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endurance nutrition

Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Ricardo J S Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
BACKGROUND: Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners during multi-stage (MSUM) and 24-h continuous (24 h) ultramarathons. METHODS: Ad libitum food and fluid intakes of ultramarathon runners (MSUM n = 54; 24 h n = 22) were recorded throughout both events and analysed by dietary analysis software...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Carlos A Camillo, Christian R Osadnik, Hans van Remoortel, Chris Burtin, Wim Janssens, Thierry Troosters
The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus "add-on" therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Pamela J Magee, Alison M Gallagher, Jacqueline M McCormack
Although dehydration of ≥2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n=430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
F-C Tang, C-C Chan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) are both associated with energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of BCAA supplementation on the PNC activity of male athletes in response to a bout of endurance running exercise. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twelve male athletes (20.3±1.4 years) participated in the study. Each of the athletes received 12 g of a BCAA supplement (leucine 54%, isoleucine 19% and valine 27%) per day during the study...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Crystal L Park, Lucy Finkelstein-Fox, David M Barnes, Carolyn M Mazure, Rani Hoff
OBJECTIVES: Because the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing among veterans, understanding more about the characteristics of veterans who use CAM is increasingly important. Studies reporting on predictors of use almost always discuss CAM in the aggregate, yet each CAM modality represents a unique approach to healthcare, and each may have different correlates as well as different effectiveness. Very little information is available about veterans' use of each distinct modality, and about psychosocial correlates of various forms of CAM use...
October 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Shan-Shan Guo, Xiao-Fang Gao, Yan-Rong Gu, Zhong-Xiao Wan, A-Ming Lu, Zheng-Hong Qin, Li Luo
Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Tarun Kumar, K S Hari Prasad, Nitin Kumar Singh
In the present study, the effect of short-term organic shock loads (675, 799, 1,084 and 1,410 mg COD/L) on the treatment performance of a pilot-scale vermifilter (VF), employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida and treating synthetic domestic wastewater is investigated. The effect of organic shock loads on the performance and stability of vermifiltration reactor was evaluated to identify its feasibility in actual field conditions. Prior to the application of each organic shock load, normal loading conditions were maintained to achieve the pseudo steady state (PSS) conditions...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kazim Sahin, Ragip Pala, Mehmet Tuzcu, Oguzhan Ozdemir, Cemal Orhan, Nurhan Sahin, Vijaya Juturu
PURPOSE: Exercise (Ex) increases reactive oxygen species and impairs antioxidant defense systems. Recent data suggest that curcumin (CW) possesses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of CW supplementation on Ex performance, endurance, and changes in serum and muscle proteins in rats after exhaustive Ex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight (28) male Wistar rats (age: 8 weeks and body weight: 180±20 g) were divided into four treatment groups: 1) control (C; no Ex), 2) C + CW (no Ex + CW), 3) C + Ex, and 4) C + Ex + CW (Ex + CW)...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
Megan M Skrip, Navindra P Seeram, Tao Yuan, Hang Ma, Scott R McWilliams
Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that experienced during normal activity in an aviary; (2) a supplemented non-exercised group fed a water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant-supplemented diet with no exercise; (3) a non-supplemented exercised group fed a standard diet and trained to perform daily endurance flight for 6 weeks; and (4) a supplemented exercised group fed an antioxidant-supplemented diet and trained to perform daily flight for 6 weeks...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
R Andrew Shanely, David C Nieman, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Dru A Henson, Mary P Meaney, Amy M Knab, Lynn Cialdell-Kam
Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study...
2016: Nutrients
Julien Louis, Laurie-Anne Marquet, Eve Tiollier, Stéphane Bermon, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of a 3-week dietary periodization on immunity and sleep in triathletes. METHODS: 21 triathletes were divided into two groups with different nutritional guidelines during a 3-week endurance training program including nine twice a day sessions with lowered (SL group) or maintained (CON group) glycogen availability during the overnight recovery period. In addition to performance tests, sleep was monitored every night. Systemic and mucosal immune parameters as well as the incidence of URTI were monitored every week of the training/nutrition protocol...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Pete J Cox, Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W McLure, M Todd King, Michael S Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L Veech, Julian L Griffin, Kieran Clarke
Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration...
August 9, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Marion Kiechle, Christoph Engel, Anika Berling, Katrin Hebestreit, Stephan C Bischoff, Ricarda Dukatz, Michael Siniatchkin, Katharina Pfeifer, Sabine Grill, Maryam Yahiaoui-Doktor, Ellen Kirsch, Uwe Niederberger, Ute Enders, Markus Löffler, Alfons Meindl, Kerstin Rhiem, Rita Schmutzler, Nicole Erickson, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Women with highly penetrant BRCA mutations have a 55-60 % lifetime risk for breast cancer and a 16-59 % lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, penetrance differs interindividually, indicating that environmental and behavioral factors may modify this risk. It is well documented that the risk for sporadic breast cancer disease can be modified by changing lifestyle factors that primarily include physical activity, dietary habits, and body weight. It can thus be hypothesized that the modification of these lifestyle factors may also influence the incidence and progression of cancer in BRCA mutation carriers...
2016: Trials
Jisu Kim, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Dominique Hansen, Dorien De Strijcker, Patrick Calders
Exercise training intervention is a cornerstone in the care of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR), and it is pursued in order to optimize exercise interventions for these patients. In this regard, the nutritional state of patients during exercise (being in the fed or fasted state) can be of particular interest. The aim of the present review is to describe the impact of endurance exercise (training) in the fasted versus fed state on parameters of muscle biochemistry and metabolism linked to glycemic control or insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects...
July 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
Michelle C Langley, Sue O'Connor, Elena Piotto
In this paper, we describe worked and pigment-stained Nautilus shell artefacts recovered from Jerimalai, Timor-Leste. Two of these artefacts come from contexts dating to between 38,000 and 42,000 cal. BP (calibrated years before present), and exhibit manufacturing traces (drilling, pressure flaking, grinding), as well as red colourant staining. Through describing more complete Nautilus shell ornaments from younger levels from this same site (>15,900, 9500, and 5000 cal. BP), we demonstrate that those dating to the initial occupation period of Jerimalai are of anthropogenic origin...
August 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Fernando Alacid, Fulgencio Soto-Méndez, Pedro E Alcaraz, Francisco Javier López-Román, Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias
The biological response to ultra-endurance mountain race events is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and physiological changes after performing an ultra-endurance mountain race in runners. We recruited 11 amateur runners (age: 29.7 ± 10.2 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.4 cm; body mass: 76.7 ± 10.3 kg). Muscle damage, lactate concentration, energy balance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body composition changes, and jump performance were analyzed before, during (only lactate, HR, and HRV), and after the race...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Javier T Gonzalez, Cas J Fuchs, James A Betts, Luc J C van Loon
Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is determined primarily by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate- to high-intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. Because endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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