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November 2016: Bioethics
Ruiping Fan
This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Christophe B Pipon, Marie-Ève Lemoine, Maude Laliberté, Bryn Williams-Jones, Dan Bustillos, Anonymous One, Anonymous Two, Ashley K Fernandes, Anonymous Three, Thomas D Harter, D Micah Hester, Anonymous Four, Mary Faith Marshall, Philip M Rosoff, Giles R Scofield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
Thalia Arawi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Medical Education
Hille Haker
This essay explores the two main objectives of Bishop's book, which he analyzes in the context of the care for the dying: (1) the medical metaphysics underlying medical science and (2) biopolitics as governance of the human body. This essay discusses Bishop's claims in view of newer developments in medicine, especially the turn to the construction of life, and confronts the concept of the patient's sovereignty with an alternative model of vulnerable agency. In order to overcome the impasses of contemporary bioethics, the essay argues that practical reason requires a two-fold ethics: first, it must develop a new hermeneutics of illness and disease, and second, in order to protect the individuals in the process of dying, moral claims concerning death must be based on the concept of human rights...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Jeremy Sugarman, Damon M Seils, J Kemp Watson-Ormond, Kevin P Weinfurt
BACKGROUND: We describe our use of cognitive interviews in developing a measure of "preventive misconception" to demonstrate the importance of this approach to researchers developing surveys in empirical bioethics. The preventive misconception involves research participants' false beliefs about a prevention trial, including beliefs that the interventions being tested will certainly be effective. METHODS: We developed and refined a measure of the preventive misconception using qualitative interviews that focused on cognitive testing of proposed survey items with HIV prevention trial participants...
2016: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioural or affective changes in men remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and warrants a careful appraisal of its two sides, namely the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude free-hand operations into a multi-disciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Lesley J J Soril, Fiona M Clement, Tom W Noseworthy
Health Technology Reassessment (HTR) is an emerging area of health services and policy research that supports optimal management of technologies throughout their lifecycle. As a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, economic, social, and ethical impacts of existing technologies, HTR is a means of achieving optimal use, managed exit, and better value for money from technologies used in healthcare. This has been documented as raising ethical concerns among clinicians who are providing direct patient care, particularly when managed exit may be the goal...
October 15, 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
R Thuret, F Kleinclauss, N Terrier, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVES: To review epidemiologic data's and medical results of deceased donation in renal transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "brain death; cardiac arrest; deceased donation; organ procurement; transplantation". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance...
October 7, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Stefan Eriksson, Gert Helgesson
This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon 'predatory publishing', in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path. It is noted that bioethics as a discipline does not stand unaffected by this trend. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development...
October 7, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Marcel Mertz, Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
Sung Tae Hong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Yaming Li, Jianhui Li
Death with dignity is a significant issue in modern bioethics. In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technologies at the end of life has caused heated debate on how to protect human dignity. The key point of contention lies in the different understandings of human dignity and the dignity of death. Human dignity has never been a clear concept in Western ethical explorations, and the dignity of death has given rise to more confusions. Although there is no such term as "dignity" in Confucian ethics, there are discussions of a number of ideas related to human dignity and the dignity of death...
October 5, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
O Vallès-Fructuoso, B Ruiz-de Pablo, M Fernández-Plaza, V Fuentes-Milà, O Vallès-Fructuoso, G Martínez-Estalella
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment (LLST) in the Intensive Care Units. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative study was carried out by applying the theory of Strauss and Corbin as the analysis tool. Constructivist paradigm. POPULATION: Nursing staff from three Intensive Care Units of Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge. Convenience sampling to reach theoretical saturation of data...
October 1, 2016: Enfermería Intensiva
Egdda Patricia Vanegas, Ángela Patricia Acosta, Claudia Patricia Vaca González, José Julián López Gutiérrez, Laura Angélica Pineda, Javier Humberto Guzmán, Alejandro Gaviria, Fernando Ruiz
The use of drugs for unregistered indications, known as "off-label" use, is a practice that creates problems of rational use and access when other options are not available. Health systems should address this situation, particularly in connection with decisions concerning coverage, while trying to minimize health risks and clearly define the roles and responsibilities of the parties involved. Colombia's Ministry of Health and Social Protection (MinSalud), together with the National University of Colombia and national experts, developed a proposal for a model for managing drugs being used for unregistered indications (off-label) and their potential reimbursement with public resources, taking into account international practices and country characteristics...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Katarzyna Siennicka, Aleksandra Zolocinska, Karolina Stepien, Natalia Lubina-Dabrowska, Marzena Maciagowska, Ewa Zolocinska, Anna Slysz, Renata Piusinska-Macoch, Slawomir Mazur, Urszula Zdanowicz, Robert Smigielski, Adam Stepien, Zygmunt Pojda
Although mesenchymal stem cells are used in numerous clinical trials, the safety of their application is still a matter of concern. We have analysed the clinical results of the autologous adipose-derived stem cell treatment (stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitors, and blood mononuclear cells) for orthopedic (cartilage, bone, tendon, or combined joint injuries) and neurologic (multiple sclerosis) diseases. Methods of adipose tissue collection, cell isolation and purification, and resulting cell numbers, viability, and morphology were considered, and patient's age, sex, disease type, and method of cell administration (cell numbers per single application, treatment numbers and frequency, and methods of cell implantation) were analysed and searched for the unwanted clinical effects...
2016: Stem Cells International
Carlo Petrini, Ippolita Rana, Enrico Alleva
In the ethics of relations between physicians and paediatric patients the question of autonomy and its corollary, consent, is crucial. While the importance attached to autonomy in the clinical setting is not the same as that accorded in research, it nonetheless assumes greater relevance when minors are involved, and a careful case-by-case assessment becomes obligatory.
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Lesley Henderson, Simon Carter
There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative...
September 30, 2016: Medical Humanities
Ursula Reiter, Gert Reiter, Martin Manninger, Gabriel Adelsmayr, Julia Schipke, Alessio Alogna, Alexandra Rajces, Aurelien F Stalder, Andreas Greiser, Christian Mühlfeld, Daniel Scherr, Heiner Post, Burkert Pieske, Michael Fuchsjäger
BACKGROUND: The hypertensive deoxy-corticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-treated pig (hereafter, DOCA pig) was recently introduced as large animal model for early-stage heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of DOCA pigs and weight-matched control pigs to characterize ventricular, atrial and myocardial structure and function of this phenotype model. METHODS: Five anesthetized DOCA and seven control pigs underwent 3 T CMR at rest and during dobutamine stress...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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