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Pediatric clinical research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426651/association-of-candidate-gene-polymorphisms-with-clinical-subtypes-of-preterm-birth-in-a-latin-american-population
#1
Lucas G Gimenez, Allison M Momany, Fernando A Poletta, Hugo B Krupitzki, Juan A Gili, Tamara D Busch, Cesar Saleme, Viviana R Cosentino, Mariela S Pawluk, Hebe Campaña, Enrique C Gadow, Jeffrey C Murray, Jorge S Lopez-Camelo
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. PTB is often classified according to clinical presentation: Idiopathic (PTB-I), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PTB-PPROM), and medically induced (PTB-M). The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between specific candidate genes and clinical subtypes of PTB. METHODS: 24 SNPs were genotyped in 18 candidate genes in 709 infant triads. Of them, 243 were PTB-I, 256 PTB-PPROM, and 210 PTB-M...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422950/application-of-high-resolution-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization-in-children-with-unknown-syndromic-microcephaly
#2
Eirini Tsoutsou, Maria Tzetis, Krinio Giannikou, Maria Braoudaki, Anastasis Mitrakos, Stella Amenta, Nikoletta Selenti, Emmanouil Kanavakis, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Sophia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Helena Fryssira
BACKROUND: Microcephaly can be either isolated or coexists with other neurological entities and/or multiple congenital anomalies, known as syndromic microcephaly. Although many syndromic cases can be classified based on the characteristic phenotype, some others remain uncertain and require further investigation. The present study describes the application of array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) as a diagnostic tool for the study of patients with clinical unknown syndromic microcephaly...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422939/predictive-factors-for-achieving-independent-walking-in-children-with-guillain-barre-syndrome
#3
Mohammad Barzegar, Vahideh Toopchizadeh, Mohammad Hk Maher, Paria Sadeghi, Fatemeh Jahanjoo, Alireza Pishgahi
BACKGROUND: To determine the predictors of achieving independent walking at 2 and 6 months after onset of weakness in children with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). METHODS: Children with GBS admitted to Tabriz Children's Hospital were studied prospectively. All patients had frequent clinical evaluations until achieving independent walking. Unaided walking at 2 and 6 months, and factors influencing these outcomes were determined using both univariate and multiple analysis...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418326/artifact-in-pediatric-oculomotor-findings-during-videonystagmography-a-retrospective-analysis
#4
Steven M Doettl, Patrick N Plyler, Devin L McCaslin
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of oculomotor function using videonystagmography (VNG) is imperative for diagnosis and management of patients with reported dizziness. The oculomotor evaluation during VNG utilizes video-oculography providing valuable information regarding the central structures and pathways that control eye movements. Artifact may have an effect on the overall validity and reliability of VNG oculomotor tracings and can result from patient and/or recording errors. It is postulated that artifact could occur more frequently in the pediatric population due to both patient and equipment factors...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417852/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-nephro-urology-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Iosif Mendichovszky, Bernardita Troncoso Solar, Naima Smeulders, Marina Easty, Lorenzo Biassoni
In the context of ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis, the vast majority of children with a dilated renal pelvis do not need any surgical treatment, as the dilatation resolves spontaneously with time. Slow drainage demonstrated at Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renography does not necessarily mean obstruction. Obstruction is defined as resistance to urinary outflow with urinary stasis at the level of the pelvic-ureteric junction (PUJ) which, if left untreated, will damage the kidney. Unfortunately this definition is retrospective and not clinically helpful...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416426/-the-jard%C3%A3-law-a-real-simplification-of-research-in-france
#6
C Levy, A Rybak, R Cohen, C Jung
The Jardé law was voted in 2012 and its implementing decrees were published in November 2016. The delay between the vote and the decrees highlights the difficulties encountered. This law concerns all research, interventional and otherwise, involving the human person. Each research study must receive the approval of a randomly assigned ethics committee or Committee for the Protection of Persons. The approach here is based on risk in three types of study: interventional studies, studies with minimal risk and intervention, and non-interventional studies (observational studies)...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415965/the-pregnancy-environment-and-lifestyle-study-petals-a-population-based-longitudinal-multi-racial-birth-cohort
#7
Yeyi Zhu, Monique M Hedderson, Juanran Feng, Ashley A Mevi, Assiamira Ferrara
BACKGROUND: Increasing recognition has been received regarding the proven and suggested links between multi-level environmental exposures on a broad scale (e.g., chemical, clinical, behavioral, physical and social) and health deficits originated from the critical window of development. However, such prospective human data are limited. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health funded 35 centers comprising 84 extant cohorts for the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) pediatric cohorts program...
April 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415959/the-practices-and-meanings-of-care-for-nurses-working-on-a-pediatric-bone-marrow-transplant-unit
#8
Caroline F Morrison, Edith J Morris
Bone marrow transplant (BMT) units are stressful work environments with high staff burnout, anxiety, and turnover. A qualitative study was undertaken to better understand care for nurses within the context of their clinical practice on a pediatric BMT unit. Understanding care practices for BMT nurses will allow us to design interventions and provide appropriate support for this subspecialty of nurses. Focus groups were held with 24 nurses as key participants, and 2 focus groups with general participants: unit management (N = 2) and caregivers of inpatients (N = 7)...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415900/pediatric-nurse-practitioners-clinical-competencies-and-knowing-patterns-in-nursing-focus-group-interviews
#9
Hyejung Lee, Anna Kim, Anna Meong, Minjeong Seo
BACKGROUND: The generic competency domains of advanced nursing practice have been reported on in numerous countries, but rather few studies have examined competencies specific to pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs). OBJECTIVES: We identified the core clinical competencies of PNPs in South Korea and related these identified competencies to the five patterns of knowing in nursing. DESIGN: Focus group interviews were conducted with five PNP students and four PNPs using two thematic questions, one on clinical competencies required for PNPs and the other on competencies specific to Korean PNPs...
April 18, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411414/laser-interstitial-thermotherapy-litt-in-epilepsy-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Christian Hoppe, Juri-Alexander Witt, Christoph Helmstaedter, Thomas Gasser, Hartmut Vatter, Christian E Elger
Besides other innovative stereotactic procedures (radiofrequency thermocoagulation, focused ultrasound, gamma knife) laser interstitial thermotherapy (LiTT) provides minimally invasive destruction of pathological soft tissues which could be especially relevant for epilepsy surgeries involving adult and pediatric patients. Unlike standard resections, no craniotomy is required; just a tiny borehole trepanation is sufficient. Damage to cortical areas when accessing deep lesions can be minimized or completely avoided, and treating epileptogenic foci near eloquent or even vital brain areas becomes possible...
April 6, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411047/immunodepression-after-cpb-cytokine-dynamics-and-clinics-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-prospective-trial
#11
Georgia Justus, Christoph Walker, Lisa-Maria Rosenthal, Felix Berger, Oliver Miera, Katharina Rose Luise Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Corrective surgery for congenital heart defects is known to trigger a severe immune reaction. There has been extensive research on the effects of inflammation after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Interestingly, monocytes are observed to be non-responsive to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under these conditions, indicating a state of immunodepression, which lays the ground for second hit infections after cardiosurgery with CPB. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to analyze immunodepression after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass and to differentiate the effects of monocytic anergy on postoperative outcome...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410274/three-hypothetical-inflammation-pathobiology-phenotypes-and-pediatric-sepsis-induced-multiple-organ-failure-outcome
#12
Joseph A Carcillo, E Scott Halstead, Mark W Hall, Trung C Nguyen, Ron Reeder, Rajesh Aneja, Bita Shakoory, Dennis Simon
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that three inflammation pathobiology phenotypes are associated with increased inflammation, proclivity to develop features of macrophage activation syndrome, and multiple organ failure-related death in pediatric severe sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study comparing children with severe sepsis and any of three phenotypes: 1) immunoparalysis-associated multiple organ failure (whole blood ex vivo tumor necrosis factor response to endotoxin < 200 pg/mL), 2) thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure (new onset thrombocytopenia with acute kidney injury and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 activity < 57%), and/or 3) sequential multiple organ failure with hepatobiliary dysfunction (respiratory distress followed by liver dysfunction with soluble Fas ligand > 200 pg/mL), to those without any of these phenotypes...
April 13, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402986/no-small-matter-pediatric-resuscitation
#13
Taylor McCormick, Kevin McVaney, Paul E Pepe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present advancements in pediatric cardiac arrest research, highlighting articles most relevant to clinical practice published since the latest international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials examining targeted temperature management in children support avoidance of hyperthermia for both pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (PIHCA) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (POHCA), but no statistically significant outcome differences were confirmed comparing 33 and 36 °C in the limited populations studied...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401674/placebo-like-response-in-absence-of-treatment-in-children-with-autism
#14
Rebecca M Jones, Caroline Carberry, Amarelle Hamo, Catherine Lord
Caregiver report is the most common measure of change in pediatric psychiatry. Yet, placebo response rates pose significant challenges to reliably detect a treatment response. The present study simulated an eight-week clinical trial protocol for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for the purpose of testing the feasibility and validity of several outcome measures. Twenty caregivers answered questions about their child's behavior on their smartphone each week and completed a battery of paper questionnaires during weeks one and eight...
April 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399927/bk-viruria-and-viremia-in-children-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Nirupama Gupta, Cuong Q Nguyen, Renee F Modica, Melissa E Elder, Eduardo H Garin
BACKGROUND: BK virus (BKV) is a ubiquitous polyoma virus that lies dormant in the genitourinary tract once acquired in early childhood. In states of cellular immunodeficiency, the virus can reactivate to cause hemorrhagic cystitis and nephritis. Children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of developing infectious complications secondary to their immunocompromised state from the administration of several immuno-modulatory drugs. Currently, there are no data regarding the prevalence of BK viruria or viremia in children with SLE...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399664/ethical-considerations-surrounding-germline-next-generation-sequencing-of-children-with-cancer
#16
Liza-Marie Johnson, Kayla V Hamilton, Jessica M Valdez, Esther Knapp, Justin N Baker, Kim E Nichols
The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) has introduced an exciting new era in biomedical research. NGS forms the foundation of current genetic testing approaches, including targeted gene panel testing, as well as more comprehensive whole exome and whole genome sequencing. Together, these approaches promise to provide critical insights into the understanding of health and disease. However, with NGS testing come many ethical questions and concerns, particularly when testing involves children. These concerns are especially relevant for children with cancer, where the testing of tumor and germline tissues is increasingly being incorporated into clinical care...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399120/sotos-syndrome-associated-with-hirschsprung-s-disease-a-new-case-and-exome-sequencing-analysis
#17
Cherry Ann Sio, Kyuwhan Jung, Jeong-Hyun Kim, Hyun Sub Cheong, Eun Shin, Hyejin Jang, Miok Yoon, Huijeong Jang, Hyoung Doo Shin
BACKGROUND: Sotos syndrome (SoS) is an overgrowth disorder with various congenital anomalies and is usually accompanied by other clinical problems. However, anorectal malformations have not been documented as part of the SoS entity. Our objective is to report on a case of SoS associated with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) and subsequent genetic analysis. METHODS: A 2 year old male with SoS experienced constipation since infancy and ultimately showed an aganglionic segment in the histopathologic examination and was followed by exome sequencing analysis...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399118/feasibility-and-physiological-effects-of-non-invasive-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-niv-nava-in-preterm-infants
#18
Christopher Gibu, Phillip Cheng, Raymond J Ward, Benjamin Castro, Gregory P Heldt
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilator Assist (NIV-NAVA) was introduced to our clinical practice via a pilot and a randomized observational study to assess its safety, feasibility, and short term physiological effects. METHODS: The pilot protocol applied NIV-NAVA to 11 infants on nasal CPAP, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), or nasal IMV (NIMV), in multiple 2-4 h periods of NIV-NAVA for comparison. This provided the necessary data to design a randomized, controlled observational cross-over study in 8 additional infants to compare the physiological effects of NIV-NAVA to NIMV during 2-hour steady state conditions...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398915/noise-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-what-does-the-evidence-tell-us
#19
Sharon G Casavant, Katherine Bernier, Sheena Andrews, Allison Bourgoin
BACKGROUND: In 2014, more than 10% of all births in the United States were preterm (born at <37-weeks' gestation). These high-risk infants will often spend weeks to months within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), where noise levels can easily reach 120 decibels adjusted (dBA) on a regular and sometimes consistent basis. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that NICU sound levels remain below 45 dBA to promote optimal growth and development. PURPOSE: The purpose of this evidence-based brief is to critically appraise the literature concerning preterm infant response to noise within the NICU as well as the use of noise interventions to improve health outcomes for the vulnerable preterm infant population...
April 7, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398525/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-data-quality-in-a-large-pediatric-data-research-network
#20
Ritu Khare, Levon Utidjian, Byron J Ruth, Michael G Kahn, Evanette Burrows, Keith Marsolo, Nandan Patibandla, Hanieh Razzaghi, Ryan Colvin, Daksha Ranade, Melody Kitzmiller, Daniel Eckrich, L Charles Bailey
Objective: PEDSnet is a clinical data research network (CDRN) that aggregates electronic health record data from multiple children's hospitals to enable large-scale research. Assessing data quality to ensure suitability for conducting research is a key requirement in PEDSnet. This study presents a range of data quality issues identified over a period of 18 months and interprets them to evaluate the research capacity of PEDSnet. Materials and Methods: Results were generated by a semiautomated data quality assessment workflow...
April 8, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
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