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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905654/-conflict-of-interest-disclosure-as-a-tool-to-improve-the-reliability-of-research
#1
Mauricio Soto Subiabre
Conflicts of interest are situations in which professional judgment concerning a primary interest, tends to be influenced by a secondary interest. These conflicts could compromise the reliability of biomedical research and result in the dissemination of biased results. Therefore, it is essential to protect the integrity of them, because this information could be used in the development of health policy, medical education and clinical decision making. Conflicts of interest disclosure, is a bioethical tool that contributes to transparent these conflicts, but it is used inappropriately and insufficiently...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893660/salivary-lactate-dehydrogenase-and-aminotransferases-in-diabetic-patients
#2
Barbara Malicka, Katarzyna Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Urszula Kaczmarek
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands.The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients.The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874844/making-visible-the-invisible-and-vice-versa-bodies-and-organisational-arrangements-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#3
Roberto Lusardi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effectiveness of the treatments carried out in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is guaranteed by a socio-technical ensemble where material resources, scientific knowledge, technological artefacts, social norms, spatial dispositions, and professional practices coexist and constantly interact. This paper intends to penetrate such an ensemble for analysing the moral order produced and maintained in everyday medical practice. METHOD: The results of a case study, carried out in the ICU of a hospital in the north of Italy between 2006 and 2007 are reported...
November 22, 2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873139/when-marcel-mauss-s-essai-sur-le-don-becomes-the-gift-variations-on-the-theme-of-solidarity
#4
Simone Bateman
Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation...
November 21, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870248/thank-you-to-developing-world-bioethics-reviewers
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862329/exome-sequencing-identifies-fatp1-mutation-in-melkersson-rosenthal-syndrome
#6
LETTER
X G Xu, L P Guan, Y Lv, Y S Wan, Y Wu, R Q Qi, Zh G Liu, J G Zhang, Y L Chen, F P Xu, X Xu, Y H Li, L Geng, X H Gao, H D Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858211/factors-influencing-the-decision-making-process-and-long-term-interpersonal-outcomes-for-parents-who-undergo-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-fanconi-anemia-a-qualitative-investigation
#7
K Haude, P McCarthy Veach, B LeRoy, H Zierhut
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat FA, and best results are attained with sibling donors who are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical matches. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers parents of an affected child the opportunity to have an unaffected child who is an HLA match. While some research has investigated parents' experiences during the PGD process, no published studies specifically address factors influencing their decision-making process and long-term interpersonal outcomes...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855422/global-and-public-mental-health-promotion-for-empathic-civilisation-the-role-of-political-psychocultures
#8
Miro Jakovljevic, Zoran Tomic
This article draws attention to the relationship between neuroethics, neuropolitics, political psycho-cultures and public and global mental health. In the hegemonic culture of neoliberalism the purpose of life has been reduced to the self-realization in economic and consumerism terms that promotes the hypercompetitive narcissistic or manic self, indifferent to the fate and suffering of others and accommodated to commodification of morals, mental health and well-being. The real public and global mental health promotion is strongly associated with creating a more empathic, less selfish individual and collective mind where people put a greater emphasis on common interests and bioethical values...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853684/cloning-a-review-on-bioethics-legal-jurisprudence-and-regenerative-issues-in-iran
#9
REVIEW
Seyedeh Leila Nabavizadeh, Davood Mehrabani, Zabihallah Vahedi, Farzad Manafi
In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful...
September 2016: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845480/bioethics-and-the-italian-national-bioethics-committee-historical-highlights
#10
A A Conti
Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833198/a-philosophical-assessment-of-tk-s-autopsy-report-implications-for-the-debate-over-the-brain-death-criteria
#11
Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco
: In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that the totally brain-dead patient is able to continue to live and to maintain some integrated functions, albeit with the necessary assistance of mechanical ventilation. Several years ago, the autopsy report of a totally brain-dead patient named TK who was kept on life support for nearly twenty years was published in the Journal of Child Neurology. He remains the individual kept on life support the longest after suffering total brain failure...
May 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833197/ethical-aspects-of-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-transfer
#12
José Rafael Blesa, Julio Tudela, Justo Aznar
: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) (cloning), as a reproductive or therapeutic method, and mitochondrial DNA transfer, as a method to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases, are analyzed in this paper from a bioethics perspective. The licit purpose of being able to treat certain diseases, as in the case of SCNT, cannot justify, in any case, resorting to illicit means such as the manipulation, selection, and elimination of human embryos in the blastocyst phase, by using cell lines obtained from them...
May 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833177/dignity-reevaluated-a-theological-examination-of-human-dignity-and-the-role-of-the-church-in-bioethics-and-end-of-life-care
#13
Quentin I T Genuis
Predominant among the terminological ambiguities that plague contemporary bioethics is confusion attending the meaning of the term "human dignity," particularly as it applies to so-called end-of-life discussions. This study surveys current trends in treatment of the concept of dignity, examining relevant thinkers who see dignity as redundant or as capability-dependent. These inadequate views are contrasted with an attitude, based theologically in Mark 5, that understands human dignity to represent an absolute characteristic that is donated graciously to all bearers of imago Dei...
February 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822357/donation-of-surplus-frozen-pre-embryos-to-research-in-israel-underlying-motivations
#14
Aviad Raz, Jonia Amer-Alshiek, Mor Goren-Margalit, Gal Jacobi, Alyssa Hochberg, Ami Amit, Foad Azem, Hadar Amir
BACKGROUND: The high number of IVF procedures performed in Israel has had an unforeseen consequence: accumulation of large amounts of surplus frozen embryos. After five years that the frozen embryos are kept for free, patients need to make an embryo disposition decision. One option is donation for research. The donation rate in Israel is very low. Our aim was to understand the attitudes, values and perceptions of female IVF patients that decided to donate their surplus frozen embryos to research...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818430/how-should-we-treat-the-vulnerable-qualitative-study-of-authoritative-ethics-documents
#15
Ivana Zagorac
The aim of this study is to explore what actual guidance is provided by authoritative ethics documents regarding the recognition and protection of the vulnerable. The documents included in this analysis are the Belmont Report, the Declaration of Helsinki, The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Guidelines, and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, including its supplementary report on vulnerability. A qualitative analysis of these documents was conducted in light of three questions: what is vulnerability, who are the vulnerable, and how should the vulnerable be protected? The results show significant differences among the documents regarding the first two questions...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818395/inter-philosophies-dialogue-creating-a-paradigm-for-global-health-ethics
#16
Solomon Benatar, Ibrahim Daibes, Sandra Tomsons
While debate remains about the definition and goals of work on global health, there is growing agreement that our moral starting point is the reality of unjust inequalities in the distribution of the conditions necessary for human health and well-being. With the growth of multi-jurisdictional and multicultural global health partnerships, the adequacy of the prevailing bioethical paradigm guiding the conduct of global health research and practice is being increasingly challenged. In response to ethical challenges and conflicts confronted by decision-makers in global health research and practice, we propose an innovative methodology that could be developed to bridge the gap between polarized systems of ideas and values (metaphysical, epistemological, moral, and political)...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818393/-east-asia-as-a-platform-for-debate-grouping-and-bioethics
#17
Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner
This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818392/transcultural-adhd-and-bioethics-reformulating-a-doubly-dichotomized-debate
#18
Neil Pickering, Jing-Bao Nie
A double dichotomization, of biology and culture, and of cultures (the difference presumption), is to be found in debates about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cross-cultural psychiatric and bioethics literature. The double dichotomy takes biology to explain cross-cultural similarities and culture to explain inter-cultural differences. In this paper, the double dichotomy is explored in debates on the significance of the worldwide prevalence of ADHD, and on the cogency of cross-cultural diagnosis of ADHD in the central character of Chinese classic novel The Dream of the Red Chamber...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818391/connecting-the-east-and-the-west-the-local-and-the-universal-the-methodological-elements-of-a-transcultural-approach-to-bioethics
#19
Jing-Bao Nie, Ruth P Fitzgerald
From the outset, cross-cultural and transglobal bioethics has constituted a potent arena for a dynamic public discourse and academic debate alike. But prominent bioethical debates on such issues as the notion of common morality and a distinctive "Asian" bioethics in contrast to a "Western" one reveal some deeply rooted and still popular but seriously problematic methodological habits in approaching cultural differences, most notably, radically dichotomizing the East and the West, the local and the universal...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815940/ethics-competences-in-the-undergraduate-medical-education-curriculum-the-spanish-experience
#20
Guillermo Ferreira-Padilla, Teresa Ferrández-Antón, Fernando Lolas-Stepke, Rut Almeida-Cabrera, Joan Brunet, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera
: Aim .To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. METHOD: The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject...
October 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
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