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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830026/progesterone-therapy-induces-an-m1-to-m2-switch-in-microglia-phenotype-and-suppresses-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-a-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-mouse-model
#1
Roya Aryanpour, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Kazem Zibara, Zeinab Namjoo, Fatemeh Beigi Boroujeni, Saeed Shahbeigi, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendehdel
Demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated to reactive microglia in neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The M1 microglia phenotype plays a pro-inflammatory role while M2 is involved in anti-inflammatory processes in the brain. In this study, CPZ-induced demyelination mouse model was used to investigate the effect of progesterone (PRO) therapy on microglia activation and neuro-inflammation. Results showed that progesterone therapy (CPZ+PRO) decreased neurological behavioral deficits, as demonstrated by significantly decreased escape latencies, in comparison to CPZ mice...
August 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829986/neurobiology-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#2
REVIEW
Masaki Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuko Fukata
Autoimmune encephalitis presenting with amnesia, seizures, and psychosis is highly topical in basic and clinical neuroscience. Recent studies have identified numerous associated autoantibodies, targeting cell-surface synaptic proteins including neurotransmitter receptors (e.g. NMDA receptors (NMDARs)) and a secreted protein, LGI1. In vitro and in vivo analyses of the influence of the autoantibodies have begun to clarify their causal roles. Of particular interest is the generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies from patients' B cells with anti-NMDAR encephalitis...
August 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829985/follow-up-study-of-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-with-associated-absence-seizure-and-myoclonic-epilepsy-of-infancy
#3
Vincenzo Belcastro, Lucio Giordano, Dario Pruna, Cinzia Peruzzi, Susanna Casellato, Salvatore Barca, Giorgia Carlone, Pasquale Striano, Alberto Verrotti
We evaluated the long-term prognosis of patients featuring the association of absences and myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Our cohort consisted of 10 male subjects with mean age at seizure onset of 29 months. Follow-up data included seizure outcome and EEG findings. All individuals received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as monotherapy (6 patients) or polytherapy (4 patients) for a mean period of 24 months. Over a 30-60 month evaluation period (mean: 43 months), all patients were seizure-free. Follow-up data after withdrawal of antiepileptic therapy were obtained for a mean period of 22 months...
August 14, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829982/pre-movement-planning-processes-in-people-with-congenital-mirror-movements
#4
E A Franz, Y Fu
OBJECTIVE: Pre-movement processes were investigated in people with Congenital mirrormovement (CMM), a rare disorder in which bilateral movement (mirroring) occurs in the upper distal extremities (primarily the hands and fingers) during intended unilateral movements. Abnormal density of ipsilateral corticospinal projections is an established hallmark of CMM. This study tested whether the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP), which reflects movement planning and readiness, is also abnormal in people with CMM...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829928/green-tree-frog-hyla-cinerea-and-ground-squirrel-xerospermophilus-spilosoma-mortality-attributed-to-inland-brevetoxin-transportation-at-padre-island-national-seashore-texas-2015
#5
Danielle E Buttke, Alicia Walker, I-Shuo Huang, Leanne Flewelling, Julia Lankton, Anne E Ballmann, Travis Clapp, James Lindsay, Paul V Zimba
On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30-40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829736/case-report-zika-virus-meningoencephalitis-and-myelitis-and-associated-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#6
Faruq Pradhan, Joseph D Burns, Ahmed Agameya, Avignat Patel, Mohammad Alfaqih, Juan E Small, Winnie Ooi
Zika virus (ZIKV) has a wide clinical spectrum of associated neurologic disease including microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome but, despite its known neurotropism, ZIKV meningoencephalitis and myelitis have been rare complications. We describe a case of ZIKV meningoencephalitis and probable myelitis and its associated magnetic resonance imaging findings that rapidly resolved during recovery in a previously healthy adult.
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829730/clinical-characteristics-of-severe-japanese-encephalitis-a-case-series-from-south-korea
#7
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Jangsup Moon, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829653/twelve-month-prospective-cohort-study-of-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-relatives-coping-satisfaction-with-life-and-neurological-functioning
#8
Chiara S Haller
BACKGROUND: To examine the associations between the functioning of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and their relatives' coping style and quality of life across 12 months post-injury. METHODS: Prospective, population-based cohort study assessing 188 patients with severe TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale of the head region [HAIS] score >3), and their relatives, 3, 6 and 12 months post-injury. Data were drawn from a larger national study run in Switzerland (2007-2011)...
August 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829224/the-mmpi-2-mmpi-2-rf-symptom-validity-scale-fbs-fbs-r-is-not-a-measure-of-litigation-response-syndrome-commentary-on-nichols-and-gass-2015
#9
Glenn J Larrabee, Kevin J Bianchini, Kyle B Boone, Martin L Rohling
OBJECTIVES: To address (1) Whether there is empirical evidence for the contention of Nichols and Gass that the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF FBS/FBS-r Symptom Validity Scale is a measure of Litigation Response Syndrome (LRS), representing a credible set of responses and reactions of claimants to the experience of being in litigation, rather than a measure of non-credible symptom report, as the scale is typically used; and (2) to address their stated concerns about the validity of FBS/FBS-r meta-analytic results, and the risk of false positive elevations in persons with bona-fide medical conditions...
August 22, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829210/an-update-on-the-recognition-and-treatment-of-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
Michael O Kinney, Peter W Kaplan
Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a complex and diverse condition which is often an under-recognised entity in the intensive care unit. When NCSE is identified the optimal treatment strategy is not always clear. Areas covered: This review is based on a literature review of the key literature in the field over the last 5-10 years. The articles were selected based on their importance to the field by the authors. Expert commentary: This review discusses the complex situations when a neurological consultation may occur in a critical care setting and provides an update on the latest evidence regarding the recognition of NCSE and the decision making around determining the aggressiveness of treatment...
August 22, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828964/clinical-nutrition-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-stroke-patients
#11
Robert Patejdl, Matthias Kästner, Stephan Kolbaske, Matthias Wittstock
Background Data on the epidemiology and risk factors of altered gastrointestinal motility (AGIM) is virtually lacking for patients suffering from non-traumatic neurologic diseases and stroke. This study investigated whether patterns of AGIM differ between patients with stroke and other severe acute brain diseases. Methods Clinical records of stroke and non-stroke patients treated at a neurological intensive care unit (ICU) were reviewed at day 1-5 and at day 10 after admission. The data was analyzed for the course of enteral/parenteral nutrition and for and for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction...
August 22, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828953/what-is-your-neurologic-diagnosis
#12
Raphael Repellin, Matthew D Barnhart, Adam T Watson, Eric C Hans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828753/reduction-of-intradiscal-pressure-by-the-use-of-polycarbonate-urethane-rods-as-compared-to-titanium-rods-in-posterior-thoracolumbar-spinal-fixation
#13
Eva Jacobs, Alex K Roth, Jacobus J Arts, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, Paul C Willems
Loss of sagittal alignment and balance in adult spinal deformity can cause severe pain, disability and progressive neurological deficit. When conservative treatment has failed, spinal fusion using rigid instrumentation is currently the salvage treatment to stop further curve progression. However, fusion surgery is associated with high revision rates due to instrumentation failure and proximal junctional failure, especially if patients also suffer from osteoporosis. To address these drawbacks, a less rigid rod construct is proposed, which is hypothesized to provide a more gradual transition of force and load distribution over spinal segments in comparison to stiff titanium rods...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828603/manganese-control-of-glutamate-transporters-gene-expression
#14
Eunsook Lee, Pratap Karki, James Johnson, Peter Hong, Michael Aschner
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, serving as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in various cellular and biochemical reactions in human body. However, chronic overexposure to Mn from occupational or environmental sources induces a neurological disorder, characterized by psychiatric, cognitive, and motor abnormalities, referred to as manganism. Mn-induced neurotoxicity is known to target astrocytes since these cells preferentially accumulate Mn. Astrocytes are the most abundant non-neuronal glial cells in the brain, and they play a critical role in maintaining the optimal glutamate levels to prevent excitotoxic death...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828556/primary-posterior-fossa-lesions-and-preserved-supratentorial-cerebral-blood-flow-implications-for-brain-death-determination
#15
Panayiotis N Varelas, Paul Brady, Mohammed Rehman, Arash Afshinnik, Chandan Mehta, Tamer Abdelhak, Eelco F Wijdicks
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions may clinically meet brain death criteria, but may retain supratentorial brain function or blood flow. These patients could be declared brain-dead in the United Kingdom (UK), but not in the United States of America (USA). We report the outcome of adult patients with primary posterior fossa lesions without concurrent major supratentorial injury. METHODS: Henry Ford Hospital database was reviewed over a period of 88 months in order to identify all adult patients with isolated brainstem or posterior fossa lesions...
August 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828534/finger-tapping-and-verbal-fluency-post-tap-test-improvement-in-inph-its-value-in-differential-diagnosis-and-shunt-treatment-outcomes-prognosis
#16
Evangelia Liouta, Stylianos Gatzonis, Theodosis Kalamatianos, Aristotelis Kalyvas, Christos Koutsarnakis, Faidon Liakos, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Spyridon Komaitis, Dimitris Giakoumettis, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) diagnosis is challenging as it can be mimicked by other neurological conditions, such as neurodegenerative dementia and motor syndromes. Additionally, outcomes after lumbar puncture (LP) tap test and shunt treatment may vary due to the lack of a common protocol in INPH assessment. The present study aimed to assess whether a post-LP test amelioration of frontal cognitive dysfunctions, characterizing this syndrome, can differentiate INPH from similar neurological conditions and whether this improvement can predict INPH post-shunt outcomes...
August 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828209/prevalence-for-delirium-in-stroke-patients-a-prospective-controlled-study
#17
Peter Nydahl, Gabriele Bartoszek, Andreas Binder, Laura Paschen, Nils G Margraf, Karsten Witt, Andre Ewers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigates the prevalence of delirium in acute stroke patients on a primary stroke unit (SU) analyzing associated risk factors and clinical outcomes. METHOD: Prospective, 4-month observational study from 2015 to 2016 on patients aged ≥18 years with stroke at a German university hospital's SU. The presence of delirium as first outcome was rated at three times daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Secondary outcome measures were duration of delirium, rehabilitation in SU, length of stay in SU and hospital, complications, and mortality...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828129/salter-harris-i-fracture-of-the-distal-humerus-in-a-neonate-imaging-appearance-of-radiographs-ultrasound-and-arthrography
#18
Nicholas M Beckmann, Lindsay Crawford
Neonatal Salter-Harris I fractures of the distal humerus are a rare injury. This injury can be easily mistaken for a posterior elbow dislocation, creating a delay in diagnosis. We present a case of a neonate with a distal humerus Salter-Harris I fracture secondary to trauma during delivery. The patient presented with pseudoparesis of the left arm following birth. Posterior displacement of the elbow was identified on radiographs. Ultrasound of the elbow was performed after a gentle closed reduction of the left elbow was unsuccessful...
September 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827871/cognitive-effects-with-rivastigmine-augmentation-of-risperidone-a-12-month-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-in-schizophrenia
#19
Pattath Narayanan Suresh Kumar, Seema P Mohemmedali, P K Anish, Chittaranjan Andrade
OBJECTIVE: An important challenge in schizophrenia therapeutics is to develop an efficacious treatment for cognitive impairment. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as rivastigmine, have been studied for improving cognitive performance in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rivastigmine (uptitrated to 6 mg/day) was given as an add-on therapy to risperidone-treated stable schizophrenia patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Of 67 patients who met eligibility criteria, 55 were recruited into the study...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827852/adverse-effects-of-antiepileptic-drug-lamotrigine-and-oral-implications-case-report
#20
Ana Ivanišević Malčić, Đurđica Sivić, Jurica Matijević
Here, we report on a patient who presented with extensive oral lesions. The treatment with lamotrigine is described.The patient presented with bilateral facial swellings and mental space swelling with actively draining extra oral sinus tract in the central chin area. Dental medicine professionals should be aware of the risks involved with using this medication, and should recognize the population at risk among patients suffering from epilepsy, bipolar and neurologic disorders.
June 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
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