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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#1
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095077/running-performance-with-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweetened-mouth-rinses
#2
Keely H Hawkins, Sridevi Krishnan, Lara Ringos, Vanessa Garcia, Jamie A Cooper
: Mouth rinsing (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. PURPOSE: To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affect exercise performance, and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time-trial (TT). METHODS: This randomized, single blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. 16 subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8km TT four different times. During each TT, subjects MR and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072907/symptomatic-treatments-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#3
REVIEW
Louisa Ng, Fary Khan, Carolyn A Young, Mary Galea
BACKGROUND: Motor neuron disease (MND), which is also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), causes a wide range of symptoms but the evidence base for the effectiveness of the symptomatic treatment therapies is limited. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews of all symptomatic treatments for MND. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on 15 November 2016 for systematic reviews of symptomatic treatments for MND...
January 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067808/effects-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-cardiorespiratory-endurance-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Raúl Domínguez, Eduardo Cuenca, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Pablo García-Fernández, Noemí Serra-Paya, María Carmen Lozano Estevan, Pablo Veiga Herreros, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance...
January 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066619/clinical-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-muscle-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Joaquim Gea, Carme Casadevall, Sergi Pascual, Mauricio Orozco-Levi, Esther Barreiro
Muscle dysfunction is frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contributing to their exercise limitation and a worsening prognosis. The main factor leading to limb muscle dysfunction is deconditioning, whereas respiratory muscle dysfunction is mostly the result of pulmonary hyperinflation. However, both limb and respiratory muscles are also influenced by other negative factors, including smoking, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exacerbations and some drugs...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052570/effects-of-the-youth-fit-4-life-physical-activity-nutrition-protocol-on-body-mass-index-fitness-and-targeted-social-cognitive-theory-variables-in-9-to-12-year-olds-during-after-school-care
#6
James J Annesi, Stephanie M Walsh, Brittney L Greenwood, Nicole Mareno, Jennifer L Unruh-Rewkowski
AIM: Childhood overweight and obesity is unacceptably high in industrialised nations. School-based interventions have largely been atheoretical and ineffective. This study aimed to test a new theory-based protocol for its effects on measures of fitness and body mass index (BMI), and its proposed psychosocial mediators, during elementary after-school (out-of-school hours) care. METHODS: Nine- to 12-year-old participants of YMCA-based after-school care in the southeastern Unites States were randomised into either the experimental Youth Fit 4 Life (YF4L) treatment group (n = 86) or a typical care group (n = 55) for 45 min/day...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050926/normative-values-for-cardiorespiratory-fitness-testing-among-us-children-aged-6-11-years
#7
Jaime J Gahche, Brian K Kit, Janet E Fulton, Dianna D Carroll, Thomas Rowland
BACKGROUND: Nationally representative normative values for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have not been described for US children since the mid 1980's. OBJECTIVE: To provide sex- and age-specific normative values for CRF of US children aged 6-11 years. METHODS: Data from 624 children aged 6-11 years who participated in the CRF testing as part of the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey, a cross-sectional survey, were analyzed...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996109/reliability-and-validity-of-a-simplified-comprehensive-assessment-tool-for-feeding-support-kuchi-kara-taberu-index
#8
Keisuke Maeda, Hiroshi Shamoto, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Junko Enomoto, Mika Takeichi, Tamami Koyama
OBJECTIVES: To verify the reliability and validity and develop an English version of an instrument (Kuchi-Kara Taberu Index (KT Index)) to comprehensively assess and intervene in problems with eating and swallowing. DESIGN: Multicenter cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (mean age 88.3 ± 6.8; 80.0% female) who had lived in a nursing home for longer than 1 month (N = 115)...
December 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967263/starvation-can-result-from-inadequate-dietary-planning-for-a-50-day-rowing-expedition
#9
Hamish Ab Reid, Nicholas C Dennison, Jonathan Quayle, Tom Preston
PURPOSE: Meeting the energy demands of prolonged arduous expeditions and endurance sport may be a significant barrier to success. Expedition rowing is associated with high levels of body mass loss, reflecting the challenge of meeting energy expenditure in this exacting environment. This study used the Doubly Labelled Water (DLW) technique to calculate the Total Energy Expenditure (TEE), and body composition changes of two 28-year-old healthy male athletes during a 50-day continuous and unsupported row around Great Britain...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964962/improving-community-ambulation-after-hip-fracture-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
D Orwig, K K Mangione, M Baumgarten, M Terrin, R Fortinsky, A M Kenny, A L Gruber-Baldini, B Beamer, Ana Tosteson, M Shardell, L Magder, E Binder, K Koval, B Resnick, R L Craik, J Magaziner
INTRODUCTION: After a hip fracture in older persons, significant disability often remains; dependency in functional activities commonly persists beyond 3 months after surgery. Endurance, dynamic balance, quadriceps strength, and function are compromised, and contribute to an inability to walk independently in the community. In the United States, people aged 65 years and older are eligible to receive Medicare funding for physiotherapy for a limited time after a hip fracture. A goal of outpatient physiotherapy is independent and safe household ambulation 2 to 3 months after surgery...
January 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922941/exercise-training-ameliorates-glucosamine-induced-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-rats
#11
Chung-Hwan Chen, Tsang-Hai Huang, Tsung-Lin Cheng, Chi-Fen Chang, Chau-Zen Wang, Meng-Hsing Wu, Lin Kang
OBJECTIVE: Glucosamine (GlcN), which has been reported to induce insulin resistance (IR), is a popular nutritional supplement used to treat osteoarthritis in menopausal women. We previously demonstrated that GlcN treatment caused IR in ovariectomized rats by reducing the expression of glucose transport protein subtype 4 (GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we hypothesized that endurance exercise training can reverse GlcN-induced IR. METHODS: Fifty female rats were randomly divided into five groups with 10 rats in each group: (1) sham-operated group; (2) sham-operated group with GlcN treatment for 14 days; (3) ovariectomy (OVX) group; (4) OVX with GlcN treatment; and (5) OVX with GlcN treatment followed by exercise training (running program) for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922496/metabolic-myopathies
#12
Mark A Tarnopolsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916891/comparison-of-site-specific-bone-mineral-densities-between-endurance-runners-and-sprinters-in-adolescent-women
#13
Aoi Ikedo, Aya Ishibashi, Saori Matsumiya, Aya Kaizaki, Kumiko Ebi, Satoshi Fujita
We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years) were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH) BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895900/nutritional-implications-for-ultra-endurance-walking-and-running-events
#14
REVIEW
Eric Williamson
This paper examines the various nutritional challenges which athletes encounter in preparing for and participating in ultra-endurance walking and running events. Special attention is paid to energy level, performance, and recovery within the context of athletes' intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals. It outlines, by way of a review of literature, those factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893579/the-psychological-impact-of-first-burn-camp-in-nicaragua
#15
Lisa L Tropez-Arceneaux, Arlen Tatiana Castillo Alaniz, Ivette Lucia Icaza, Evelyn Alejandra Murillo
Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858306/menthol-a-fresh-ergogenic-aid-for-athletic-performance
#16
Christopher J Stevens, Russ Best
The application of menthol has recently been researched as a performance-enhancing aid for various aspects of athletic performance including endurance, speed, strength and joint range of motion. A range of application methods has been used including a mouth rinse, ingestion of a beverage containing menthol or external application to the skin or clothing via a gel or spray. The majority of research has focussed on the use of menthol to impart a cooling sensation on athletes performing endurance exercise in the heat...
November 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843007/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-intensive-multidisciplinary-intervention-for-pediatric-feeding-disorders-how-standard-is-the-standard-of-care
#17
William G Sharp, Valerie M Volkert, Lawrence Scahill, Courtney E McCracken, Barbara McElhanon
OBJECTIVE: To assess models of care and conduct a meta-analysis of program outcomes for children receiving intensive, multidisciplinary intervention for pediatric feeding disorders. STUDY DESIGN: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases (2000-2015) in peer-reviewed journals for studies that examined the treatment of children with chronic food refusal receiving intervention at day treatment or inpatient hospital programs. Inclusion criteria required the presentation of quantitative data on food consumption, feeding behavior, and/or growth status before and after intervention...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832350/the-impact-of-total-parenteral-nutrition-on-postoperative-recovery-in-patients-treated-for-advanced-stage-ovarian-cancer
#18
Alberto A Mendivil, Mark A Rettenmaier, Lisa N Abaid, John V Brown, Kristina M Mori, Bram H Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) presumably benefits cancer patients although reports have disputed the significance of this nutritional intervention. We sought to compare the postoperative outcomes of ovarian cancer patients treated with either TPN or conservative management. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the impact of TPN and conservative management in ovarian cancer patients who underwent debulking surgery and a bowel resection. The primary study variables encompassed patient time until restoration of bowel function, number of postoperative complications and duration of hospital stay...
November 10, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826462/reconstruction-of-alar-nasal-cartilage-defects-using-a-tissue-engineering-technique-based-on-a-combined-use-of-autologous-chondrocyte-micrografts-and-platelet-rich-plasma-preliminary-clinical-and-instrumental-evaluation
#19
Pietro Gentile, Maria G Scioli, Alessandra Bielli, Augusto Orlandi, Valerio Cervelli
BACKGROUND: Developing cartilage constructs with injectability, appropriate matrix composition, and persistent cartilaginous phenotype remains an enduring challenge in cartilage repair. The combined use of autologous chondrocyte micrografts and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an alternative that opens a new era in this field. METHODS: At the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy, 11 patients underwent nasal alar reconstruction with chondrocyte micrografts gently poured onto PRP in solid form...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805918/early-changes-in-microbial-community-structure-are-associated-with-sustained-remission-after-nutritional-treatment-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#20
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew W Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Clinical remission achieved by exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is associated with marked microbiome changes. In this prospective study of exclusive enteral nutrition, we employ a hierarchical model of microbial community structure to distinguish between pediatric Crohn's disease patients who achieved sustained remission (SR) and those who relapsed early (non-SR), after restarting a normal diet. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from 10 patients (age 10-16) and from 5 healthy controls (age 9-14)...
December 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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