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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721818/eurycoma-longifolia-a-potential-phytomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-cancer-evidence-of-p53-mediated-apoptosis-in-cancerous-cells
#1
Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia is a well-documented herbal medicine that has gained widespread recognition due to its versatile pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-malarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, anti-rheumatism and anti-ulcer. Plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies evidenced their excellent anti-proliferative and anticancer efficacy against various types of human cancers. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically analyze the therapeutic viability and anticancer efficacy of Eurycoma longifolia in the treatment of cancer and also to propose its molecular and translational mechanism of cytotoxicity against cancerous cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#2
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720411/modeling-mechanical-control-of-spindle-orientation-of-intestinal-crypt-stem-cells
#3
Zsolt Bertalan, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
Tissue development requires a control over the sequence of symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions to obtain the specific numbers of differentiated cells populating the tissue and stem cells residing in the niche. A good experimental model to study this process is the mouse intestinal crypt development, where it has been shown that stem cells follow an optimal strategy in which asymmetric division occurs only after all symmetric divisions have taken place to reach a fixed number of cells in the niche in the shortest time...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720124/defining-the-role-of-lgr5-stem-cells-in-colorectal-cancer-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#4
Masayuki Fujii, Toshiro Sato
Intestinal epithelium is structured by two distinct components: the villi and the crypts. The crypts harbor stem cells expressing Lgr5 and thus have been a representative model to study tissue stem cell functions. Recent advances in organoid technology and analytical modalities have enabled precise characterization of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells, providing insights into their roles in homeostasis and cancer.
July 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719867/tissue-homeostasis-and-aging-new-insight-from-the-fly-intestine
#5
REVIEW
Louis Gervais, Allison J Bardin
Adult somatic stem cells facilitate tissue homeostasis throughout the life of the organism. The mechanisms controlling stem cell activity are under intense scrutiny, with the aims of elucidating how they mediate tissue homeostasis, contribute to age-related decline of adult tissues, and promote tumorigenesis. Recently, the use of model systems such as the Drosophila intestine has enriched our understanding of how stem cells integrate local and systemic signals to maintain tissue and organs function in physiological conditions of homeostasis or after damage...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718708/enhanced-bone-repair-induced-by-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-on-osteogenic-extracellular-matrix-ornamented-small-intestinal-submucosa
#6
Chi Zhang, Mei Li, Jinjin Zhu, Fangmiao Luo, Jiyuan Zhao
AIM: Our aim was to design an osteogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) coated bioscaffold and to apply it to critical bone defect repair with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). MATERIALS & METHODS: Morphology of scaffolds was scanned by scanning electron microscope. Cell adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs on ECM-small intestinal submucosa (SIS) were evaluated by immunofluorescences staining, cell counting kit-8 and real-time qPCR, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718412/stem-cells-cancer-and-musashi-in-blood-and-guts
#7
REVIEW
Michael G Kharas, Christopher J Lengner
The mammalian MSI family of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have important roles as oncoproteins in an array of tumor types, including leukemias, glioblastomas, and pancreatic, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers. The mammalian Msi genes, Msi1 and Msi2, have been most thoroughly investigated in two highly proliferative tissues prone to oncogenic transformation: the hematopoietic lineage and the intestinal epithelium. Despite their vast phenotypic differences, MSI proteins appear to have an analogous role in governing the stem cell compartment in both of these tissues, potentially providing a paradigm for a broader understanding of MSI function and oncogenic activities...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716720/met-signaling-mediates-intestinal-crypt-villus-development-regeneration-and-adenoma-formation-and-is-promoted-by-stem-cell-cd44-isoforms
#8
Sander P J Joosten, Jurrit Zeilstra, Harmen van Andel, R Clinton Mijnals, Joost Zaunbrecher, Annet A M Duivenvoorden, Marc van de Wetering, Hans Clevers, Marcel Spaargaren, Steven T Pals
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Resistance of metastatic human colorectal cancer cells to drugs that block epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling could be caused by aberrant activity of other receptor tyrosine kinases, activating overlapping signaling pathways. One of these receptor tyrosine kinases could be MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated how MET signaling, and its interaction with CD44 (a putative MET co-receptor regulated by Wnt signaling and highly expressed by intestinal stem cells [ISCs] and adenomas) affects intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and adenoma formation in mini-gut organoids and mice...
July 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711168/surgical-treatment-of-intestinal-complications-of-graft-versus-host-disease-in-the-pediatric-population-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#9
REVIEW
Camille A Gutierrez, Mehul V Raval, Hannah R Vester, Sonali Chaudhury, Daniel von Allmen, David H Rothstein
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intestinal complications of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) include hemorrhage and perforation in the short-term, and stricture with bowel obstruction in the long-term. As medical management of severe aGVHD has improved, more patients are surviving even advanced stages of intestinal aGVHD. This review summarizes the available pediatric literature on surgical treatment of complications of intestinal GVHD. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Scopus databases...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708826/intestinal-stem-cell-overproliferation-resulting-from-inactivation-of-the-apc-tumor-suppressor-requires-the-transcription-cofactors-earthbound-and-erect-wing
#10
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Zhenghan Wang, Chloe Zimmerman, Nan Xin, Jessica Perochon, Gabriela Kalna, Owen J Sansom, Chao Cheng, Julia B Cordero, Yashi Ahmed
Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction directs intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation during homeostasis. Hyperactivation of Wnt signaling initiates colorectal cancer, which most frequently results from truncation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). The β-catenin-TCF transcription complex activates both the physiological expression of Wnt target genes in the normal intestinal epithelium and their aberrantly increased expression in colorectal tumors. Whether mechanistic differences in the Wnt transcription machinery drive these distinct levels of target gene activation in physiological versus pathological states remains uncertain, but is relevant for the design of new therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703786/fistulizing-crohn-s-disease
#11
Michael Scharl, Gerhard Rogler, Luc Biedermann
Fistulas still represent one of the most important complications in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). At least one third of CD patients suffer from fistulas during their disease course and amongst them longstanding remission of complex fistulas occurs only in about one third. So far, fistula pathogenesis is only partially understood. From a histopathological view, a fistula is a tube covered by flat epithelial cells. Current research suggests that the driving force for fistula development is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
July 13, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703110/cell-therapy-in-surgical-treatment-of-fistulas-preliminary-results
#12
Marcin Piejko, Michał Romaniszyn, Julia Borowczyk-Michałowska, Justyna Drukała, Piotr Wałęga
Risk of recurrence after surgical treatment of a recurrent fistula is up to 50%. It has be known that more aggressive surgical treatment is associated with a high risk of anal sphincter damage and leads to incontinence. Several studies have been designed to elaborate minimally invasive treatment of rectovaginal and anal fistulas. The properties of Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASC) significantly enhance a natural healing potency. Here, we present our experience with combined surgical and cell therapy in the treatment of fistulas...
June 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701721/tsg-6-secreted-by-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorates-dss-induced-colitis-by-inducing-m2-macrophage-polarization-in-mice
#13
Woo-Jin Song, Qiang Li, Min-Ok Ryu, Jin-Ok Ahn, Dong Ha Bhang, Yun Chan Jung, Hwa-Young Youn
Previous studies have revealed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by modulating inflammatory cytokines in the inflamed intestine. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely understood. We sought to investigate the therapeutic effects of human adipose tissue-derived (hAT)-MSCs in an IBD mouse model and to explore the mechanisms of the regulation of inflammation. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice were infused with hAT-MSCs intraperitoneally and colon tissues were collected on day 10...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697749/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-acinetobacter-strains-isolated-from-murine-colonic-crypts
#14
Azadeh Saffarian, Marie Touchon, Céline Mulet, Régis Tournebize, Virginie Passet, Sylvain Brisse, Eduardo P C Rocha, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
BACKGROUND: A restricted set of aerobic bacteria dominated by the Acinetobacter genus was identified in murine intestinal colonic crypts. The vicinity of such bacteria with intestinal stem cells could indicate that they protect the crypt against cytotoxic and genotoxic signals. Genome analyses of these bacteria were performed to better appreciate their biodegradative capacities. RESULTS: Two taxonomically different clusters of Acinetobacter were isolated from murine proximal colonic crypts, one was identified as A...
July 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694461/endothelial-hey2-deletion-reduces-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-mitigates-radiation-proctitis-in-mice
#15
Elodie Mintet, Jérémy Lavigne, Vincent Paget, Georges Tarlet, Valérie Buard, Olivier Guipaud, Jean-Christophe Sabourin, Maria-Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Fabien Milliat, Agnès François
The current study evaluated the role of Hey2 transcription factor in radiation-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and its impact on radiation-induced tissue damage in mice. Phenotypic modifications of irradiated, Hey2 siRNA- and Hey2 vector plasmid-transfected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) resembling EndoMT were monitored by qPCR, immunocytochemistry and western blots. Subsequently, in mice, a Cre-LoxP strategy for inactivation of Hey2 specifically in the endothelium was used to study the biological consequences...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686870/intestinal-enteroendocrine-lineage-cells-possess-homeostatic-and-injury-inducible-stem-cell-activity
#16
Kelley S Yan, Olivier Gevaert, Grace X Y Zheng, Benedict Anchang, Christopher S Probert, Kathryn A Larkin, Paige S Davies, Zhuan-Fen Cheng, John S Kaddis, Arnold Han, Kelly Roelf, Ruben I Calderon, Esther Cynn, Xiaoyi Hu, Komal Mandleywala, Julie Wilhelmy, Sue M Grimes, David C Corney, Stéphane C Boutet, Jessica M Terry, Phillip Belgrader, Solongo B Ziraldo, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Fengchao Wang, Richard J von Furstenberg, Nicholas R Smith, Parthasarathy Chandrakesan, Randal May, Mary Ann S Chrissy, Rajan Jain, Christine A Cartwright, Joyce C Niland, Young-Kwon Hong, Jill Carrington, David T Breault, Jonathan Epstein, Courtney W Houchen, John P Lynch, Martin G Martin, Sylvia K Plevritis, Christina Curtis, Hanlee P Ji, Linheng Li, Susan J Henning, Melissa H Wong, Calvin J Kuo
Several cell populations have been reported to possess intestinal stem cell (ISC) activity during homeostasis and injury-induced regeneration. Here, we explored inter-relationships between putative mouse ISC populations by comparative RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). The transcriptomes of multiple cycling ISC populations closely resembled Lgr5(+) ISCs, the most well-defined ISC pool, but Bmi1-GFP(+) cells were distinct and enriched for enteroendocrine (EE) markers, including Prox1. Prox1-GFP(+) cells exhibited sustained clonogenic growth in vitro, and lineage-tracing of Prox1(+) cells revealed long-lived clones during homeostasis and after radiation-induced injury in vivo...
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686868/stem-cells-all-that-is-solid-melts-into-air
#17
Maartje van der Heijden, Louis Vermeulen
The intestinal epithelium displays great resilience, as several cell populations can replenish the stem cell pool upon damage. Two studies in Cell Stem Cell extend this capacity to enteroendocrine cells, addressing the molecular basis underlying cellular plasticity observed in the intestine and the identities of putative reserve stem cells.
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686852/integrated-meta-omic-analyses-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-microbiome-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#18
Anne Kaysen, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Emilie E L Muller, Shaman Narayanasamy, Linda Wampach, Cédric C Laczny, Norbert Graf, Arne Simon, Katharina Franke, Jörg Bittenbring, Paul Wilmes, Jochen G Schneider
In patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), treatment-induced changes to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome have been linked to adverse outcomes, most notably graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). However, it is presently unknown whether this relationship is causal or consequential. Here, we performed an integrated meta-omic analysis to probe deeper into the GIT microbiome changes, during allo-HSCT, and its accompanying treatments. We used 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to resolve archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes within the GIT microbiomes of 16 patients undergoing allo-HSCT for the treatment of hematologic malignancies...
June 20, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686579/synergy-between-prkdc-and-trp53-regulates-stem-cell-proliferation-and-gi-ars-after-irradiation
#19
Kay E Gurley, Amanda K Ashley, Russell D Moser, Christopher J Kemp
Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the most widely used treatments for cancer. However, acute damage to the gastrointestinal tract or gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS) is a major dose-limiting side effect, and the mechanisms that underlie this remain unclear. Here we use mouse models to explore the relative roles of DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in radiation response. IR induces DNA double strand breaks and DNA-PK mutant Prkdc(scid/scid) mice are sensitive to GI-ARS due to an inability to repair these breaks...
July 7, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684459/dclk1-expressing-tuft-cells-critical-modulators-of-the-intestinal-niche
#20
Moritz Middelhoff, C Benedikt Westphalen, Yoku Hayakawa, Kelley S Yan, Michael D Gershon, Timothy C Wang, Michael Quante
Dclk1-expressing tuft cells constitute a unique intestinal epithelial lineage that is distinct from enterocytes, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells. Tuft cells express taste-related receptors and distinct transcription factors, and interact closely with the enteric nervous system, suggesting a chemosensory cell lineage. In addition, recent work has shown that tuft cells interact closely with cells of the immune system, with a critical role in the cellular regulatory network governing responses to luminal parasites...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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