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endurance nutrition

Débora Finger, Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Clarissa Müller Brusco, Lucas Helal, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. METHODS: , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Linda M Richter, Stephen J Lye, Kerrie Proulx
Forced displacement worldwide is at its highest in decades and millions of young children are living in conflict zones, in transitional or enduring refugee contexts, and in demographically diverse marginalized and informal settlements. There is a huge unmet need for delivering early childhood development interventions to ensure the safety and continued development of young children in these vulnerable contexts. In this paper, we discuss nurturing care as an important entry point for multisectoral collaborations to support families and reach young children...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Diego Moreno-Pérez, Carlo Bressa, María Bailén, Safa Hamed-Bousdar, Fernando Naclerio, Manuel Carmona, Margarita Pérez, Rocío González-Soltero, Maria Gregoria Montalvo-Lominchar, Claudia Carabaña, Mar Larrosa
Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) ( n = 12) or maltodextrin (control) ( n = 12) for 10 weeks...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Kenji Kuzuhara, Kanako Katai, Tatsuya Hojo, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Misaka Kimura, Yasuyoshi Yanagida, Yosuke Yamada, Junta Iguchi
Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity appears to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and/or for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012-2013 season. In the present study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012-2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March to April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May to August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body weight and body fat) and energy intake/expenditure in each phase...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kengo Ishihara, Hirokazu Taniguchi
Endurance exercise performance has been used as a representative index in experimental animal models in the field of health sciences, exercise physiology, comparative physiology, food function or nutritional physiology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fatmax (the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation) as an additional index of endurance exercise performance that can be measured during running at submaximal exercise intensity in mice. We measured both Fatmax and Vo2 peak of trained ICR mice that voluntary exercised for 8 weeks and compared them with a sedentary group of mice at multiple inclinations of 20, 30, 40, and 50° on a treadmill...
2018: PloS One
Abdullah F Alghannam, Javier T Gonzalez, James A Betts
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3-6 h) recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
Samuel G Impey, Mark A Hearris, Kelly M Hammond, Jonathan D Bartlett, Julien Louis, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
Deliberately training with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability to enhance endurance-training-induced metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle (i.e. the 'train low, compete high' paradigm) is a hot topic within sport nutrition. Train-low studies involve periodically training (e.g., 30-50% of training sessions) with reduced CHO availability, where train-low models include twice per day training, fasted training, post-exercise CHO restriction and 'sleep low, train low'. When compared with high CHO availability, data suggest that augmented cell signalling (73% of 11 studies), gene expression (75% of 12 studies) and training-induced increases in oxidative enzyme activity/protein content (78% of 9 studies) associated with 'train low' are especially apparent when training sessions are commenced within a specific range of muscle glycogen concentrations...
February 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
Karen Lambert, Marie Hokayem, Claire Thomas, Odile Fabre, Cécile Cassan, Annick Bourret, Florence Bernex, Christine Feuillet-Coudray, Cécile Notarnicola, Jacques Mercier, Antoine Avignon, Catherine Bisbal
Separately, polyphenols and exercise are known to prevent insulin resistance (IR) but their combined curative effects on established obesity and IR require further investigation. Therefore, we compared the metabolic effects of a combination of exercise and grape polyphenols supplementation in obese IR rats with high-fat diet (EXOPP) to the effect of high-fat diet alone (HF) or with a nutritional supplementation of grape polyphenols (PP) or with endurance exercise (EXO) during 8 wks. We observed an improvement of systemic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in EXO and EXOPP rats...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leigh Perreault, Sean A Newsom, Allison Strauss, Anna Kerege, Darcy E Kahn, Kathleen A Harrison, Janet K Snell-Bergeon, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, Matthew R Jackman, Paul S MacLean, Bryan C Bergman
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG) and sphingolipids is thought to promote skeletal muscle insulin resistance by altering cellular signaling specific to their location. However,the subcellular localization of bioactive lipids in human skeletal muscle is largely unknown. METHODS: We evaluated subcellular localization of skeletal muscle DAGs and sphingolipids in lean individuals (n = 15), endurance-trained athletes (n = 16), and obese men and women with (n = 12) and without type 2 diabetes (n = 15)...
February 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Barbara Strasser, Konstantinos Volaklis, Dietmar Fuchs, Martin Burtscher
Muscle atrophy is an unfortunate effect of aging and many diseases and can compromise physical function and impair vital metabolic processes. Low levels of muscular fitness together with insufficient dietary intake are major risk factors for illness and mortality from all causes. Ultimately, muscle wasting contributes significantly to weakness, disability, increased hospitalization, immobility, and loss of independence. However, the extent of muscle wasting differs greatly between individuals due to differences in the aging process per se as well as physical activity levels...
February 2018: Aging and Disease
Kiran G Bapatla, Arjun Singh, Srujana Yeddula, Ramanagouda H Patil
The insect gut has been the house of many taxonomically and physiologically diverse groups of microbial colonizers as symbionts and commensals, which are evolving to support the physiological requirement of insects. Lepidoptera is one of the important family of class hexapoda, comprising agriculture insect pest Spodoptera litura and Spilosoma obliqua. Information on gut microbiota and their functional role in these insects was meager to elucidate the wide-ranging survivalist mechanisms. In this context, we analyzed the composition, diversity and functional role of gut bacteria in S...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Tiit Örd, Daima Örd, Tõnis Örd
Mammals must be able to endure periods of limited food availability, and the liver plays a central role in the adaptation to nutritional stresses. TRIB3 (Tribbles homolog 3) is a cellular stress-inducible gene with a liver-centric expression pattern and it has been implicated in stress response regulation and metabolic control. In the current article, we study the involvement of TRIB3 in responses to nutrient deficiencies, including fasting for up to 48 h in mice. We show that hepatic expression of Trib3 is increased after 48 h of fasting and mice with a targeted deletion of the Trib3 gene present elevated hepatic triglyceride content and liver weight at 48 h, along with an upregulation of lipid utilization genes in the liver...
January 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dorianne Bonnicci, Ibrahim Akubat, Matthew Greig, Andy Sparks, Lars R Mc Naughton
Soccer presents a metabolic challenge which is not necessarily matched by players' habitual dietary intake. To examine the effects of a bespoke diet, 22 players completed the Ball Sport Endurance and Sprint Test (BEAST90mod) protocol, followed by 4 days of regulated nutritional intake. The diet consisted of 10 g∙kg-1 body mass (BM) and 1.7 g∙kg-1 BM of carbohydrate and protein, respectively. On day 5, players followed a prematch nutritional strategy of 7 g∙kg-1 BM of carbohydrate and 1 g∙kg-1 BM of protein divided into three meals and then repeated the BEAST90mod...
January 25, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Troy Purdom, Len Kravitz, Karol Dokladny, Christine Mermier
Lipids as a fuel source for energy supply during submaximal exercise originate from subcutaneous adipose tissue derived fatty acids (FA), intramuscular triacylglycerides (IMTG), cholesterol and dietary fat. These sources of fat contribute to fatty acid oxidation (FAox) in various ways. The regulation and utilization of FAs in a maximal capacity occur primarily at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% VO2max , is known as maximal fat oxidation (MFO), and is measured in g/min. Fatty acid oxidation occurs during submaximal exercise intensities, but is also complimentary to carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox)...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Haerim Lee, Smi Choi-Kwon
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can cause severe malnutrition. However, relationships between CINV levels, non-pharmacological coping methods, and nutritional status of female cancer patients have rarely been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze their relationships in gynecologic cancer patients. METHODS: Participants receiving a highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy were recruited. The level of CINV was assessed using a numeric rating scale...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Sine Roelsgaard Obling, Benedicte Vibjerg Wilson, Per Pfeiffer, Jens Kjeldsen
OBJECTIVE: Preventing loss of muscle mass and function is an enduring challenge in malnourished patients with incurable cancer. The benefit of supplemental home parenteral nutrition has not been firmly established. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of supplemental home parenteral nutrition, the primary endpoint being fat free mass (FFM) and secondary: muscle function, quality of life and overall survival. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a single centre open-label randomised controlled trial, patients with incurable gastrointestinal cancer, nutritionally at risk, were randomly assigned to either; a) best practice nutritional care and dietetic counselling (non-sHPN) or b) dietetic counselling and supplemental home parenteral nutrition (sHPN group)...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Joshua P Moatt, Catherine Hambly, Elizabeth Heap, Anna Kramer, Fiona Moon, John R Speakman, Craig A Walling
Diet is an important determinant of fitness-related traits including growth, reproduction, and survival. Recent work has suggested that variation in protein:lipid ratio and particularly the amount of protein in the diet is a key nutritional parameter. However, the traits that mediate the link between dietary macronutrient ratio and fitness-related traits are less well understood. An obvious candidate is body composition, given its well-known link to health. Here, we investigate the relationship between dietary and body macronutrient composition using a first-generation laboratory population of a freshwater fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Mukan Ji, Chris Greening, Inka Vanwonterghem, Carlo R Carere, Sean K Bay, Jason A Steen, Kate Montgomery, Thomas Lines, John Beardall, Josie van Dorst, Ian Snape, Matthew B Stott, Philip Hugenholtz, Belinda C Ferrari
Cultivation-independent surveys have shown that the desert soils of Antarctica harbour surprisingly rich microbial communities. Given that phototroph abundance varies across these Antarctic soils, an enduring question is what supports life in those communities with low photosynthetic capacity. Here we provide evidence that atmospheric trace gases are the primary energy sources of two Antarctic surface soil communities. We reconstructed 23 draft genomes from metagenomic reads, including genomes from the candidate bacterial phyla WPS-2 and AD3...
December 21, 2017: Nature
James W Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
Frailty is a medical syndrome associated with advancing age characterized by reduced functional reserve, strength, endurance, and susceptibility to infection associated with high morbidity, hospitalization, and death. Nonspecific interventions to improve the healthspan of affected patients include physical therapy, exercise, improved nutrition, etc. Among the hallmarks of aging, depletion of stem cells with resultant compromise of regeneration and repair of tissues informs a rational stem cell-based replacement strategy...
December 2017: Rejuvenation Research
Kerry Scott, Asha S George, Steven A Harvey, Shinjini Mondal, Gupteswar Patel, Raman Vr, Kabir Sheikh
While nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can potentially strengthen valuable citizen political engagement, NGOs that are increasingly oriented towards donor and government contracts may instead contribute to depoliticizing development. Amidst competing pressures, NGO experiences and agency in managing multiple roles require examination. We present a qualitative case study of an NGO implementing a government-designed intervention to strengthen Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) in rural north India...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
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