing-brain
#11
Qingli Liang, Wenlong Xia, Wei Li, Jianwei Jiao
Astrocyte has crucial roles in the central nervous system and accumulating evidence has shown its core function for brain complexity, plasticity and cognition. However, the essential key factors in the precise regulation of astrocytic differentiation remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified that RNF20, an E3 ligase of H2BK120 in the mammalian system, regulates astrocyte production from neural precursor cells. RNF20 deficiency by shRNA knockdown or deletion in conditional knockout mice impairs the astrocytic differentiation...
February 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872754/contribution-of-virtual-biopsy-to-the-screening-of-microvascular-invasion-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-pilot-study
#12
Nicolas Poté, François Cauchy, Miguel Albuquerque, Jérôme Cros, Olivier Soubrane, Pierre Bedossa, Valérie Paradis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microvascular invasion (mVI) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that cannot be detected before surgery. Predictive biomarkers of mVI are thus urgently needed. We have developed an original approach of virtual biopsy to assess the performance of an immunohistochemical panel comprising three biomarkers of mVI (H4K16ac, H4K20me2, PIVKA-II) for the prediction of mVI in HCC core needle biopsies (CNB). METHODS: A test set of HCC surgical specimens (n = 64) and an independent validation set of HCC CNB (n = 42) were retrospectively constituted...
September 5, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837777/arsenite-binds-to-the-zinc-finger-motif-of-tip60-histone-acetyltransferase-and-induces-its-degradation-via-the-26s-proteasome
#13
Lok Ming Tam, Ji Jiang, Pengcheng Wang, Lin Li, Weili Miao, Xuejiao Dong, Yinsheng Wang
Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with widespread public health concern. Epidemiological studies have revealed that chronic human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with the prevalence of skin, lung, and bladder cancers. Aberrant histone modifications (e.g., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) were previously found to be accompanied by arsenic exposure; thus, perturbation of epigenetic pathways is thought to contribute to arsenic carcinogenesis. Arsenite is known to interact with zinc finger motifs of proteins, and zinc finger motif is present in and indispensable for the enzymatic activities of crucial histone-modifying enzymes especially the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (e...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808424/acetylation-of-hmof-modulates-h4k16ac-to-regulate-dna-repair-genes-in-response-to-oxidative-stress
#14
Jianing Zhong, Liying Ji, Huiqian Chen, Xianfeng Li, Jian'an Zhang, Xingxing Wang, Weilin Wu, Ying Xu, Fei Huang, Wanshi Cai, Zhong Sheng Sun
Oxidative stress is considered to be a key risk state for a variety of human diseases. In response to oxidative stress, the regulation of transcriptional expression of DNA repair genes would be important to DNA repair and genomic stability. However, the overall pattern of transcriptional expression of DNA repair genes and the underlying molecular response mechanism to oxidative stress remain unclear. Here, by employing colorectal cancer cell lines following exposure to hydrogen peroxide, we generated expression profiles of DNA repair genes via RNA-seq and identified gene subsets that are induced or repressed following oxidative stress exposure...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776729/sirt1-activates-the-expression-of-fetal-hemoglobin-genes
#15
Yan Dai, Tyngwei Chen, Heba Ijaz, Elizabeth H Cho, Martin H Steinberg
High fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2 γ2 ) levels ameliorate the clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease and β thalassemia. The mechanisms that repress HbF expression and silence γ-globin genes in adults are incompletely characterized and only a single HbF inducer, hydroxyurea, is approved for treatment, and only in patients with sickle cell disease. We identified SIRT1, a protein deacetylase, as a new inducer of γ-globin. SIRT1 knockdown decreased, while SIRT1 ectopic expression upregulated γ-globin gene (HBG) expression in primary human erythroid cells and in K562 cells...
November 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609438/peg3-control-on-the-mammalian-msl-complex
#16
An Ye, Hana Kim, Joomyeong Kim
Peg3 (paternally expressed gene 3) encodes a DNA-binding protein that functions as a transcriptional repressor. Recent studies revealed that PEG3 binds to Msl1 (male-specific lethal 1) and Msl3, the two main components of the MSL complex. In the current study, we investigated potential roles of Peg3 in controlling its downstream genes through H4K16ac, the histone modification by the MSL complex. According to the results, complete removal of PEG3 resulted in up-regulation of Msl1 and Msl3, and subsequently an increase in the global levels of H4K16ac, confirming PEG3 as a transcriptional repressor for MSL during mammalian development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546430/cross-talk-between-the-h3k36me3-and-h4k16ac-histone-epigenetic-marks-in-dna-double-strand-break-repair
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lin Li, Yinsheng Wang
Post-translational modifications of histone proteins regulate numerous cellular processes. Among these modifications, trimethylation of lysine 36 in histone H3 (H3K36me3) and acetylation of lysine 16 in histone H4 (H4K16ac) have important roles in transcriptional regulation and DNA damage response signaling. However, whether these two epigenetic histone marks are mechanistically linked remains unclear. Here we discovered a new pathway through which H3K36me3 stimulates H4K16ac upon DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction in human cells...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524856/histone-variant-h3-3-orchestrates-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-in-the-developing-brain
#18
Wenlong Xia, Jianwei Jiao
During the brain development, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation is precisely regulated. The deficiency in the embryonic brain development will cause serious developmental disorders. Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in controlling proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem cells. Histone variants, as one of epigenetic regulators, have been reported to be associated with many bioprocesses. Among different variants, H3.3 is one of the important epigenetic regulators, but its role in embryonic NSCs remains unclear...
September 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524540/antineoplastic-effects-of-clove-buds-syzygium-aromaticum-l-in-the-model-of-breast-carcinoma
#19
Peter Kubatka, Sona Uramova, Martin Kello, Karol Kajo, Peter Kruzliak, Jan Mojzis, Desanka Vybohova, Marian Adamkov, Karina Jasek, Zora Lasabova, Pavol Zubor, Silvia Fialova, Svetlana Dokupilova, Peter Solar, Martin Pec, Katarina Adamicova, Jan Danko, Mariusz Adamek, Dietrich Busselberg
It is supposed that plant functional foods, rich in phytochemicals, may potentially have preventive effects in carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticancer effects of cloves in the in vivo and in vitro mammary carcinoma model were assessed. Dried flower buds of cloves (CLOs) were used at two concentrations of 0.1% and 1% through diet during 13 weeks after the application of chemocarcinogen. After autopsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of rat mammary carcinomas were performed. Moreover, in vitro evaluation using MCF-7 cells was carried out...
November 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500727/biological-function-and-histone-recognition-of-family-iv-bromodomain-containing-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan T Lloyd, Karen C Glass
Bromodomain proteins function as epigenetic readers that recognize acetylated histone tails to facilitate the transcription of target genes. There are approximately 60 known human bromodomains, which are divided into eight sub-families based on structural conservation. The bromodomain-containing proteins in family IV include seven members (BRPF1, BRPF2, BRPF3, BRD7, BRD9, ATAD2, and ATAD2b). The bromodomains of each of these proteins recognize and bind acetyllysine residues on histone tails protruding from the nucleosome...
March 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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