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Alasdair Gibb, Kevin K Ogden, Miranda J McDaniel, Katie M Vance, Steven A Kell, Chris Butch, Pieter Burger, Dennis C Liotta, Stephen F Traynelis
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are tetrameric complexes comprising two glycine-binding GluN1 and two glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits. Four GluN2 subunits encoded by different genes can produce up to ten different di- and triheteromeric receptors. In addition, some neurological patients contain a de novo mutation or inherited rare variant in only one subunit. There is currently no mechanistic framework to describe tetrameric receptor function that can be extended to receptors with two different GluN1 or GluN2 subunits...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Rosa Michaelis, Venus Tang, Laura H Goldstein, Markus Reuber, William Curt LaFrance, Tobias Lundgren, Avani C Modi, Janelle L Wagner
Given the significant impact that psychosocial factors and epilepsy treatments can have on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with epilepsy and their families, there is great clinical interest in the role of psychological evaluation and treatments to improve HRQOL and comorbidities. Therefore, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) charged the Psychology Task Force with the development of recommendations for clinical care based on evaluation of the evidence from their recent Cochrane review of psychological treatments in individuals with epilepsy...
June 19, 2018: Epilepsia
J-Y Pan, R-X Cai, Y Chen, Y Li, W-W Lin, J Wu, X-D Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) on neuronal apoptosis, Ca2+ concentration, and Caspases expression after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into control group (CON group), hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning group (HBO-PC group) and spinal cord injury group (SCI group), with 12 rats in each group. Rats in group HBO-PC were given HBO-PC intervention before modeling...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Fabian A Kari, Babak Saravi, Sonja Krause, Luisa Puttfarcken, Johannes Scheumann, Katharina Förster, Bartosz Rylski, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Matthias Siepe, Martin Czerny, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
OBJECTIVES: Anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) link dorsal segmental arteries and the intraspinal compartment of the spinal collateral network. The number of thoracic ARMA is highly variable from one person to another. The impact of the number of ARMAs on spinal cord perfusion during thoracic aortic procedures is unknown. We investigated the influence of the number of thoracic ARMAs on spinal cord perfusion in an aortic surgical large animal model. METHODS: Twenty-six pigs were included (20 treatment animals, 6 sham animals, weight 34 ± 3 kg)...
July 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Norihiro Isogai, Narihito Nagoshi, Akio Iwanami, Hitoshi Kono, Yoshiomi Kobayashi, Takashi Tsuji, Nobuyuki Fujita, Mitsuru Yagi, Kota Watanabe, Kazuya Kitamura, Yuta Shiono, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Ken Ishii, Junichi Yamane
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter study OBJECTIVE.: We aimed to assess the outcomes following posterior cervical decompression for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in a large sample of patients older than 80 years. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although age is a predictor of surgical outcomes for CSM, most previous studies have only investigated the effect of age for patients aged 65-75 years, and surgical outcomes remain unclear for older patients. METHODS: Patients older than 50 years who underwent posterior cervical decompression for CSM were enrolled from 17 institutions...
June 18, 2018: Spine
Anisse N Chaker, Abhiraj D Bhimani, Darian R Esfahani, Clayton L Rosinski, Brett W Geever, Akash S Patel, Jonathan G Hobbs, Taylor G Burch, Saavan Patel, Ankit I Mehta
STUDY DESIGN: Observational analysis of retrospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective study was performed in order to compare the surgical profile of risk factors and perioperative complications for laminectomy and laminectomy with fusion procedures in the treatment of SEA. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a highly morbid condition typically presenting with back pain, fever, and neurologic deficits...
June 18, 2018: Spine
Akash A Shah, Paul T Ogink, Mitchel B Harris, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND: Spinal epidural abscess is a high-risk condition that can lead to paralysis or death. It would be of clinical and prognostic utility to identify which subset of patients with spinal epidural abscess is likely to develop a motor deficit or die within 90 days of discharge. METHODS: We identified all patients ≥18 years of age who were admitted to our hospital system with a diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess during the period of 1993 to 2016. Explanatory variables were collected retrospectively...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Ramaswamy Premkumar, Pitchaimuthu Rajan, Jeeva Rima, Joseph Richard
Background.: Inappropriate footwear may be a major cause of foot ulceration among patients with diabetic neuropathy in India. No study has specifically examined the types of footwear or its components in patients with diabetes mellitus and their role in causing foot ulcers. We analysed the role of commonly used footwear in India in inducing first foot ulcers (FFU) in people with diabetes. Methods.: Of 4800 patients with diabetes attending our centre over 1 year, 301 had FFU from different causes...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Parisa Lotfi, Dennis Y Tse, Alberto di Ronza, Michelle L Seymour, Giuseppe Martano, Jonathan D Cooper, Fred A Pereira, Maria Passafaro, Samuel M Wu, Marco Sardiello
The accumulation of undegraded molecular material leads to progressive neurodegeneration in a number of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) that are caused by functional deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolases. To determine whether inducing macroautophagy/autophagy via small-molecule therapy would be effective for neuropathic LSDs due to enzyme deficiency, we treated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB), a storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme NAGLU (alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase [Sanfilippo disease IIIB]), with the autophagy-inducing compound trehalose...
June 19, 2018: Autophagy
Dominik Stämpfli, Fabienne Boeni, Andy Gerber, Victor A D Bättig, Kurt E Hersberger, Markus L Lampert
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing is linked to increased risks for adverse drug reactions and hospitalisation. Combining explicit and implicit criteria of inappropriate prescribing with the information obtained in patient interviews seems beneficial with regard to the identification of drug-related problems (DRPs) in hospitalised patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the inclusion of pharmacist interviews as part of medication reviews (including the use of explicit and implicit criteria of inappropriate prescribing) to identify DRPs in older inpatients...
June 19, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Barbara Grabowska-Fudala, Krystyna Jaracz, Krystyna Górna, Izabela Miechowicz, Izabela Wojtasz, Jan Jaracz, Radosław Kaźmierski
INTRODUCTION: This is a prospective study, first to compare the frequency of depressive symptoms in stroke survivors treated, and non-treated, with intravenous thrombolysis and second, to explore relationships between post-stroke depression (PSD) and stroke treatment modalities, taking into account other possible determinants of PSD, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. METHODS: Groups of 73 thrombolysed and 73 non-thrombolysed patients matched for age and gender were examined at 3 and 12 months after discharge...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Chen Xu, Hao Zhu, Rong Shen, Qian Feng, Hua Zhou, Zhong Zhao
IL-35 has been identified as a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-12 cytokine family and has been verified to play a protective role in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of IL-35 on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We determined that the expression of IL-35 was initially decreased and subsequently increased in I/R injury. Moreover, IL-35 (i.c.v.) pre- and posttreatment significantly reduced the infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 45 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion...
July 2018: Neurochemical Research
Juyoung Lee, Mee Hong, Sook Kyung Yum, Jung Hyun Lee
PURPOSE: Severe acidosis is one of the strongest predictors of neurologic outcomes in full-term infants with suspected hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, the relative importance of acidosis as a predictor of outcomes in preterm infants is much less clear. The goals of the present study were to examine the association between postnatal acidosis and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and to establish a new score model including acid-base status after birth for predicting the risk of this morbidity...
June 18, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
S Frisch
The life and works of neurologist and psychiatrist Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965) were almost forgotten for decades but have aroused increasing interest in recent years. Studies on Goldstein generally focus on his groundbreaking contributions to a holistic neurology, neuropsychology and neurorehabilitation; however, his contributions to the development of psychotherapy have received less attention. The present article reviews Goldstein's substantial input to the development of psychotherapy, and especially of humanistic psychotherapies...
June 18, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Yujiro Tanaka, Takao Hashimoto, Daisuke Watanabe, Hirofumi Okada, Daichi Kato, Shigeru Aoyagi, Jiro Akimoto, Michihiro Kohno
PURPOSE: Pre-operative embolization is an effective treatment strategy for hypervascular intracranial and skull base tumors. However, neurological complications resulting from tumor swelling, cranial nerve ischemia, or hemorrhage can occur after embolization. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neurological complications following pre-operative embolization and minor adverse events including fever, headache, or increasing inflammation, which are common after embolization for abdominal tumors (i...
June 18, 2018: Neuroradiology
Benjamin D Gastfriend, Sean P Palecek, Eric V Shusta
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transport of ions, nutrients, and metabolites to help maintain proper brain function. This restrictive interface formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells excludes the majority of small and large molecule drugs from entering the brain, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction is a signature of many neurological diseases. Thus, in vitro models of the BBB based on brain endothelial cells have been developed to facilitate screening drugs for BBB permeability. However, while brain endothelial cells form the main interface, they work in concert with other brain-resident cells such as neural progenitor cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons to form the neurovascular unit (NVU)...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Morgan Burke, Melissa Hardesty, Wayne Downs
Recurrent clear cell ovarian carcinoma is a difficult to treat condition and early trial data has suggested a possible role for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 immunotherapy that has been used in this setting. While immune related toxicity of these agents has been well described, the occurrence of immune specific neurotoxicity is thought to be rare. We present a case of severe encephalitis while on PD-1 immunotherapy for a recurrent ovarian clear cell cancer and we believe this to be the first such reported case associated with the use of PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Karthik Vishwanathan, Deepak Ganjiwale
Splinting is a great domain of occupational therapy profession. Making a splint for the patient would depend on the need or requirement of the problems and deformities. Swan neck deformity is an uncommon condition, and it can be seen in rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral palsy, and after trauma. Conservative treatment of the swan neck deformity is available by different static splints only. There are very few reports of surgical correction of swan-neck deformity in benign hypermobility syndrome. This case report describes the result of novel surgical intervention and an innovative hand splint in a 20-year-old female with a history of cardiovascular stroke with no residual neurological deficit...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Khaled K Al-Dossari, Sameer Al-Ghamdi, Jamaan Al-Zahrani, Imad Abdulmajeed, Maher Alotaibi, Humoud Almutairi, Abdulrahman BinSwilim, Omar Alhatlan
Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most stigmatizing disorders. Stigmas and negative attitudes associating epilepsy are due to poor public awareness and knowledge. This study evaluated Saudi public Knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards epilepsy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted during the period from September 16, 2014 to January 1st 2015. A 20-item questionnaire adapted from the literature was validated and distributed to 422 adults living in Al-Kharj governorate, and 22 participants were excluded as they have never heard or read about epilepsy...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Mohsin Hamid, Ali Ghani, Ida Micaily, Usman Sarwar, Bilal Lashari, Faizan Malik
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an increasingly recognizable neuro-clinical syndrome. Clinical and neurological manifestations of PRES include hypertension, headache, encephalopathy, seizures, and symmetrical white matter changes on brain MRI. Most common precipitants of PRES are acute medical illness, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia, immunosuppressive therapy, and chemotherapy. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that halts angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
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