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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524856/histone-variant-h3-3-orchestrates-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-in-the-developing-brain
#1
Wenlong Xia, Jianwei Jiao
During the brain development, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation is precisely regulated. The deficiency in the embryonic brain development will cause serious developmental disorders. Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in controlling proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem cells. Histone variants, as one of epigenetic regulators, have been reported to be associated with many bioprocesses. Among different variants, H3.3 is one of the important epigenetic regulators, but its role in embryonic NSCs remains unclear...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524540/antineoplastic-effects-of-clove-buds-syzygium-aromaticum-l-in-the-model-of-breast-carcinoma
#2
Peter Kubatka, Sona Uramova, Martin Kello, Karol Kajo, Peter Kruzliak, Jan Mojzis, Desanka Vybohova, Marian Adamkov, Karina Jasek, Zora Lasabova, Pavol Zubor, Silvia Fialova, Svetlana Dokupilova, Peter Solar, Martin Pec, Katarina Adamicova, Jan Danko, Mariusz Adamek, Dietrich Busselberg
It is supposed that plant functional foods, rich in phytochemicals, may potentially have preventive effects in carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticancer effects of cloves in the in vivo and in vitro mammary carcinoma model were assessed. Dried flower buds of cloves (CLOs) were used at two concentrations of 0.1% and 1% through diet during 13 weeks after the application of chemocarcinogen. After autopsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of rat mammary carcinomas were performed. Moreover, in vitro evaluation using MCF-7 cells was carried out...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500727/biological-function-and-histone-recognition-of-family-iv-bromodomain-containing-proteins
#3
Jonathan T Lloyd, Karen C Glass
Bromodomain proteins function as epigenetic readers that recognize acetylated histone tails to facilitate the transcription of target genes. There are approximately 60 known human bromodomains, which are divided into 8 sub-families based on structural conservation. The bromodomain-containing proteins in family IV include 7 members (BRPF1, BRPF2, BRPF3, BRD7, BRD9, ATAD2 and ATAD2b). The bromodomains of each of these proteins recognize and bind acetyllysine residues on histone tails protruding from the nucleosome...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432260/dual-histone-reader-zmynd8-inhibits-cancer-cell-invasion-by-positively-regulating-epithelial-genes
#4
Moitri Basu, Isha Sengupta, Wasim Khan, Dushyant Kumar Srivastava, Partha Chakrabarti, Siddhartha Roy, Chandrima Das
Enhanced migratory potential and invasiveness of cancer cells attribute crucially.in cancer progression. These phenotypes are achieved by precise alteration of invasion-associated genes through local epigenetic modifications which are recognized by a class of proteins termed as chromatin reader. ZMYND8 (zinc finger MYND (Myeloid, Nervy and DEAF-1)-type containing 8), a key component of transcription regulatory network, has been recently shown to be a novel reader of H3.1K36Me2/H4K16Ac marks. Through differential gene expression analysis upon silencing this chromatin reader, we identified a subset of genes involved in cell proliferation and invasion/migration regulated by ZMYND8...
April 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381181/effect-of-histone-modifications-on-hmlh1-alternative-splicing-in-gastric-cancer
#5
Jin-Xuan Zhao, Xiao-Wei Li, Bing-Yu Shi, Fang Wang, Zheng-Rong Xu, Hai-Lan Meng, Yun-Yan Su, Jing-Mei Wang, Nong Xiao, Qiong He, Ya-Ping Wang, Yi-Mei Fan
hMLH1 is one of the mismatch genes closely related to the occurrence of gastric cancer. Epigenetic regulation may play more important roles than gene mutations in DNA damage repair genes to drive carcinogenesis. In this article, we discuss the role of epigenetic changes, especially histone modifications in the regulation of hMLH1 alternative splicing. Our results showed that hMLH1 delEx10, delEx11, delEx10-11, delEx16 and delEx17 transcripts were ubiquitous in sporadic Chinese gastric cancer patients and gastric cancer cell lines...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379622/histone-modifications-pattern-associated-with-a-state-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-cultures-derived-from-amniotic-fluid-of-normal-and-fetus-affected-gestations
#6
Jūratė Savickienė, Dalius Matuzevičius, Sandra Baronaitė, Gražina Treigytė, Natalija Krasovskaja, Ilona Zaikova, Dalius Navakauskas, Algirdas Utkus, Rūta Navakauskienė
Human amniotic fluid (AF)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sharing embryonic and adult stem cells characteristics are interesting by their multipotency and the usage for regenerative medicine. However, the usefulness of these cells for revealing the fetal diseases still needs to be assessed. Here, we have analyzed the epigenetic environment in terms of histone modifications in cultures of MSCs derived from AF of normal pregnancies and those with fetal abnormalities. The comparison of MSCs samples from AF of normal pregnancies (N) and fetus-affected (P) revealed two distinct cultures by their proliferation potential (P I and P II)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379447/wdr5-in-porcine-preimplantation-embryos-expression-regulation-of-epigenetic-modifications-and-requirement-for-early-development%C3%A2
#7
Biao Ding, Zubing Cao, Renyun Hong, Hui Li, Xiaoyuan Zuo, Lei Luo, Yunsheng Li, Weiping Huang, Wenyong Li, Kun Zhang, Yunhai Zhang
WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a member of conserved WD40 protein family, is an essential component of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) complexes, which are crucial for numerous key biological processes including methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4), self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, and formation of induced pluripotent stem cells. The expression pattern and functional role of WDR5 during porcine preimplantation embryonic development, however, remain unknown. Our results showed that the transcripts and protein of WDR5 exhibited stage-specific expression pattern in porcine early embryos...
April 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360947/a-novel-method-for-isolation-of-histones-from-serum-and-its-implications-in-therapeutics-and-prognosis-of-solid-tumours
#8
Divya Reddy, Bharat Khade, Riddhi Pandya, Sanjay Gupta
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation in post-translational modifications of histones and their modifiers are now well-recognized as a hallmark of cancer and can be used as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for disease progression and prognosis. In most solid tumours, a biopsy is challenging, costly, painful or potentially risky for the patient. Therefore, non-invasive methods like 'liquid biopsy' for analysis of histone modifications and their modifiers if possible will be helpful in the better clinical management of cancer patients...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357333/impact-of-histone-h4k16-acetylation-on-the-meiotic-recombination-checkpoint-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Santiago Cavero, Esther Herruzo, David Ontoso, Pedro A San-Segundo
In meiotic cells, the pachytene checkpoint or meiotic recombination checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that monitors critical processes, such as recombination and chromosome synapsis, which are essential for proper distribution of chromosomes to the meiotic progeny. Failures in these processes lead to the formation of aneuploid gametes. Meiotic recombination occurs in the context of chromatin; in fact, the histone methyltransferase Dot1 and the histone deacetylase Sir2 are known regulators of the pachytene checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
December 4, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357125/in-vitro-analysis-of-factors-influencing-cyp1a2-expression-as-potential-determinants-of-interindividual-variation
#10
ChengHui Xie, Marta Pogribna, Beverly Word, Lascelles Lyn-Cook, Beverly D Lyn-Cook, George J Hammons
Individual differences in drug metabolism contribute to interindividual variation that characterizes responses to drugs and risk in exposure to foreign chemicals. Large individual differences are found in expression levels of CYP1A2, a major drug-metabolizing enzyme. Underlying causes for this variation are not well understood. Several factors, including tobacco smoking, consumption of cruciferous vegetables, and sex, have been associated with modulating CYP1A2 expression. To understand factors regulating expression of CYP1A2 in establishing a causal relationship, this study examined effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), indole-3-carbinol (I3C), and 17β-estradiol (estradiol) on CYP1A2 expression in in vitro systems using human liver and lung cells...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349625/effects-of-melatonin-on-maturation-histone-acetylation-autophagy-of-porcine-oocytes-and-subsequent-embryonic-development
#11
Zhen Chen, Xiaoyuan Zuo, Hui Li, Renyun Hong, Biao Ding, Chengxue Liu, Di Gao, Hui Shang, Zubing Cao, Weiping Huang, Xiaorong Zhang, Yunhai Zhang
Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone with roles in animal germ cell development. However, the effect of MLT on porcine oocyte maturation and its underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous MLT on oocyte maturation, histone acetylation, autophagy and subsequent embryonic development. We found that 1 nmol/L MLT supplemented in maturation medium was the optimal concentration to promote porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent developmental competence and quality of parthenogenetic embryos...
March 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286024/erk-induced-activation-of-tcf-family-of-srf-cofactors-initiates-a-chromatin-modification-cascade-associated-with-transcription
#12
Cyril Esnault, Francesco Gualdrini, Stuart Horswell, Gavin Kelly, Aengus Stewart, Phil East, Nik Matthews, Richard Treisman
We investigated the relationship among ERK signaling, histone modifications, and transcription factor activity, focusing on the ERK-regulated ternary complex factor family of SRF partner proteins. In MEFs, activation of ERK by TPA stimulation induced a common pattern of H3K9acS10ph, H4K16ac, H3K27ac, H3K9acK14ac, and H3K4me3 at hundreds of transcription start site (TSS) regions and remote regulatory sites. The magnitude of the increase in histone modification correlated well with changes in transcription. H3K9acS10ph preceded the other modifications...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236006/histone-h3-and-h4-acetylation-patterns-are-more-dynamic-than-those-of-dna-methylation-in-brachypodium-distachyon-embryos-during-seed-maturation-and-germination
#13
Elzbieta Wolny, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska, Daria Kroczek, Robert Hasterok
The transition of seeds from a dry to a metabolically active state requires significant changes in both the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression, and this transcriptional reprogramming involves various modifications of the chromatin structure. There are several factors that can greatly influence the structure of chromatin, one of which is the chemical modifications of histone proteins and DNA itself. In this study, we analysed the distribution of three epigenetic markers, i.e. acetylation of histone H4 (H4K16ac) and histone H3 (H3K18ac) as well as DNA methylation (5mC) in Brachypodium distachyon embryos during the four stages of seed development-maturation, desiccation (quiescence), imbibition and germination...
February 24, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120189/hst1-increases-replicative-lifespan-of-a-sir2%C3%AE-mutant-in-the-absence-of-pde2-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Woo Kyu Kang, Mayur Devare, Jeong-Yoon Kim
Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), which is the founding member of the sirtuin family of proteins, is a pro-longevity factor for replicative lifespan (RLS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sir2 is required for transcriptional silencing at mating type loci, telomeres, and rDNA loci. Sir2 also represses transcription of highly expressed growth-related genes, such as PMA1 and some ribosomal protein genes. Although the Sir2 paralogues Hst1, Hst2, Hst3, and Hst4 occur in S. cerevisiae, none of them could replace the transcriptional regulation of PMA1 by Sir2 in the wild type...
February 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931745/histone-acetylation-regulates-chromatin-accessibility-role-of-h4k16-in-inter-nucleosome-interaction
#15
Ruihan Zhang, Jochen Erler, Jörg Langowski
The N-terminal tail of histone H4 is an indispensable mediator for inter-nucleosome interaction, which is required for chromatin fiber condensation. H4K16 acetylation (H4K16Ac) activates gene transcription by influencing both chromatin structure and interplay with nonhistone proteins. To understand the influence of H4K16Ac on inter-nucleosome interaction, we performed a simulation study for the H4 tail in the context of two nucleosomes in neighboring unit cells in the crystal structure. The binding conformation of H4 tail with/without K16Ac was sampled by replica exchange with solute tempering, and the free energy landscape was explored by metadynamics...
February 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827827/histone-acetyltransferase-activity-of-mof-is-required-for-adult-but-not-early-fetal-hematopoiesis-in-mice
#16
Daria G Valerio, Haiming Xu, Meghan E Eisold, Carolien M Woolthuis, Tej K Pandita, Scott A Armstrong
K(lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8, also known as MOF) mediates the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) and is crucial for murine embryogenesis. Lysine acetyltransferases have been shown to regulate various stages of normal hematopoiesis. However, the function of MOF in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development has not yet been elucidated. We set out to study the role of MOF in general hematopoiesis by using a Vav1-cre-induced conditional murine Mof knockout system and found that MOF is critical for hematopoietic cell maintenance and HSC engraftment capacity in adult hematopoiesis...
January 5, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792455/causal-role-of-histone-acetylations-in-enhancer-function
#17
Madapura M Pradeepa
Enhancers control development and cellular function by spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. Co-occurrence of acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) and mono methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1) has been widely used for identification of active enhancers. However, increasing evidence suggests that using this combination of marks alone for enhancer identification gives an incomplete picture of the active enhancer repertoire. We have shown that the H3 globular domain acetylations, H3K64ac and H3K122ac, and an H4 tail acetylation, H4K16ac, are enriched at active enhancers together with H3K27ac, and also at a large number of enhancers without detectable H3K27ac...
January 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777629/an-h4k16-histone-acetyltransferase-mediates-decondensation-of-the-x-chromosome-in-c-elegans-males
#18
Alyssa C Lau, Kevin P Zhu, Elizabeth A Brouhard, Michael B Davis, Györgyi Csankovszki
BACKGROUND: In C. elegans, in order to equalize gene expression between the sexes and balance X and autosomal expression, two steps are believed to be required. First, an unknown mechanism is hypothesized to upregulate the X chromosome in both sexes. This mechanism balances the X to autosomal expression in males, but creates X overexpression in hermaphrodites. Therefore, to restore the balance, hermaphrodites downregulate gene expression twofold on both X chromosomes. While many studies have focused on X chromosome downregulation, the mechanism of X upregulation is not known...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760318/phf20-readers-link-methylation-of-histone-h3k4-and-p53-with-h4k16-acetylation
#19
Brianna J Klein, Xiaoyan Wang, Gaofeng Cui, Chao Yuan, Maria Victoria Botuyan, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Xiaolu Wang, Yue Zhao, Christiane J Bruns, Georges Mer, Xiaobing Shi, Tatiana G Kutateladze
PHF20 is a core component of the lysine acetyltransferase complex MOF (male absent on the first)-NSL (non-specific lethal) that generates the major epigenetic mark H4K16ac and is necessary for transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The role of PHF20 in the complex remains elusive. Here, we report on functional coupling between methylation readers in PHF20. We show that the plant homeodomain (PHD) finger of PHF20 recognizes dimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me2) and represents an example of a native reader that selects for this modification...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733505/tet1-modulates-h4k16-acetylation-by-controlling-auto-acetylation-of-hmof-to-affect-gene-regulation-and-dna-repair-function
#20
Jianing Zhong, Xianfeng Li, Wanshi Cai, Yan Wang, Shanshan Dong, Jie Yang, Jian'an Zhang, Nana Wu, Yuanyuan Li, Fengbiao Mao, Cheng Zeng, Jinyu Wu, Xingzhi Xu, Zhong Sheng Sun
The Ten Eleven Translocation 1 (TET1) protein is a DNA demethylase that regulates gene expression through altering statue of DNA methylation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that TET1 could modulate transcriptional expression independent of its DNA demethylation activity; yet, the detailed mechanisms underlying TET1's role in such transcriptional regulation remain not well understood. Here, we uncovered that Tet1 formed a chromatin complex with histone acetyltransferase Mof and scaffold protein Sin3a in mouse embryonic stem cells by integrative genomic analysis using publicly available ChIP-seq data sets and a series of in vitro biochemical studies in human cell lines...
January 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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