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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929475/-mild-behavioural-impairment-as-an-antecedent-of-dementia-presentation-of-the-diagnostic-criteria-and-the-spanish-version-of-the-mbi-c-scale-for-its-evaluation
#1
REVIEW
L F Aguera-Ortiz, J Lopez-Alvarez, L Del Nido-Varo, E Soria Garcia-Rosel, D A Perez-Martinez, Z Ismail
INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in dementia and also in previous stages such as mild cognitive impairment. Their presence is related to greater conversion to dementia in cognitively healthy people or with mild cognitive impairment compared to those who do not suffer them. AIM: An international working group pertaining to the Alzheimer Association has proposed the concept of 'mild behavioral impairment' (MBI) to identify patients with mild neuropsychiatric symptoms and normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment and to study the further risk of developing dementia from any cause...
October 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927864/anorexia-nervosa-and-childhood-sexual-abuse-treatment-outcomes-of-intensive-enhanced-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#2
Simona Calugi, Cecilia Franchini, Silvia Pivari, Maddalena Conti, Marwan El Ghoch, Riccardo Dalle Grave
Sexual abuse has been widely studied as a risk factor in anorexia nervosa, but data on its influence on treatment outcomes are scarce. Hence, we compared short- and long-term outcomes of inpatient enhanced cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT-E) in patients with anorexia nervosa who had and had not suffered sexual abuse. Eighty-one patients were recruited, and body mass index (BMI), Eating Disorder Examination, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were recorded before and after treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927228/management-of-chronic-pain-through-pain-management-programmes
#3
I R Wilson
Introduction: Chronic pain carries significant impact and is difficult to treat with limited success. Pain management programmes (PMPs) use cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based multidisciplinary rehabilitative approaches to drive functional improvement. Sources of data: A search was conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library to identify published literature about PMPs or CBT to treat chronic pain. Areas of agreement: PMPs have significant benefit on functioning for some patients but relatively little impact on the pain...
September 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926526/group-interventions-to-reduce-emotional-distress-and-fatigue-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-9-month-follow-up-pragmatic-trial
#4
Charlotte Grégoire, Isabelle Bragard, Guy Jerusalem, Anne-Marie Etienne, Philippe Coucke, Gilles Dupuis, Dominique Lanctôt, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of psychosocial interventions to reduce emotional distress, sleep difficulties, and fatigue of breast cancer patients are rarely examined. We aim to assess the effectiveness of three group interventions, based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), yoga, and self-hypnosis, in comparison to a control group at a 9-month follow-up. METHODS: A total of 123 patients chose to participate in one of the interventions. A control group was set up for those who agreed not to participate...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922067/conceptual-elaboration-versus-direct-lexical-access-in-wais-similarities-differential-effects-of-white-matter-lesions-and-gray-matter-volumes
#5
Sven-Erik Fernaeus, Åke Hellström
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921770/does-an-observer-s-empathy-influence-my-pain-effect-of-perceived-empathetic-or-unempathetic-support-in-a-pain-test
#6
C Fauchon, I Faillenot, A M Perrin, C Borg, V Pichot, F Chouchou, L Garcia-Larrea, R Peyron
The physiological and behavioural effects of empathy for other's pain have been widely investigated, while the opposite situation, i.e. the influence on one's pain of empathetic feedback from others, remains largely unexplored. Here, we assessed whether and how empathetic and unempathetic comments from observers modulate pain and associated vegetative reactions. In Study 1, conversations between observers of a pain study were recorded by professional actors. Comments were prepared to be perceived as empathetic, unempathetic, or neutral, and were validated in 40 subjects...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921543/language-growth-in-children-with-heterogeneous-language-disorders-a-population-study
#7
Courtenay Frazier Norbury, George Vamvakas, Debbie Gooch, Gillian Baird, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. METHODS: SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921487/family-support-and-gains-in-school-readiness-a-longitudinal-study
#8
Claire Hughes, Naomi White, Sarah Foley, Rory T Devine
BACKGROUND: Traditional measures of school readiness are labour-intensive and do not assess family support. AIMS: The current study used the newly developed Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI: Hughes, Daly, Foley, White and Devine 2015) to examine 6-month longitudinal stability and change in teachers' ratings of young children's school readiness and investigate the role of family support as a predictor of school readiness. SAMPLE: Five hundred and seventy-eight children (270 boys; 74...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920569/high-functioning-autism-patients-share-similar-but-more-severe-impairments-in-verbal-theory-of-mind-than-schizophrenia-patients
#9
L N W Tin, S S Y Lui, K K Y Ho, K S Y Hung, Y Wang, H K H Yeung, T Y Wong, S M Lam, R C K Chan, E F C Cheung
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance. METHODS: Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited...
September 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919156/chronic-low-back-pain-and-the-transdiagnostic-process-how-do-cognitive-and-emotional-dysregulations-contribute-to-the-intensity-of-risk-factors-and-pain
#10
M Le Borgne, A H Boudoukha, A Petit, Y Roquelaure
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Based on a transdiagnostic approach, this study assesses the impact of cognitive and emotional processes (difficulties in emotional regulation, impulsiveness, rumination and somatosensory amplification) on the psychological risk factors of chronic low-back pain. METHODS: The study was carried out with 256 patients with chronic low-back pain. All the variables were assessed through a booklet of 10 validated questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis and moderation analysis were performed...
September 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918315/does-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-insomnia-improve-cognitive-performance-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#11
REVIEW
Vanessa Herbert, Simon D Kyle, Daniel Pratt
Individuals with insomnia report difficulties pertaining to their cognitive functioning. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is associated with robust, long-term improvements in sleep parameters, however less is known about the impact of CBT-I on the daytime correlates of the disorder. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted in order to summarise and evaluate the evidence regarding the impact of CBT-I on cognitive functioning. Reference databases were searched and studies were included if they assessed cognitive performance as an outcome of CBT-I, using either self-report questionnaires or cognitive tests...
July 12, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918179/-analysis-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disorder-copd-who-give-up-smoking
#12
C A Jimenez-Ruiz, J F Pascual Lledó, A Cícero Guerrero, M Cristóbal Fernández, M Mayayo Ulibarri, C Villar Laguna
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact in COPD patients' quality of life who stop smoking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a group of COPD patients who received smoking cessation treatment. All patients were treated with bronchodilators according to the severity of their disorder. This treatment was not changed during the process of smoking cessation. Patients received a smoking cessation programme that consisted of a combination of pharmacological treatment plus cognitive-behavioural treatment...
September 13, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#13
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917364/managing-childhood-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-with-exercise-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Collin Yih Xian Ho, Hwei Wuen Chan, Bob Zheng Jie Yong, Wee-Song Yeo
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting some 8-10% of children worldwide. Increasing research has shed light on the life course of the disorder, suggesting that majority of children with ADHD will continue to have persistent symptoms into adulthood. The mainstay of ADHD management has been pharmacologic and behavioural/psychological interventions, with little attention paid to exercise as a potential management strategy...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917271/cognitive-impairment-and-chemotherapy-a-brief-overview
#15
REVIEW
Milena Vitali, Carla Ida Ripamonti, Fausto Roila, Claudia Proto, Diego Signorelli, Martina Imbimbo, Giulia Corrao, Angela Brissa, Gallucci Rosaria, Filippo de Braud, Marina Chiara Garassino, Giuseppe Lo Russo
Patients with cancer are experiencing long-term survival following chemotherapy, but the treatment may also be associated with short and long-term toxicity, including the possibility of cognitive dysfunction. A literature overview indicated a significant association between chemotherapy and cognitive impairment but prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of this decline. Although chemotherapeutic agents are unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier, it has been alleged that the occurrence of neurotoxicity is linked to the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917215/a-pilot-controlled-trial-of-a-cognitive-dissonance-based-body-dissatisfaction-intervention-with-young-british-men
#16
Glen S Jankowski, Phillippa C Diedrichs, Melissa J Atkinson, Helen Fawkner, Brendan Gough, Emma Halliwell
This pilot study evaluated a body image intervention for men, Body Project M. Seventy-four British undergraduate men took part in two 90-min intervention sessions, and completed standardised assessments of body image, bulimic pathology, and related outcomes at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Fifty-three other men completed the questionnaires as an assessment-only control group. Per-protocol analysis showed that Body Project M improved men's dissatisfaction with body fat and muscularity, body appreciation, muscularity enhancing behaviours, appearance comparisons, and internalization (ds=0...
September 13, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917095/turning-movements-vehicle-offsets-and-ageing-drivers-driving-behaviour-at-channelized-and-unchannelized-intersections
#17
Jaisung Choi, Richard Tay, Sangyoup Kim, Seungwon Jeong
Ageing drivers experience a higher risk of intersection crashes because of their decrease in driving efficiency, including the decline in cognitive ability, head and neck flexibility, and visual acuity. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with ageing driver crashes at intersections, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors related to ageing drivers' turning paths and intersection geometric features. This study aims to improve the safety of ageing drivers at intersections by identifying the maneuvers that are risky for them and tracking their turning movements at selected intersections...
September 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916808/the-effects-of-domestication-and-ontogeny-on-cognition-in-dogs-and-wolves
#18
Michelle Lampe, Juliane Bräuer, Juliane Kaminski, Zsófia Virányi
Cognition is one of the most flexible tools enabling adaptation to environmental variation. Living close to humans is thought to influence social as well as physical cognition of animals throughout domestication and ontogeny. Here, we investigated to what extent physical cognition and two domains of social cognition of dogs have been affected by domestication and ontogeny. To address the effects of domestication, we compared captive wolves (n = 12) and dogs (n = 14) living in packs under the same conditions...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916521/behavioural-modeling-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-supramodality-in-human-metacognition
#19
Nathan Faivre, Elisa Filevich, Guillermo Solovey, Simone Kühn, Olaf Blanke
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915381/adult-vitamin-d-deficiency-exacerbates-impairments-caused-by-social-stress-in-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Natalie J Groves, Mei Zhou, Dhanisha J Jhaveri, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in adults throughout the world. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment. However, studies based on observational epidemiology cannot address questions of causality; they cannot determine if vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor leading to the adverse health outcome...
September 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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