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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150632/mucoadhesive-functionality-of-cell-wall-structures-from-fruits-and-grains-electrostatic-and-polymer-network-interactions-mediated-by-soluble-dietary-polysaccharides
#1
Oliver W Meldrum, Gleb E Yakubov, Ghanendra Gartaula, Michael A McGuckin, Michael J Gidley
We demonstrate the enhancement of intestinal mucin (Muc2) binding to plant cell wall structures from fruit (parenchymal apple tissue) and grain (wheat endosperm) mediated by soluble dietary fibers embedded within cellulose networks. Mucin binding occurs through two distinct mechanisms; for pectin polysaccharides characteristic of fruits and vegetables, it is governed by molecular mucoadhesive interactions, while for neutral polysaccharides, arabinoxylan and β-glucan characteristic of cereal grains, the interaction stems from the properties of their polymer network...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149105/lgr5-expression-is-regulated-by-egf-in-early-colorectal-adenomas-and-governs-egfr-inhibitor-sensitivity
#2
R G Morgan, E Mortensson, D N Legge, B Gupta, T J Collard, A Greenhough, A C Williams
BACKGROUND: LGR5 serves as a co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signalling and marks normal intestinal stem cells; however, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. LGR5(+) cells are known to exist outside the stem cell niche during CRC progression, and the requirement for epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling within early adenomas remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Epidermal growth factor and gefitinib treatments were performed in EGF-responsive LGR5(+) early adenoma RG/C2 cells...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144555/-chop-ing-intestinal-stem-cells-on-way-to-cholestatic-liver-injury
#3
EDITORIAL
Akanksha Sharma, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144272/body-composition-in-children-with-chronic-illness-accuracy-of-bedside-assessment-techniques
#4
Enid E Martinez, Craig D Smallwood, Nicolle L Quinn, Katelyn Ariagno, Lori J Bechard, Christopher P Duggan, Nilesh M Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of estimated fat mass and fat-free mass from bedside methods compared with reference methods in children with chronic illnesses. STUDY DESIGN: Fat mass and fat-free mass values were obtained by skinfold, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium dilution method in children with spinal muscular atrophy, intestinal failure, and post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142307/genetic-polymorphism-related-to-monocyte-macrophage-function-is-associated-with-graft-versus-host-disease
#5
Kati Hyvärinen, Jarmo Ritari, Satu Koskela, Riitta Niittyvuopio, Anne Nihtinen, Liisa Volin, David Gallardo, Jukka Partanen
Despite detailed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and modern immunosuppressive therapy, severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a major hurdle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). As the genetic diversity in GvHD complicates the systematic discovery of associated variants across populations, we studied 122 GvHD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 492 HLA-matched sibling HSCT donor-recipient pairs from Finland and Spain. The association between these candidate SNPs and grade III-IV acute GvHD and extensive chronic GvHD was assessed...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141958/dna-methylation-defines-regional-identity-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-organoids-and-undergoes-dynamic-changes-during-development
#6
Judith Kraiczy, Komal M Nayak, Kate J Howell, Alexander Ross, Jessica Forbester, Camilla Salvestrini, Roxana Mustata, Sally Perkins, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Esther Leenen, Anke Liebert, Ludovic Vallier, Philip C Rosenstiel, Oliver Stegle, Gordon Dougan, Robert Heuschkel, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Matthias Zilbauer
OBJECTIVE: Human intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) are increasingly being recognised as a highly promising translational research tool. However, our understanding of their epigenetic molecular characteristics and behaviour in culture remains limited. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling of human IEOs derived from paediatric/adult and fetal small and large bowel as well as matching purified human gut epithelium. Furthermore, organoids were subjected to in vitro differentiation and genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141553/epigenetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-epithelial-stem-cells-fate
#7
Hongyu Li, Dixin Cui, Si Wu, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Mian Wan, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial tissues have the ability to self-renew throughout animal's life due to the presence of the epithelial stem cells. Except for complicated genes regulation, the fate of epithelial stem cells is also regulated by the epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNAs, which are emerging as vital elements of epigenetic regulation for epithelial stem cells self-renewal and differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying these are still poorly understood...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140941/phenotype-and-management-of-infantile-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-china
#8
Ziqing Ye, Ying Zhou, Ying Huang, Yuhuan Wang, Junping Lu, Zifei Tang, Shijian Miao, Kuiran Dong, Zhinong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises rare and clinically severe disorders. We examined the phenotypes and genetic causes of patients with infantile-onset IBD from a tertiary medical center. METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients with infantile-onset IBD and applied standardized treatment with medical, surgical, and supportive care. Targeted sequencing and whole-exome sequencing were performed. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140544/a-cryptosporidium-infection-in-a-patient-with-relapsed-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Joanna Schiller, Sebastian Klein, Marianne Engels, Reinhard Büttner, Jan Rybniker, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Christof Scheid, Christian Wybranski, Alexander Quaas, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Ruth Waßermann
Cryptosporidium infection is a rare cause of enterocolitis. In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidiosis may lead to debilitating and life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption, occasionally with multi organ involvement. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while cellular immunity is usually compromised due to intensive conditioning chemotherapy. Diarrhea in patients who underwent allo-HSCT may be a sign of an infection, but can also be the result of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139621/paneth-and-intestinal-stem-cells-preserve-their-functional-integrity-during-worsening-of-acute-cellular-rejection-in-small-bowel-transplantation
#10
M Pucci Molineris, V Gonzalez Polo, Federico Perez, D Ramisch, M Rumbo, G E Gondolesi, D Meier
Graft survival after small bowel transplantation remains impaired due to acute cellular rejection (ACR), the leading cause of graft loss. Although it was shown that the number of enteroendocrine progenitor cells in intestinal crypts was reduced during mild ACR, no results of Paneth and intestinal stem cells localized at the crypt bottom have been shown so far. Therefore, we wanted to elucidate integrity and functionality of the Paneth and stem cells during different degrees of ACR, and to assess whether these cells are the primary targets of the rejection process...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131156/impact-of-choice-timing-sequence-and-combination-of-broad-spectrum-antibiotics-on-the-outcome-of-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
F Farowski, V Bücker, J J Vehreschild, L Biehl, R Cruz-Aguilar, C Scheid, U Holtick, N Jazmati, H Wisplinghoff, O A Cornely, M J G T Vehreschild
Recent data link the incidence of intestinal GvHD (iGvHD) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aSCT) to exposure with piperacillin-tazobactam or imipenem-cilastatin. To assess relevance of timing, duration, sequence and combination of antibiotic treatment in this setting, we applied a time-dependent model to our aSCT cohort. Patients from the prospective Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (CoCoNut) undergoing aSCT from January 2007 to April 2013 were included into a time-dependent multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model with backward-stepwise selection...
November 13, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129684/rhoa-gtpase-controls-yap-mediated-ereg-signaling-in-small-intestinal-stem-cell-maintenance
#12
Ming Liu, Zheng Zhang, Leesa Sampson, Xuan Zhou, Kodandaramireddy Nalapareddy, Yuxin Feng, Shailaja Akunuru, Jaime Melendez, Ashley Kuenzi Davis, Feng Bi, Hartmut Geiger, Mei Xin, Yi Zheng
RHOA, a founding member of the Rho GTPase family, is critical for actomyosin dynamics, polarity, and morphogenesis in response to developmental cues, mechanical stress, and inflammation. In murine small intestinal epithelium, inducible RHOA deletion causes a loss of epithelial polarity, with disrupted villi and crypt organization. In the intestinal crypts, RHOA deficiency results in reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a loss of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that mimic effects of radiation damage...
November 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123428/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-severe-refractory-crohn-s-disease-patient-with-intestinal-stoma-a-case-report
#13
Milton Artur Ruiz, Roberto Luiz Kaiser Junior, Luiz Gustavo de Quadros, Gustavo Henrique Xavier Caseiro, Aderson Francisco Oliveira, Tatiana Peña-Arciniegas, Lilian Piron-Ruiz, Fernanda Soubhia Liedtke Kaiser, Vera Lucia Oliveira
Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be used in the treatment of patients with refractory Crohn's disease (CD) when no alternative treatment is available. However, HSCT increases the risk of infections, in particular during the aplasia of mobilization and conditioning. Moreover, intestinal stomas in CD augment the risk of morbidity in immunocompromised patients and under aplastic conditions. The objective of this report was to describe the results of the first year after HSCT in a CD patient with an intestinal stoma...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120819/towards-a-defined-ecm-and-small-molecule-based-monolayer-culture-system-for-the-expansion-of-mouse-and-human-intestinal-stem-cells
#14
Zhixiang Tong, Keir Martyn, Andy Yang, Xiaolei Yin, Benjamin E Mead, Nitin Joshi, Nicholas E Sherman, Robert S Langer, Jeffrey M Karp
Current ISC culture systems face significant challenges such as animal-derived or undefined matrix compositions, batch-to-batch variability (e.g. Matrigel-based organoid culture), and complexity of assaying cell aggregates such as organoids which renders the research and clinical translation of ISCs challenging. Here, through screening for suitable ECM components, we report a defined, collagen based monolayer culture system that supports the growth of mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) enriched for an Lgr5(+) population comparable or higher to the levels found in a standard Matrigel-based organoid culture...
October 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120019/cellular-protection-mechanisms-that-minimise-accumulation-of-mutations-in-intestinal-tissue
#15
Jacco van Rheenen, Lotte Bruens
The epithelial lining of the intestine is constantly exposed to a hostile environment containing a mixture of gastric acids, consumed harmful substances and microbes. It is widely accepted that the intestine has multiple mechanisms to protect itself against tissue damage. Here, we review three cellular protection mechanisms that protect intestinal tissue against accumulation of somatic mutations: the conveyer belt-like structure, stem cell competition and crypt fusion. We highlight the events that can perturb these cellular protection mechanisms, and their impact on accumulation of new (oncogenic) mutations...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110754/bacterial-colonization-stimulates-a-complex-physiological-response-in-the-immature-human-intestinal-epithelium
#16
David R Hill, Sha Huang, Melinda S Nagy, Veda K Yadagiri, Courtney Fields, Dishari Mukherjee, Brooke Bons, Priya H Dedhia, Alana M Chin, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Shrikar Thodla, Thomas M Schmidt, Seth Walk, Vincent B Young, Jason R Spence
The human gastrointestinal tract is immature at birth, yet must adapt to dramatic changes such as oral nutrition and microbial colonization. The confluence of these factors can lead to severe inflammatory disease in premature infants; however, investigating complex environment-host interactions is difficult due to limited access to immature human tissue. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelium of human pluripotent stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids is globally similar to the immature human epithelium and we utilize HIOs to investigate complex host-microbe interactions in this naïve epithelium...
November 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109476/the-major-targets-of-acute-norovirus-infection-are-immune-cells-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#17
Katrina R Grau, Alexa N Roth, Shu Zhu, Abel Hernandez, Natacha Colliou, Bayli B DiVita, Drake T Philip, Cara Riffe, Benoit Giasson, Shannon M Wallet, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Stephanie M Karst
Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks and childhood diarrhoea globally, estimated to be responsible for 200,000 deaths in children each year (1-4) . Thus, reducing norovirus-associated disease is a critical priority. Development of vaccines and therapeutics has been hindered by the limited understanding of basic norovirus pathogenesis and cell tropism. While macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and stem-cell-derived enteroids can all support infection of certain noroviruses in vitro (5-7) , efforts to define in vivo norovirus cell tropism have generated conflicting results...
November 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108672/foxa-transcription-factor-fork-head-maintains-the-intestinal-stem-progenitor-cell-identities-in-drosophila
#18
Qing Lan, Min Cao, Rahul K Kollipara, Jeffrey B Rosa, Ralf Kittler, Huaqi Jiang
Understanding how somatic stem cells respond to tissue needs is important, since aberrant somatic stem cell behaviors may lead to tissue degeneration or tumorigenesis. Here, from an in vivo RNAi screen targeting transcription factors that regulate intestinal regeneration, we uncovered a requirement for the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor Fork head (Fkh) in the maintenance of intestinal stem/progenitor cell identities. FoxA/Fkh maintains the expressions of stem/progenitor cell markers and is required for stem cell proliferation during intestinal homeostasis and regeneration...
September 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108021/hippo-tgf-%C3%AE-and-src-mapk-pathways-regulate-transcription-of-the-upd3-cytokine-in-drosophila-enterocytes-upon-bacterial-infection
#19
Philip Houtz, Alessandro Bonfini, Xi Liu, Jonathan Revah, Aurélien Guillou, Mickael Poidevin, Korneel Hens, Hsin-Yi Huang, Bart Deplancke, Yu-Chen Tsai, Nicolas Buchon
Cytokine signaling is responsible for coordinating conserved epithelial regeneration and immune responses in the digestive tract. In the Drosophila midgut, Upd3 is a major cytokine, which is induced in enterocytes (EC) and enteroblasts (EB) upon oral infection, and initiates intestinal stem cell (ISC) dependent tissue repair. To date, the genetic network directing upd3 transcription remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have identified the key infection-responsive enhancers of the upd3 gene and show that distinct enhancers respond to various stresses...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102770/overexpression-of-djmj-differentially-affects-intestinal-stem-cells-and-differentiated-enterocytes
#20
Dang Ngoc Anh Suong, Kouhei Shimaji, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Joung-Sun Park, Hideki Yoshida, Mi-Ae Yoo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Jumonji (Jmj)/Jarid2 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor mediated via histone methylation. Nevertheless, the well-known function of Jmj is as a scaffold for the recruitment of various complexes including Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and required for mouse embryonic stem cell development. However, PRC2 independent function is suggested for Drosophila Jumonji (dJmj). To clarify the function of dJmj during cell differentiation, we used Drosophila adult intestinal stem cell system that allows to follow stem cell behaviors in vivo...
November 2, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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