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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342285/serial-participation-and-the-ethics-of-phase-1-healthy-volunteer-research
#1
Rebecca L Walker, Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials-which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects-appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase 1 trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342006/on-transitions-in-training-boost-bioethics-education
#2
Sophie Rosseel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334119/evaluation-of-four-variants-of-the-thyroid-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-tirads-classification-in-patients-with-multinodular-goiter
#3
Bartosz Migda, Michal Migda, Anna Marta Migda, Jacek Bierca, Jadwiga Slowniska-Srzednicka, Wieslaw Jakubowski, Rafal Zenon Slapa
Purpose The goal this study was to evaluate the utility of four variants of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) in the differentiation of focal lesions in individuals with multinodular goiter. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the Local Bioethical Committee. Each patient gave informed consent before enrolment. A total of 163 nodules in 124 patients with multinodular goiter were evaluated by ultrasound. B-mode and PD imaging and strain elastography were performed. Archived images were evaluated via retrospective analysis using four different proposed TIRADS classifications Results Sensitivity and specificity of the Horvath, Park, Kwak, and Russ classifications were 0...
January 15, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325536/autonomy-and-couples-joint-decision-making-in-healthcare
#4
Pauline E Osamor, Christine Grady
BACKGROUND: Respect for autonomy is a key principle in bioethics. However, respecting autonomy in practice is complex because most people define themselves and make decisions influenced by a complex network of social relationships. The extent to which individual autonomy operates for each partner within the context of decision-making within marital or similar relationships is largely unexplored. This paper explores issues related to decision-making by couples (couples' joint decision-making) for health care and the circumstances under which such a practice should be respected as compatible with autonomous decision-making...
January 11, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319427/legal-approaches-to-promoting-parental-compliance-with-childhood-immunization-recommendations
#5
Lois A Weithorn, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss
Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases have increased in the United States in recent years, largely due to parental refusals of recommended childhood immunizations. Empirical studies have demonstrated a relationship between nonvaccination rates and permissive state vaccine exemption policies, indicating that legal reforms may promote higher immunization rates. This article reviews relevant data and considers the legal landscape. It analyzes federal and state Constitutional law, concluding that religious and personal belief exemptions to school-entry vaccine mandates are not constitutionally required...
January 10, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304376/hipaa-s-individual-right-of-access-to-genomic-data-reconciling-safety-and-civil-rights
#6
Barbara J Evans
In 2014, the United States granted individuals a right of access to their own laboratory test results, including genomic data. Many observers feel that this right is in tension with regulatory and bioethical standards designed to protect the safety of people who undergo genomic testing. This commentary attributes this tension to growing pains within an expanding federal regulatory program for genetic and genomic testing. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 expanded the regulatory agenda to encompass civil rights and consumer safety...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299754/survey-on-using-ethical-principles-in-environmental-field-research-with-place-based-communities
#7
Dianne Quigley, Alana Levine, David A Sonnenfeld, Phil Brown, Qing Tian, Xiaofan Wei
Researchers of the Northeast Ethics Education Partnership (NEEP) at Brown University sought to improve an understanding of the ethical challenges of field researchers with place-based communities in environmental studies/sciences and environmental health by disseminating a questionnaire which requested information about their ethical approaches to these researched communities. NEEP faculty sought to gain actual field guidance to improve research ethics and cultural competence training for graduate students and faculty in environmental sciences/studies...
January 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297373/research-with-pregnant-women-a-call-to-action
#8
Margaret Olivia Little, Marisha N Wickremsinhe
Despite a global need for the use of medication during pregnancy, the medical research community lacks robust evidence for safety and efficacy of treatments and preventives often taken by pregnant women. Given the biological differences between pregnant women and the rest of the population, the need to gather data on the ways in which medications behave in the pregnant body is critical to the health of pregnant women and their offspring. Three ethical reasons are central to this need: 1. Pregnant women deserve access to effective treatment, 2...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290005/autonomy-competence-and-non-interference
#9
Joseph T F Roberts
In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon demonstration of competence...
December 30, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284529/use-of-the-hippocratic-or-other-professional-oaths-in-uk-medical-schools-in-2017-practice-perception-of-benefit-and-principlism
#10
Ben Green
OBJECTIVE: This paper concerns the continued use of the Hippocratic Oath in United Kingdom (UK) medical schools. A survey of all UK medical schools looked at which schools use the Oath, which variants they use, and what they perceive to be the benefits of using the Oath. 27 schools participated in the study. RESULTS: Although some authors have deemed the Oath as out of date for the purposes of modern medicine [1], new variants of the Oath have been embraced and 19/27 (70%) of schools use an Oath, with some Universities asking student doctors to acknowledge this Oath on entry to and graduation from medical school...
December 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283239/diabetes-from-the-origins-of-the-problem-to-the-nobel-prize-bioethics
#11
R A Kopaladze
Analysis of scientific works from the creation of an experimental model of diabetes before discovery insulin was done. Emphasized is the priority of the Russian pathologist L. W. Sobolew (1876-1919) in the discovery of the endocrine function of the pancreas in experimental animals - rabbits, dogs, cats. In 1923 Canadian scientists Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel prize for the discovery of insulin. However, the methods and the idea of Nobel laureates were the same that had been developed 20 years earlier by the Russian scientists...
January 2017: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280167/from-applied-ethics-to-empirical-ethics-to-contextual-ethics
#12
Barry Hoffmaster
Bioethics became applied ethics when it was assimilated to moral philosophy. Because deduction is the rationality of moral philosophy, subsuming facts under moral principles to deduce conclusions about what ought to be done became the prescribed reasoning of bioethics, and bioethics became a theory comprised of moral principles. Bioethicists now realize that applied ethics is too abstract and spare to apprehend the specificity, particularity, complexity and contingency of real moral issues. Empirical ethics and contextual ethics are needed to incorporate these features into morality, not just bioethics...
December 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280164/the-epistemic-costs-of-compromise-in-bioethics
#13
Katrien Devolder, Thomas Douglas
Bioethicists sometimes defend compromise positions, particularly when they enter debates on applied topics that have traditionally been highly polarised, such as those regarding abortion, euthanasia and embryonic stem cell research. However, defending compromise positions is often regarded with a degree of disdain. Many are intuitively attracted to the view that it is almost always problematic to defend compromise positions, in the sense that we have a significant moral reason not to do so. In this paper, we consider whether this common sense view can be given a principled basis...
December 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273030/the-use-of-empirical-research-in-bioethics-a-survey-of-researchers-in-twelve-european-countries
#14
Tenzin Wangmo, Veerle Provoost
BACKGROUND: The use of empirical research methods in bioethics has been increasing in the last decades. It has resulted in discussions about the 'empirical turn of bioethics' and raised questions related to the value of empirical work for this field, methodological questions about its quality and rigor, and how this integration of the normative and the empirical can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to describe the attitudes of bioethics researchers in this field towards the use of empirical research, and examine their actual conduct: whether they use empirical research methods (and if so, what methods), and whether (and how) they have made attempts at integrating the empirical and the normative...
December 22, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259532/gene-editing-in-humans-towards-a-global-and-inclusive-debate-for-responsible-research%C3%A2
#15
Itziar de Lecuona, María Casado, Gemma Marfany, Manuel Lopez Baroni, Mar Escarrabill
In December 2016, the Opinion Group of the Bioethics and Law Observatory (OBD) of the University of Barcelona launched a Declaration on Bioethics and Gene Editing in Humans analyzing the use of genome editing techniques and their social, ethical, and legal implications through a multidisciplinary approach. It focuses on CRISPR/Cas9, a genome modification technique that enables researchers to edit specific sections of the DNA sequence of humans and other living beings. This technique has generated expectations and worries that deserve an interdisciplinary analysis and an informed social debate...
December 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259526/science-and-bioethics-of-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-an-analysis-towards-separating-facts-and-fiction%C3%A2
#16
REVIEW
Adam P Cribbs, Sumeth M W Perera
Since its emergence in 2012, the genome editing technique known as CRISPR-Cas9 and its scientific use have rapidly expanded globally within a very short period of time. The technique consists of using an RNA guide molecule to bind to complementary DNA sequences, which simultaneously recruits the endonuclease Cas9 to introduce double-stranded breaks in the target DNA. The resulting double-stranded break is then repaired, allowing modification or removal of specific DNA bases. The technique has gained momentum in the laboratory because it is cheap, quick, and easy to use...
December 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258537/gender-differences-and-typical-nutrition-concerns-of-the-diets-of-preschool-children-the-results-of-the-first-stage-of-an-intervention-study
#17
Sylwia Merkiel-Pawłowska, Wojciech Chalcarz
BACKGROUND: Nutrition in children has an important influence on health both in childhood and adulthood. Actions aimed at improving children's nutrition are essential, not only to the children and their families, but also to the whole society. The aim of the study was to present the results of nutrient intake before starting a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme, to investigate gender differences in nutrient intake and to discuss whether the preschoolers' nutrient intake is similar to the intake of their peers from other countries...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249714/obstetric-ethics-and-the-invisible-mother
#18
Raymond De Vries
These mother-told stories of birth, describing disrespectful and harmful care, make the invisibility of birthing women visible. The concerns and needs of women in labor fade in the face of hospital policies and the perceived needs of their soon-to-be-born babies. Bioethics contributes to this lack of regard for mothers by framing the moral problems of birth in terms of maternal-fetal conflict, where the autonomy of the mother is weighed against the obligation of beneficence to the baby. Replacing the principlist commitment to autonomy with respect-an obligation that does not compete with beneficence-is a first step toward correcting the problems in care identified here...
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247313/rethinking-moral-distress-conceptual-demands-for-a-troubling-phenomenon-affecting-health-care-professionals
#19
Daniel W Tigard
Recent medical and bioethics literature shows a growing concern for practitioners' emotional experience and the ethical environment in the workplace. Moral distress, in particular, is often said to result from the difficult decisions made and the troubling situations regularly encountered in health care contexts. It has been identified as a leading cause of professional dissatisfaction and burnout, which, in turn, contribute to inadequate attention and increased pain for patients. Given the natural desire to avoid these negative effects, it seems to most authors that systematic efforts should be made to drastically reduce moral distress, if not altogether eliminate it from the lives of vulnerable practitioners...
December 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240453/medical-students-implicit-bias-and-the-communication-of-norms-in-medical-education
#20
Rachael Hernandez
ISSUE: Medical educators should consider how institutional norms influence medical students' perceptions of implicit bias. Understanding normative structures in medical education can shed light on why this influence is associated with students' resistance to implicit bias. EVIDENCE: Extant research across diverse fields of study uncovers and theorizes layers of norms and normative systems and how they are related to ethical behavior. This review bridges the fields of communication, bioethics, and medical education, constructing an organized foundation and common language by which researchers can build effective educational interventions...
December 14, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
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