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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645949/double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-independent-and-synergistic-effect-of-spirulina-maxima-with-exercise-isese-on-general-fitness-lipid-profile-and-redox-status-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-study-protocol
#1
Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe, José Alberto López-Díaz, Laura Alejandra de la Rosa, Rosa Patricia Hernández-Torres, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Marco Antonio Juarez-Oropeza, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Rene Urquidez-Romero, Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638969/introduction-childhood-and-disability
#2
EDITORIAL
Erica K Salter
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care...
June 21, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638286/bioethics-in-practice-ethical-issues-in-the-care-of-transgender-patients
#3
Miranda Hann, Robin Ivester, G Dodd Denton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637395/book-review-bioethics-a-philosophical-introduction-holland-s-2017-bioethics-a-philosophical-introduction-cambridge-uk-polity-press-273-pp-27-36-paper-isbn-978-0-7456-9059-5
#4
Heidi Matisonn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634769/decision-making-capacity-and-unusual-beliefs-two-contentious-cases-australasian-association-of-bioethics-and-health-law-john-mcphee-law-student-essay-prize-2016
#5
Brent Hyslop
Decision-making capacity is a vital concept in law, ethics, and clinical practice. Two legal cases where capacity literally had life and death significance are NHS Trust v Ms T [2004] and Kings College Hospital v C [2015]. These cases share another feature: unusual beliefs. This essay will critically assess the concept of capacity, particularly in relation to the unusual beliefs in these cases. Firstly, the interface between capacity and unusual beliefs will be examined. This will show that the "using and weighing of information" is the pivotal element in assessment...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621962/-language-manipulation-surrogacy-altruism
#6
José Miguel Serrano Ruiz-Calderón
The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″...
May 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621958/-biomedical-perspective-of-the-surrogate-motherhood
#7
Nicolás Jouve de la Barreda
The subrogated motherhood takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational mother, by means a contract with her. It can imply to natural families (woman and man) with or without infertility problems, or to monoparental or biparental families of the same sex. Concerning the origin of the gametes used in the IVF emerges different implications on the genetic relationship of the resulting child with the surrogate and the future parents...
May 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621957/-editor-s-note-maternity-its-value-and-sense-as-core-of-the-bioethical-debate-on-surrogated-motherhood
#8
EDITORIAL
Luis Miguel Pastor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617193/are-contact-precautions-ethically-justifiable-in-contemporary-hospital-care
#9
Joanna Harris, Kenneth Walsh, Susan Dodds
Hospital infection control practices known as Contact Precautions are recommended for the management of people with pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. BACKGROUND: The patient is isolated, and staff are required to wear gloves, and a gown or apron when providing care. A notice is displayed to remind staff of these requirements and an 'alert' message is placed in the patient's medical record. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss and explore whether practices used in hospitals to reduce the transmission of endemic antibiotic-resistant organisms are ethically justified in today's healthcare environment in the developed world...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608054/bioethics-and-biopolitics-presents-and-futures-of-reproduction
#10
Silvia Camporesi
This Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction symposium draws together a series of articles that were each submitted independently by their authors to the JBI and which explore the biopower axis in the externalization of reproduction in four contexts: artificial gestation (ectogenesis), PGD for sex selection, women's (reproductive) rights, and testicular cryopreservation (TCCP). While one contribution explores a "future" of reproduction, the other three explore a "present," or better, explore different "presents...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603156/conflicts-of-interest-and-distribution-of-resources-to-community-partners-an-organizational-ethics-dilemma
#11
Allison M Cole, Laura-Mae Baldwin, Gina A Keppel, Ellen Kuwana, Brenda L Mollis, Benjamin S Wilfond
BACKGROUND: Conflicts of interest can arise when faculty and staff administer programs that distribute research funds, training opportunities, and other resources across academic and community partners. We describe the ethical concerns encountered by a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) program in administering its community-focused pilot grant program and how its Research Bioethics Consultation service helped to address them.Ethical Concerns: CTSA program faculty and staff identified ethical concerns in several areas, including appropriateness of including Regional Research Collaborations (RRC) faculty as principal or co-investigators on applications, determining how much help RRC faculty and staff should provide to prospective applicants, and creating a fair and effective application review process...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602565/diverse-patient-perspectives-on-respect-in-healthcare-a-qualitative-study
#12
Mary Catherine Beach, Emily Branyon, Somnath Saha
BACKGROUND: The dominant view of respect in western bioethics focuses almost exclusively on respect for autonomy (or 'self-rule') as conceptualized primarily from the perspective of philosophers. We designed this study to understand, from the perspective of patients from different racial/ethnic groups, what it means for patients to be treated with respect in healthcare settings. METHODS: We conducted focus groups with African American, Latino, and white patients in the Northwestern U...
May 5, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601921/the-history-of-autonomy-in-medicine-from-antiquity-to-principlism
#13
Toni C Saad
Respect for Autonomy (RFA) has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress' in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility of the RFA are discussed in light of this philosophical-historical account...
June 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589308/the-medical-humanities-effect-a-pilot-study-of-pre-health-professions-students-at-the-university-of-rochester
#14
Clayton J Baker, Margie Hodges Shaw, Christopher J Mooney, Susan Dodge-Peters Daiss, Stephanie Brown Clark
Qualitative and quantitative research on the impact of medical and health humanities teaching in baccalaureate education is sparse. This paper reviews recent studies of the impact of medical and health humanities coursework in pre-health professions education and describes a pilot study of baccalaureate students who completed semester-long medical humanities courses in the Division of Medical Humanities & Bioethics at the University of Rochester. The study format was an email survey. All participants were current or former baccalaureate students who had taken one or more courses in literature and narrative in medicine, bioethics, history of medicine, and/or visual arts and healthcare during the past four years...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587756/perceived-self-efficacy-personality-and-bioethics-before-a-heart-rehabilitation-programme-in-primary-health-care
#15
Antonio J Madueño Caro, Manuel Luis Mellado Fernández, Juana Delgado Pacheco, Marta Muñoz Ayllon, Manuel Pardos Lafarga, Laura Saez García
OBJECTIVES: There is a clear evidence of the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation after a cardiovascular event on patients' mood and perceived self-efficacy in terms of their own health care. Our aim is to define the correlation between mood-related variables, biotype and self-efficacy in this population. DESIGN: Descriptive study. BACKGROUND, PARTICIPANTS: The entire population of patients discharged from thecardiac rehabilitation unit over 12 months...
June 3, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577266/reimagining-childhood-responding-to-the-challenge-presented-by-severe-developmental-disability
#16
Erica K Salter
Through an exploration of the experience of severe and profound intellectual disability, this essay will attempt to expose the predominant, yet usually obscured, medical anthropology of the child and examine its effects on pediatric bioethics. I will argue that both modern western society and modern western medicine do, actually, have a robust notion of the child, a notion which can find its roots in three influential thinkers: Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Jean Piaget. Together, these philosophers offer us a compelling vision: the child is primarily a future rational, autonomous adult...
June 2, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571488/book-review-bioethics-a-philosophical-introduction-holland-s-2017-bioethics-a-philosophical-introduction-cambridge-uk-polity-press-273-pp-27-36-paper-isbn-978-0-7456-9059-5
#17
Heidi Matisonn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562274/ethical-controversy-about-hysterectomy-for-a-minor
#18
Alyssa M Burgart, Julie Strickland, Dena Davis, Arlene B Baratz, Katrina Karkazis, John D Lantos
One of the most complicated ethical issues that arises in children's hospitals today is the issue of whether it is ever permissible to perform a procedure for a minor that will result in permanent sterilization. In most cases, the answer is no. The availability of good, safe, long-acting contraception allows surgical options to be postponed when the primary goal of such surgical options is to prevent pregnancy. But what if a minor has congenital urogenital anomalies or other medical conditions for which the best treatment is a hysterectomy? In those cases, the primary goal of therapy is not to prevent pregnancy...
May 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560488/lived-religion-as-reproductive-decision-making-resource-among-romanian-women-who-use-abortion-as-contraception
#19
Cristina A Pop
This article draws upon qualitative ethnographic data collected between 2005 and 2013 in southern Romania among women who have been consistently using abortion as a contraceptive method. It particularly considers the role that lived religion might have played in some individuals' strategies to render abortion a justifiable practice. Over the last seven decades, Romanian women's experiences of abortion have often been at odds with both secular and religious regulations. This study shifts the perspective from the biopolitics and the bioethics of abortion toward women's own reproductive decision-making strategies in a context of enduring traditional patriarchy...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558751/a-14-day-limit-for-bioethics-the-debate-over-human-embryo-research
#20
Giulia Cavaliere
BACKGROUND: This article explores the reasons in favour of revising and extending the current 14-day statutory limit to maintaining human embryos in culture. This limit is enshrined in law in over a dozen countries, including the United Kingdom. In two recently published studies (2016), scientists have shown that embryos can be sustained in vitro for about 13 days after fertilisation. Positive reactions to these results have gone hand in hand with calls for revising the 14-day rule, which only allows embryo research until the 14th day after fertilisation...
May 30, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
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