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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861911/metabolism-of-ketone-bodies-during-exercise-and-training-physiological-basis-for-exogenous-supplementation
#1
Mark Evans, Karl E Cogan, Brendan Egan
Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focussed on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone, and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430501/ketone-bodies-and-exercise-performance-the-next-magic-bullet-or-merely-hype
#2
Philippe J M Pinckaers, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, Luc J C van Loon
Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
July 18, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911673/glucose-concentration-in-capillary-blood-of-dairy-cows-obtained-by-a-minimally-invasive-lancet-technique-and-determined-with-three-different-hand-held-devices
#3
B Mair, M Drillich, D Klein-Jöbstl, P Kanz, S Borchardt, L Meyer, I Schwendenwein, M Iwersen
BACKGROUND: Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood sampling techniques have been introduced in which small amounts of blood are rapidly analysed using electronic hand-held devices...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778306/capitalizing-on-fine-milk-composition-for-breeding-and-management-of-dairy-cows
#4
N Gengler, H Soyeurt, F Dehareng, C Bastin, F Colinet, H Hammami, M-L Vanrobays, A Lainé, S Vanderick, C Grelet, A Vanlierde, E Froidmont, P Dardenne
The challenge of managing and breeding dairy cows is permanently adapting to changing production circumstances under socio-economic constraints. If managing and breeding address different timeframes of action, both need relevant phenotypes that allow for precise monitoring of the status of the cows, and their health, behavior, and well-being as well as their environmental impact and the quality of their products (i.e., milk and subsequently dairy products). Milk composition has been identified as an important source of information because it could reflect, at least partially, all these elements...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26479386/the-role-of-tca-cycle-anaplerosis-in-ketosis-and-fatty-liver-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#5
REVIEW
Heather M White
The transition to lactation period in dairy cattle is characterized by metabolic challenges, negative energy balance, and adipose tissue mobilization. Metabolism of mobilized adipose tissue is part of the adaptive response to negative energy balance in dairy cattle; however, the capacity of the liver to completely oxidize nonesterified fatty acids may be limited and is reflective of oxaloacetate pool, the carbon carrier of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Alternative metabolic fates of acetyl-CoA from nonesterified fatty acids include esterification to triacylglycerides and ketogenesis, and when excessive, these pathways lead to fatty liver and ketosis...
2015: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25704973/antepartal-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-concentrations-are-indicative-of-ketosis-in-dairy-cows
#6
M Piechotta, W Mysegades, U Ligges, J Lilienthal, A Hoeflich, A Miyamoto, H Bollwein
A study involving a small number of cows found that the concentrations of insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF1) may be a useful predictor of metabolic disease. Further, IGF1 may provide also a pathophysiological link to metabolic diseases such as ketosis. The objective of the current study was to test whether the low antepartal total IGF1 or IGF1 binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations might predict ketosis under field conditions. Clinical examinations and blood sampling were performed antepartum (262-270 d after artificial insemination) on 377 pluriparous pregnant Holstein Friesian cows...
May 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25668602/differential-metabolite-levels-in-response-to-spawning-induced-inappetence-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#7
Rocco C Cipriano, McKenzie L Smith, Kathleen A Vermeersch, Alistair D M Dove, Mark P Styczynski
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling...
March 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344973/-assessment-of-the-natural-history-and-clinical-presentation-of-acetonemic-vomiting
#8
Helena Krakowczyk, Edyta Machura, Malgorzata Rusek-Zychma, Ewelina Chrobak, Katarzyna Ziora
INTRODUCTION: Ketosis in children may result from physiological adaptation to situations like fasting, fat-rich diet, straining physical activity, as well as from serious endocrine or metabolic disorders. The most frequently diagnosed cause of ketoacidosis are states of acetonemia and acetonuria with vomiting, during airways infections. GOAL: Assessment of the natural history and clinical presentation of acetonemic vomiting in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 85 children from 18 months to 12 years of age with acetonemic vomiting were incorporated in this study...
2014: Przegla̧d Lekarski
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25275931/rethinking-fat-as-a-fuel-for-endurance-exercise
#9
REVIEW
Jeff S Volek, Timothy Noakes, Stephen D Phinney
A key element contributing to deteriorating exercise capacity during physically demanding sport appears to be reduced carbohydrate availability coupled with an inability to effectively utilize alternative lipid fuel sources. Paradoxically, cognitive and physical decline associated with glycogen depletion occurs in the presence of an over-abundance of fuel stored as body fat that the athlete is apparently unable to access effectively. Current fuelling tactics that emphasize high-carbohydrate intakes before and during exercise inhibit fat utilization...
2015: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25256448/a-cause-of-permanent-ketosis-glut-1-deficiency
#10
Alexis Chenouard, Sandrine Vuillaumier-Barrot, Nathalie Seta, Alice Kuster
GLUT-1-deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS; OMIM 606777) is a treatable metabolic disorder caused by a mutation of SLC2A1 gene. The functional deficiency of the GLUT1 protein leads to an impaired glucose transport into the brain, resulting in neurologic disorders.We report on a 6-month-old boy with preprandial malaises who was treated monthly by a sorcerer because of a permanent acetonemic odor. He subsequently developed pharmaco-resistant seizures with microcephaly and motor abnormalities. Metabolic explorations were unremarkable except for a fasting glucose test which revealed an abnormal increase of blood ketone bodies...
2015: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25030342/experiences-with-nausea-and-vomiting-during-pregnancy-in-turkish-women-based-on-roy-adaptation-model-a-content-analysis
#11
Gözde Gökçe Isbir, Samiye Mete
PURPOSE: This qualitative study aimed to explore how Turkish women experience nausea and vomiting in pregnancy based on the Roy Adaptation Model. METHODS: To collect data, in-depth interviews were undertaken with 35 pregnant women who had nausea and vomiting. The sample of the study included pregnant women who were in their first 12 weeks of gestation, did not have medical problems and had nausea, retching and/or vomiting for at least the last 3 days. Data were collected in semi-structured interview form based on the Roy Adaptation Model and with a background data sheet...
December 2013: Asian Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24916777/a-comparative-study-of-the-metabolic-profile-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammatory-response-between-organically-and-conventionally-managed-dairy-cattle-during-the-periparturient-period
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A Abuelo, J Hernández, J L Benedito, C Castillo
The number of organically managed cattle (OMC) within the European Union has increased tremendously in the last decade. However, there are still some concerns about animals under this farming system meeting their dietary requirements for milk production. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic adaptations to the onset of lactation in three different herds, one conventional and two organic ones. Twenty-two conventionally managed cattle (CMC) and 20 from each organic farm were sampled throughout the periparturient period...
September 2014: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24555446/up-regulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-genes-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-the-liver-of-periparturient-dairy-cows
#13
Denise K Gessner, Gloria Schlegel, Robert Ringseis, Frieder J Schwarz, Klaus Eder
BACKGROUND: In dairy cows, the periparturient phase is a stressful period, which is commonly associated with strong metabolic adaptations and the development of pathophysiologic conditions and disorders. Some of the symptoms occurring in the liver, such as the development of fatty liver, are similar to those observed under the condition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Therefore, we hypothesized, that in the liver of dairy cows ER stress is induced during the periparturient phase, which in turn leads to an induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
2014: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24458650/insulin-therapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Faisal S Malik, Craig E Taplin
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires lifelong administration of exogenous insulin. The primary goal of treatment of T1DM in children and adolescents is to maintain near-normoglycemia through intensive insulin therapy, avoid acute complications, and prevent long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications, while facilitating as close to a normal life as possible. Effective insulin therapy must, therefore, be provided on the basis of the needs, preferences, and resources of the individual and the family for optimal management of T1DM...
April 2014: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24334515/the-postmortem-diagnosis-of-alcoholic-ketoacidosis
#15
Cristian Palmiere, Marc Augsburger
AIMS: The aim of this article is to review the forensic literature covering the postmortem investigations that are associated with alcoholic ketoacidosis fatalities and report the results of our own analyses. METHODS: Eight cases of suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis that had undergone medico-legal investigations in our facility from 2011 to 2013 were retrospectively selected. A series of laboratory parameters were measured in whole femoral blood, postmortem serum from femoral blood, urine and vitreous humor in order to obtain a more general overview on the biochemical and metabolic changes that occur during alcoholic ketoacidosis...
May 2014: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24198811/a-non-traditional-model-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-adaptive-significance-of-insulin-resistance-in-fasting-adapted-seals
#16
REVIEW
Dorian S Houser, Cory D Champagne, Daniel E Crocker
Insulin resistance in modern society is perceived as a pathological consequence of excess energy consumption and reduced physical activity. Its presence in relation to the development of cardiovascular risk factors has been termed the metabolic syndrome, which produces increased mortality and morbidity and which is rapidly increasing in human populations. Ironically, insulin resistance likely evolved to assist animals during food shortages by increasing the availability of endogenous lipid for catabolism while protecting protein from use in gluconeogenesis and eventual oxidation...
2013: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24060547/-maternal-diabetic-ketosic-decompensation-which-occurred-during-corticotherapy-for-fetal-lung-maturation-a-report-of-three-cases
#17
M Dorey, A Boileau, O Pourrat, R Maréchaud, F Pierre
Three cases of ketosis decompensation occurring immediately in type I diabetic after corticotherapy for lung foetal maturation (LFM) are reported. Few of observations have been published. Increasing doses of insulin is mandatory under close monitoring of blood glucose levels, in particular according to the protocol proposed by Kaushal et al.: infusion of insulin adapted to the results of glucose levels, as a supplementation to the usual doses in each patient. Diabetes does not lead to hesitate prescribing a corticotherapy for LFM, but requires a strict control of needs in insulin to avoid a ketosis decompensation...
October 2014: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24054909/elevated-non-esterified-fatty-acids-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-their-association-with-transition-dairy-cow-performance
#18
REVIEW
Jessica A A McArt, Daryl V Nydam, Garrett R Oetzel, Thomas R Overton, Paula A Ospina
Dairy cows pass through a period of negative energy balance as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Poor adaptation through this period, expressed as excessively elevated concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) pre- or post-partum and elevated concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate post-partum, increases an individual animal's risk of post-partum disease, removal from the herd, reproductive difficulty, and reduced milk production. Field studies have shown that subclinical ketosis often affects 40% of cows in a herd although the incidence can be as high as 80%...
December 2013: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24054306/influence-of-4-week-intraduodenal-supplementation-of-quercetin-on-performance-glucose-metabolism-and-mrna-abundance-of-genes-related-to-glucose-metabolism-and-antioxidative-status-in-dairy-cows
#19
A Gohlke, C J Ingelmann, G Nürnberg, J M Weitzel, H M Hammon, S Görs, A Starke, S Wolffram, C C Metges
Quercetin has been shown to be a potent antioxidant, acts hepatoprotectively, and affects glucose and lipid metabolism in monogastrics. If this is also true in ruminants, quercetin could be beneficial in periparturient high-yielding dairy cows by ameliorating the negative effects of free radical formation and reducing the severity of liver lipidosis and ketosis. In a first attempt to evaluate effects of a long-term quercetin treatment, we intraduodenally administered twice daily 18 mg of quercetin (Q)/kg of body weight to 5 late-lactation (215d in milk) dairy cows over a period of 28 d...
2013: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24049742/methionine-and-choline-regulate-the-metabolic-phenotype-of-a-ketogenic-diet
#20
Pavlos Pissios, Shangyu Hong, Adam Richard Kennedy, Deepthi Prasad, Fen-Fen Liu, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
Low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets are commonly used as weight loss alternatives to low-fat diets, however the physiological and molecular adaptations to these diets are not completely understood. It is assumed that the metabolic phenotype of the ketogenic diet (KD) is caused by the absence of carbohydrate and high fat content, however in rodents the protein content of KD affects weight gain and ketosis. In this study we examined the role of methionine and choline in mediating the metabolic effects of KD. We have found that choline was more effective than methionine in decreasing the liver steatosis of KD-fed mice...
2013: Molecular Metabolism
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