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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329541/a-role-for-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-intestinal-stem-cell-proliferation-and-mesenchymal-colorectal-cancer
#1
Jon Peñarando, Laura M López-Sánchez, Rafael Mena, Silvia Guil-Luna, Francisco Conde, Vanessa Hernández, Marta Toledano, Victoria Gudiño, Michela Raponi, Caroline Billard, Carlos Villar, César Díaz, José Gómez-Barbadillo, Juan De la Haba-Rodríguez, Kevin Myant, Enrique Aranda, Antonio Rodríguez-Ariza
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has been highlighted as an important agent in cancer-related events. Although the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform has received most attention, recent studies in the literature indicate that the endothelial isoenzyme (eNOS) can also modulate different tumor processes including resistance, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of eNOS in cancer stem cell (CSC) biology and mesenchymal tumors is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show that eNOS was significantly upregulated in VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/+ and VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/fl mouse intestinal tissue, with intense immunostaining in hyperproliferative crypts...
January 10, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320711/anatomical-physiological-and-functional-diversity-of-adipose-tissue
#2
REVIEW
Rachel K Zwick, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Valerie Horsley, Maksim V Plikus
Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318852/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-ultrastructure-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-stem-cell-factor-kit-signal-pathway-of-gastric-antrum-in-diabetic-gastroparesis-rats
#3
Cheng-Cheng Zhang, Ya-Ping Lin, Yan Peng, Zeng-Hui Yue, Hai-Jiao Chen, Jian-Wen Yang, Wei-Wei Liu, Li Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and the ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the expressions of c-kit receptor protein and stem cell factor (SCF) mRNA in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) rats, so as to explore its mechanism. METHODS: Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model, acupoint, non-acupoint and metoclopramide groups (n=10 rats/group). DGP model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 2%), and raised with high-sugar high-fat diet irregularly...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316982/the-tankyrase-inhibitor-g007-lk-inhibits-small-intestine-lgr5-stem-cell-proliferation-without-altering-tissue-morphology
#4
Jens Henrik Norum, Ellen Skarpen, Andreas Brech, Raoul Kuiper, Jo Waaler, Stefan Krauss, Therese Sørlie
BACKGROUND: The WNT pathway regulates intestinal stem cells and is frequently disrupted in intestinal adenomas. The pathway contains several potential biotargets for interference, including the poly-ADP ribosyltransferase enzymes tankyrase1 and 2. LGR5 is a known WNT pathway target gene and marker of intestinal stem cells. The LGR5+ stem cells are located in the crypt base and capable of regenerating all intestinal epithelial cell lineages. RESULTS: We treated Lgr5-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2;R26R-Confetti mice with the tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK for up to 3 weeks to assess the effect on duodenal stem cell homeostasis and on the integrity of intestinal epithelium...
January 9, 2018: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316729/wnt-rspo-and-hippo-signalling-in-the-intestine-and-intestinal-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Vitezslav Kriz, Vladimir Korinek
In this review, we address aspects of Wnt, R-Spondin (RSPO) and Hippo signalling, in both healthy and transformed intestinal epithelium. In intestinal stem cells (ISCs), the Wnt pathway is essential for intestinal crypt formation and renewal, whereas RSPO-mediated signalling mainly affects ISC numbers. In human colorectal cancer (CRC), aberrant Wnt signalling is the driving mechanism initiating this type of neoplasia. The signalling role of the RSPO-binding transmembrane proteins, the leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors (LGRs), is possibly more pleiotropic and not only limited to the enhancement of Wnt signalling...
January 8, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312533/loss-of-pacs-2-delays-regeneration-in-dss-induced-colitis-but-does-not-affect-the-apcmin-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#6
Sarah L Dombernowsky, Jeanette Schwarz, Jacob Samsøe-Petersen, Reidar Albrechtsen, Kim B Jensen, Gary Thomas, Marie Kveiborg
PACS-2 is a multifunctional sorting protein that mediates cell homeostasis. We recently identified PACS-2 in a functional genome-wide siRNA screen for novel regulators of the metalloproteinase ADAM17, the main sheddase for ligands of the ErbB receptor family. Of note, we showed that Pacs2-/- mice have significantly reduced EGFR activity and proliferative index in the intestinal epithelium. As EGFR signaling is highly mitogenic for intestinal epithelial stem cells, and plays essential roles in intestinal epithelial regeneration and tumor development, we have now examined the role of PACS-2 in these processes...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311761/plasma-vascular-non-inflammatory-molecule-3-is-associated-with-gastrointestinal-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-mice
#7
Na Wang, Xiaoyi Qin, Yigeng Cao, Bin Liang, Kang Yu, Haige Ye
Background: Gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (GI aGVHD) is a lethal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, it is still very difficult to make a diagnosis of GI aGVHD in practice. To date, no consensus plasma biomarker of GI aGVHD can be used to help make a diagnosis. Here, we attempted to identify GI aGVHD associated plasma proteins in murine model, which can help make a diagnosis of GI aGVHD. Methods: We used 8-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (8-plex iTRAQ) to screen out proteins in plasma samples taken from murine models before and after allogeneic HSCT...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304343/think-about-the-environment-cellular-reprogramming-by-the-extracellular-matrix
#8
David J Huels, Jan Paul Medema
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Yui et al. (2018) show how tissue regeneration is driven by changes in the microenvironment. During intestinal regeneration, the epithelium is reprogrammed into a fetal state by an altered extracellular matrix (ECM), which is dependent on YAP/TAZ activation.
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303998/linking-dna-damage-and-age-related-promoter-dna-hyper-methylation-in-the-intestine
#9
Torsten Thalheim, Maria Herberg, Joerg Galle
Aberrant DNA methylation in stem cells is a hallmark of aging and tumor development. Here, we explore whether and how DNA damage repair might impact on these time-dependent changes, in particular in proliferative intestinal stem cells. We introduce a 3D multiscale computer model of intestinal crypts enabling simulation of aberrant DNA and histone methylation of gene promoters during aging. We assume histone state-dependent activity of de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylation-dependent binding of maintenance DNMTs to CpGs...
January 5, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287261/a-combination-of-nmr-and-liquid-chromatography-to-characterize-the-protective-effects-of-rhus-tripartita-extracts-on-ethanol-induced-toxicity-and-inflammation-on-intestinal-cells
#10
Zaineb Ben Barka, Konstantinos Grintzalis, Madeleine Polet, Clement Heude, Ulf Sommer, Hanène Ben Miled, Khémais Ben Rhouma, Sakly Mohsen, Olfa Tebourbi, Yves-Jacques Schneider
Consumption of ethanol may have severe effects on human organs and tissues and lead to acute and chronic inflammation of internal organs. The present study aims at investigating the potential protective effects of three different extracts prepared from the leaves, root, and stem of the sumac, Rhus tripartita, against ethanol-induced toxicity and inflammation using intestinal cells as a cell culture system, in vitro model of the intestinal mucosa. The results showed an induction of cytotoxicity by ethanol, which was partially reversed by co-administration of the plant extracts...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286482/real-time-measurement-of-epithelial-barrier-permeability-in-human-intestinal-organoids
#11
David R Hill, Sha Huang, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Jason R Spence, Vincent B Young
Advances in 3D culture of intestinal tissues obtained through biopsy or generated from pluripotent stem cells via directed differentiation, have resulted in sophisticated in vitro models of the intestinal mucosa. Leveraging these emerging model systems will require adaptation of tools and techniques developed for 2D culture systems and animals. Here, we describe a technique for measuring epithelial barrier permeability in human intestinal organoids in real-time. This is accomplished by microinjection of fluorescently-labeled dextran and imaging on an inverted microscope fitted with epifluorescent filters...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286467/fluorescence-mediated-tomography-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-macrophage-related-murine-intestinal-inflammation
#12
Tobias M Nowacki, Dominik Bettenworth, Markus Brückner, Friederike Cordes, Frank Lenze, Anne Becker, Moritz Wildgruber, Michel Eisenblätter
Murine models of disease are indispensable to scientific research. However, many diagnostic tools such as endoscopy or tomographic imaging are not routinely employed in animal models. Conventional experimental readouts often rely on post mortem and ex vivo analyses, which prevent intra-individual follow-up examinations and increase the number of study animals needed. Fluorescence-mediated tomography enables the non-invasive, repetitive, quantitative, three-dimensional assessment of fluorescent probes. It is highly sensitive and permits the use of molecular makers, which allows for the specific detection and characterization of distinct molecular targets...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286377/the-organoid-reconstitution-assay-ora-for-the-functional-analysis-of-intestinal-stem-and-niche-cells
#13
Matthias Schewe, Andrea Sacchetti, Mark Schmitt, Riccardo Fodde
The intestinal epithelium is characterized by an extremely rapid turnover rate. In mammals, the entire epithelial lining is renewed within 4 - 5 days. Adult intestinal stem cells reside at the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkühn, are earmarked by expression of the Lgr5 gene, and preserve homeostasis through their characteristic high proliferative rate1. Throughout the small intestine, Lgr5+ stem cells are intermingled with specialized secretory cells called Paneth cells. Paneth cells secrete antibacterial compounds (i...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281833/nlrp3-controls-the-development-of-gastrointestinal-cd11b-dendritic-cells-in-the-steady-state-and-during-chronic-bacterial-infection
#14
Isabelle C Arnold, Xiaozhou Zhang, Sabine Urban, Mariela Artola-Borán, Markus G Manz, Karen M Ottemann, Anne Müller
The gastric lamina propria is largely uncharted immunological territory. Here we describe the evolution and composition of the gastric, small intestinal, and colonic lamina propria mononuclear phagocyte system during the steady state and infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We show that monocytes, CX3CR1hi macrophages, and CD11b+ dendritic cells are recruited to the infected stomach in a CCR2-dependent manner. All three populations, but not BATF3-dependent CD103+ DCs, sample red fluorescent protein (RFP)+Helicobacter pylori (H...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281831/degree-of-tissue-differentiation-dictates-susceptibility-to-braf-driven-colorectal-cancer
#15
Kevin Tong, Oscar Pellón-Cárdenas, Veerin R Sirihorachai, Bailey N Warder, Om A Kothari, Ansu O Perekatt, Emily E Fokas, Robert L Fullem, Anbo Zhou, Joshua K Thackray, Hiep Tran, Lanjing Zhang, Jinchuan Xing, Michael P Verzi
Oncogenic mutations in BRAF are believed to initiate serrated colorectal cancers; however, the mechanisms of BRAF-driven colon cancer are unclear. We find that oncogenic BRAF paradoxically suppresses stem cell renewal and instead promotes differentiation. Correspondingly, tumor formation is inefficient in BRAF-driven mouse models of colon cancer. By reducing levels of differentiation via genetic manipulation of either of two distinct differentiation-promoting factors (Smad4 or Cdx2), stem cell activity is restored in BRAFV600E intestines, and the oncogenic capacity of BRAFV600E is amplified...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278934/impact-of-oral-and-gastrointestinal-mucositis-on-body-weight-alterations-during-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Fernanda de Paula Eduardo, Leticia Mello Bezinelli, Marcella Ferreira Gobbi, Andrea Z Pereira, Cristina Vogel, Nelson Hamerschlak, Luciana Corrêa
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether digestive tract mucositis is a predictive factor for body weight (BW) alterations during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data about characteristics of transplantation, initial nutritional conditions and gastrointestinal mucositis were collected from adult patients (n = 105) who underwent autologous and allogeneic HSCT. Oral mucositis (OM) was not a predictive factor for BW loss, but it was an independent factor for BW gain in autologous HSCT (β = 0...
December 26, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277954/cryptosporidiosis-in-a-transplant-recipient-with-severe-intractable-diarrhea-detection-of-cryptosporidium-oocysts-by-intestinal-biopsies
#17
Kumiko Kagawa, Hikaru Fujino, Hirokazu Miki, Kimiko Sogabe, Mamiko Takahashi, Tomoko Maruhashi, Kengo Udaka, Masami Iwasa, Shiro Fujii, Shingen Nakamura, Masahiro Abe
Disseminated Cryptosporidium infection results in manifestations similar to those of graft versus host disease (GVHD), which hampers the detection of Cryptosporidium infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Surveillance of oocysts on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells is needed for early and appropriate detection of Cryptosporidium infection in transplant recipients on immunosuppressants with severe intractable diarrhea. We present the first case of Cryptosporidium meleagridis infection in Japan after allogeneic cord blood transplantation...
December 26, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277155/wnt-takes-two-to-tango-molecular-links-between-the-circadian-clock-and-the-cell-cycle-in-adult-stem-cells
#18
Toru Matsu-Ura, Sean R Moore, Christian I Hong
Like two dancers, the circadian clock and cell cycle are biological oscillators engaged in bidirectional communication, resulting in circadian clock-gated cell division cycles in species ranging from cyanobacteria to mammals. The identified mechanisms for this phenomenon have expanded beyond intracellular molecular coupling components to include intercellular connections. However, detailed molecular mechanisms, dynamics, and physiological functions of the circadian clock and cell cycle as coupled oscillators remain largely unknown...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276156/a-phyllopod-mediated-feedback-loop-promotes-intestinal-stem-cell-enteroendocrine-commitment-in-drosophila
#19
Chang Yin, Rongwen Xi
The intestinal epithelium in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which are capable of generating both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells (EEs) via alternative cell fate specification. Activation of Delta-Notch signaling directs ISCs for enterocyte generation, but how EEs are generated from ISCs remains poorly understood. Here, we identified Phyllopod (Phyl) as a key regulator that drives EE generation from ISCs. Phyl, which is normally suppressed by Notch, functions as an adaptor protein that bridges Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Sina for degradation...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276155/jak-stat-1-signaling-is-required-for-reserve-intestinal-stem-cell-activation-during-intestinal-regeneration-following-acute-inflammation
#20
Camilla A Richmond, Hannah Rickner, Manasvi S Shah, Tracy Ediger, Luke Deary, Fanny Zhou, Alessio Tovaglieri, Diana L Carlone, David T Breault
The intestinal epithelium serves as an essential barrier to the outside world and is maintained by functionally distinct populations of rapidly cycling intestinal stem cells (CBC ISCs) and slowly cycling, reserve ISCs (r-ISCs). Because disruptions in the epithelial barrier can result from pathological activation of the immune system, we sought to investigate the impact of inflammation on ISC behavior during the regenerative response. In a murine model of αCD3 antibody-induced small-intestinal inflammation, r-ISCs proved highly resistant to injury, while CBC ISCs underwent apoptosis...
December 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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