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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742075/are-individuals-with-higher-psychopathic-traits-better-learners-at-lying-behavioural-and-neural-evidence
#1
R Shao, T M C Lee
High psychopathy is characterized by untruthfulness and manipulativeness. However, existing evidence on higher propensity or capacity to lie among non-incarcerated high-psychopathic individuals is equivocal. Of particular importance, no research has investigated whether greater psychopathic tendency is associated with better 'trainability' of lying. An understanding of whether the neurobehavioral processes of lying are modifiable through practice offers significant theoretical and practical implications. By employing a longitudinal design involving university students with varying degrees of psychopathic traits, we successfully demonstrate that the performance speed of lying about face familiarity significantly improved following two sessions of practice, which occurred only among those with higher, but not lower, levels of psychopathic traits...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741679/comparing-social-group-identifications-and-socioeconomic-deprivation-as-predictors-of-psychological-distress-evidence-from-a-scottish-primary-care-sample
#2
Fabia Cientanni, Kevin Power, Fabio Sani, Christopher Wright, Frances Baty, Kerry Hustings, David Morgan, Gary Tanner
Social group identification and socioeconomic deprivation have both been linked to self-reported depressive symptoms in general population samples; however, no study to date has explored the strength of the joint predictive value of these factors within a mental health population. The current study explored the impact of social group identifications and socioeconomic deprivation, together with important clinical and demographic variables, on psychological distress in a Scottish mental health sample. Participants (N = 976) were recruited from referrals to a computerized cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) programme in Scotland, 'Beating the Blues' (BtB) over a 25-month period...
July 25, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741423/cognitive-control-in-young-adults-with-cannabis-use-disorder-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#3
David Lr Maij, Ben Jm van de Wetering, Ingmar Ha Franken
Contemporary models of substance use disorders emphasize the role of cognitive control, which has been linked to difficulties in resisting the use of substances. In the present study, we measured two aspects of cognitive control, response inhibition (operationalized by a Go/NoGo Task) and performance monitoring (operationalized by an Eriksen Flanker Task), in a group of young cannabis-use disorder (CUD) patients and compared these functions with two control groups (i.e. a group of cigarette smokers and a group of non-smokers)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739536/time2bhealthy-an-online-childhood-obesity-prevention-program-for-preschool-aged-children-a-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#4
Megan L Hammersley, Rachel A Jones, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: The use of parent-focused internet-based programs for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity has shown promise but there is an acknowledged gap in parent-focused interventions which target the early childhood stage. METHODS: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of Time2bHealthy - an online healthy lifestyle program for parents of preschool-aged children. The program will be evaluated using a two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled design...
July 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739131/ibudilast-reduces-oxaliplatin-induced-tactile-allodynia-and-cognitive-impairments-in-rats
#5
Ian N Johnston, Manuela Tan, Jacob Cao, Antigone Matsos, Daniel R L Forrest, Emily Si, Joanna E Fardell, Mark R Hutchinson
Chemotherapy can cause serious neurotoxic side effects, such as painful peripheral neuropathies and disabling cognitive impairments. Four experiments examined whether Ibudilast, a clinically approved neuroimmune therapy, would reduce tactile allodynia and memory impairments caused by oxaliplatin in laboratory rats. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin (6mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle and were assessed for tactile allodynia 3 or 5days after injection, memory impairments in the novel object and novel location recognition tests 10-12days after injection, and fear conditioning 14days after injection...
July 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738854/understanding-clinician-attitudes-towards-implementation-of-guided-self-help-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-those-who-hear-distressing-voices-using-factor-analysis-to-test-normalisation-process-theory
#6
Cassie M Hazell, Clara Strauss, Mark Hayward, Kate Cavanagh
BACKGROUND: The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) has been used to understand the implementation of physical health care interventions. The current study aims to apply the NPT model to a secondary mental health context, and test the model using exploratory factor analysis. This study will consider the implementation of a brief cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) intervention. METHODS: Mental health clinicians were asked to complete a NPT-based questionnaire on the implementation of a brief CBTp intervention...
July 24, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738850/brain-biomarkers-and-pre-injury-cognition-are-associated-with-long-term-cognitive-outcome-in-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Amy A Wilkinson, Maureen Dennis, Nevena Simic, Margot J Taylor, Benjamin R Morgan, Helena Frndova, Karen Choong, Craig Campbell, Douglas Fraser, Vicki Anderson, Anne-Marie Guerguerian, Russell Schachar, Jamie Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequently at risk of long-term impairments of attention and executive functioning but these problems are difficult to predict. Although deficits have been reported to vary with injury severity, age at injury and sex, prognostication of outcome remains imperfect at a patient-specific level. The objective of this proof of principle study was to evaluate a variety of patient variables, along with six brain-specific and inflammatory serum protein biomarkers, as predictors of long-term cognitive outcome following paediatric TBI...
July 24, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738347/negative-beliefs-about-voices-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-are-associated-with-distress-a-plea-for-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#8
Christina W Slotema, Jan Dirk Blom, Mathijs Deen, Marieke B A Niemantsverdriet, Mark van der Gaag, Hans W Hoek, Iris E C Sommer
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are experienced by 21-54% of patients diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), and ensuing distress is often high. Little is known about the beliefs these patients foster about their voices, and the influence thereof on distress and need for hospitalisation. METHODS: In a convenience sample of 38 BPD outpatients with AVH, data were collected with the aid of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), Beliefs about Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ), Social Comparison Rating Scale (SCRS), and Voice Power Differential Scale (VPDS)...
July 22, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737261/does-prolonged-grief-treatment-foster-posttraumatic-growth-secondary-results-from-a-treatment-study-with-long-term-follow-up-and-mediation-analysis
#9
Helga Bartl, Maria Hagl, Michaela Kotoučová, Gabriele Pfoh, Rita Rosner
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a persistent and disabling kind of grief reaction that can be treated effectively with psychotherapeutic interventions. There has been limited investigation of whether these interventions can also enhance positive outcomes of bereavement, such as posttraumatic growth or benefit finding. DESIGN: As part of secondary analyses in a randomized controlled trial evaluating integrative cognitive-behavioural therapy for PGD (PG-CBT), the posttraumatic growth trajectories in 51 outpatients with clinically relevant prolonged grief symptoms were followed up from baseline up to 1...
July 24, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735593/virtual-reality-in-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-its-utility-acceptability-and-effectiveness
#10
M Rus-Calafell, P Garety, E Sason, T J K Craig, L R Valmaggia
Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid increase of studies testing the efficacy and acceptability of virtual reality in the assessment and treatment of mental health problems. This systematic review was carried out to investigate the use of virtual reality in the assessment and the treatment of psychosis. Web of Science, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest and PubMed databases were searched, resulting in the identification of 638 articles potentially eligible for inclusion; of these, 50 studies were included in the review...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735368/mdma-induced-indifference-to-negative-sounds-is-mediated-by-the-5-ht2a-receptor
#11
K P C Kuypers, R de la Torre, Farre, N Pizarro, L Xicota, J G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND: MDMA has been shown to induce feelings of sociability, a positive emotional bias and enhanced empathy. While previous research has used only visual emotional stimuli, communication entails more than that single dimension and it is known that auditory information is also crucial in this process. In addition, it is, however, unclear what the neurobiological mechanism underlying these MDMA effects on social behaviour is. Previously, studies have shown that MDMA-induced emotional excitability and positive mood are linked to the action on the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735159/gender-comparisons-in-children-with-asd-entering-early-intervention
#12
Alexandra M Fulton, Jessica M Paynter, David Trembath
BACKGROUND: Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital...
July 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734026/falling-into-a-routine-from-habits-to-situated-practices
#13
Simon Cohn, Rebecca Lynch
In line with the concept of 'nudging' people to change their behaviour, there has been increased attention on habit as a focus for psychologically-based health interventions. It is hoped that behaviours initiated by interventions not only become so regular that they are normalised into people's everyday lives, but that through repetition they may eventually become fixed and habitual. In this paper we draw on people's accounts of participating in a trial designed to encourage greater physical activity, and attend to the ways they describe their engagement with interventions within wider narratives of their everyday lives...
July 21, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733911/effects-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-depression-in-heart-failure-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Kishaan Jeyanantham, Dipak Kotecha, Devsaagar Thanki, Rebecca Dekker, Deirdre A Lane
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on depression, quality of life, hospitalisations and mortality in heart failure patients. The search strategy was developed for Ovid MEDLINE and modified accordingly to search the following bibliographic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and CINAHL. Databases were searched from inception to 6 March 2016 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies that used CBT in heart failure patients with depression or depressive symptoms...
July 22, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733268/carriers-of-an-apolipoprotein-e-epsilon-4-allele-are-more-vulnerable-to-a-dietary-deficiency-in-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cognitive-decline
#15
REVIEW
Tanya Gwendolyn Nock, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Mélanie Plourde
Carriers of an epsilon 4 allele (E4) of apolipoprotein E (APOE) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) earlier than carriers of other APOE alleles. The metabolism of plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), an omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), taken up by the brain and concentrated in neurons, is disrupted in E4 carriers, resulting in lower levels of brain DHA. Behavioural and cognitive impairments have been observed in animals with lower brain DHA levels, with emphasis on loss of spatial memory and increased anxiety...
July 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730865/psychological-assessment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#16
Liya Pan, Xiaxi Li, Yi Feng, Li Hong
Objective This study aimed to analyse the psychological conditions and behaviour of a group of Chinese children and adolescents with obesity, and to develop an intervention for these young patients. Methods A group of 72 patients aged from 4 to 15 years were recruited from an obesity clinic. Patients, or the parents of children younger than 12 years, filled out a series of self-report questionnaires, and the responses were recorded and analysed. Results The 72 children and adolescents with obesity had a mean age of 9...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#17
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730634/does-perceived-stress-moderate-the-association-between-depressive-symptoms-and-socioemotional-and-behavioural-strengths-and-difficulties-in-adolescence
#18
Alexander Lätsch
More and more students report high level of perceived stress during childhood and adolescence, which is associated with socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties. This study aims-based on the cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory-to examine perceived stress in early adolescence as a potential moderator in the association between depressive symptoms and socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties from early to middle adolescence. Results of latent moderated structural equations with questionnaire data from a longitudinal study with 1,088 German students (Time 1: Mage  = 13...
July 21, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729755/social-cognition-deficits-current-position-and-future-directions-for-neuropsychological-interventions-in-cerebrovascular-disease
#19
REVIEW
Progress Njomboro
Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits)...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729345/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Georgina Krebs, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, David Mataix-Cols
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and disabling psychiatric disorder characterised by excessive and persistent preoccupation with perceived defects or flaws in one's appearance, which are unnoticeable to others, and associated repetitive behaviours (eg, mirror checking). The disorder generally starts in adolescence, but often goes unnoticed and is severely underdiagnosed. Left untreated, BDD typically persists and causes marked functional impairment in multiple domains. This clinical review considers recent advances in the epidemiology and classification of BDD, including its reclassification in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders under the new 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' chapter...
July 20, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
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