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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514883/bioethical-analysis-to-the-therapeutic-use-of-cannabis-integrative-review
#1
Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Antonia Oliveira Silva, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes Moreira, Analine de Souza Bandeira Correia, Ana Luisa Antunes Gonçalves Guerra, Adrielle Rodrigues Dos Santos, Iracema da Silva Frazão
INTRODUCTION: Despite being considered as a contravention under some countries' legislation, the therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa has been growing in Brazil, due to the promising results observed in many pathologies. Such a scenario has fostered the need to deepen discussions on the subject and possibly revise legislation governing the substance use and access. OBJECTIVES: Identify the types of stigma related to the therapeutic use of Cannabis and describe the strategies people use to overcome stigma...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511609/why-the-history-of-nursing-ethics-matters
#2
Marsha D Fowler
Modern American nursing has an extensive ethical heritage literature that extends from the 1870s to 1965 when the American Nurses Association issued a policy paper that called for moving nursing education out of hospital diploma programs and into colleges and universities. One consequence of this move was the dispersion of nursing libraries and the loss of nursing ethics textbooks, as they were largely not brought over into the college libraries. In addition to approximately 100 nursing ethics textbooks, the nursing ethics heritage literature also includes hundreds of journal articles that are often made less accessible in modern databases that concentrate on the past 20 or 30 years...
May 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503835/neuroethics-neuroscience-s-contributions-to-bioethics
#3
EDITORIAL
Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J Jox, Eric Racine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503834/respect-for-autonomy-in-light-of-neuropsychiatry
#4
Sabine Müller
Bioethics needs an elaborated concept of autonomy based on empirical knowledge about the prerequisites of the capacity of autonomy. Whereas Beauchamp and Childress, and many other bioethicists have discussed social influences on the capacity of autonomy in depth, neurobiological influences have received less attention. A comprehensive concept of autonomy should consider both social and biological factors that can diminish the capacity of autonomy. This article focuses on neurobiological influences that can reduce the capacity of autonomy...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501793/ethical-issues-in-death-dying-and-palliation-the-ijme-sixth-national-bioethics-conference
#5
Rakhi Ghoshal, V Deepa, Sunita Simon Kurpad
The IJME Sixth National Bioethics Conference (6th NBC), on the theme "Healing and dying with dignity: ethical issues in palliative care, end-of-life care and euthanasia", was held in Pune, Maharashtra from January 12-15, 2017. Palliative care (PC) and end-of-life care (EOLC) are closely related areas of concern, yet they have been neglected so far. There is an urgent need to discuss these issues in India due to the changing demographics, socioeconomic and work profiles of the population, people's living conditions and health status, and the contexts of the country's population...
May 10, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499807/evaluation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-1-and-retinol-binding-protein-rbp-4-levels-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-pdac
#6
Barbara Wlodarczyk, Anita Gasiorowska, Anna Borkowska, Ewa Malecka-Panas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The elevation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adipokine retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) is known to be associated with the risk of many cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentrations of IGF-1 and RBP-4 in patients with PDAC and chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: The study included 43 patients with PDAC, 39 patients with CP and 10 controls. The concentrations of IGF-1 and RBP-4 were obtained using the ELISA method (Corgenix UK Ltd R&D Systems)...
April 4, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499043/bioethics-and-transhumanism
#7
Allen Porter
Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494856/addressing-the-ethical-issues-raised-by-synthetic-human-entities-with-embryo-like-features
#8
John Aach, Jeantine Lunshof, Eswar Iyer, George M Church
The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self-organize and recapitulate embryonic features have highlighted difficulties with the 14-day rule and led to calls for its reassessment. Here we argue that these and related experiments raise more foundational issues that cannot be fixed by adjusting the 14-day rule, because the framework underlying the rule cannot adequately describe the ways by which synthetic human entities with embryo-like features (SHEEFs) might develop morally concerning features through altered forms of development...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492117/biobanks-in-south-africa-a-global-perspective-on-privacy-and-confidentiality
#9
Riaan Rheeder
The Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was adopted unanimously in 2005 by the world community as a universal guideline, according to which members of the global community were accountable to each other. Research results from UNESCO show that the UDBHR has had little or no impact in South Africa (SA). The primary objective of this article is to promote awareness of the UDBHR in SA and Africa by focusing on Article 9 of the Declaration, which accepts the right to privacy and confidentiality...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485283/effect-of-copper-ii-the-activity-of-glutathione-peroxidase-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
Katarzyna Malinowska, Alina Morawiec-Sztandera, Ireneusz Majsterek, Dariusz Kaczmarczyk
INTRODUCTION: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for about 6% of all malignant cancers. In the epidemiology of oral cavity neoplasm, important risk factors include: tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, bad oral hygiene, papilloma virus infection, riboflavin and iron deficiency. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was a synthesis of Cu(II) complex and the evaluation of antioxidative enzymatic barrier in red blood cells of patients with head and neck tumor as well as in the control group...
November 20, 2016: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476218/-bioethics-in-end-of-life-decisions-in-neonatology-unresolved-issues
#11
Juan Arnaez, Juan Carlos Tejedor, Sonia Caserío, María Teresa Montes, María Teresa Moral, Javier González de Dios, Alfredo García-Alix
This document is the result of previous work carried out by different expert groups and submitted to multidisciplinary debate at a Conference about controversial, deficient, or new aspects in the field of neonatal palliative care, such as: 1) the deliberative decision-making process, 2) hospital and domiciliary palliative care, 3) donation after controlled cardiac death, and 4) moral stress in professionals. The most relevant conclusions were: the need to instruct professionals in bioethics and in the deliberative method to facilitate thorough and reasonable decision-making; the lack of development in the field of perinatal palliative care and domiciliary palliative care in hospitals that attend newborns; the need to provide neonatal units with resources that help train professionals in communication skills and in the management of moral distress, as well as delineate operational procedure and guidelines for neonatal organ donation...
May 2, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475406/a-survey-of-hospice-and-palliative-care-clinician-s-experiences-and-attitudes-regarding-the-use-of-palliative-sedation
#12
Samuel Maiser, Karen Estrada-Stephen, Natasha Sahr, Jonathan Gully, Sean Marks
BACKGROUND: A variety of terms and attitudes surround palliative sedation (PS) with little research devoted to hospice and palliative care (HPC) clinicians' perceptions and experiences with PS. These factors may contribute to the wide variability in the reported prevalence of PS. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to better identify hospice and palliative care (HPC) clinician attitudes toward, and clinical experiences with palliative sedation (PS). METHODS: A 32-question survey was distributed to members of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (n = 4678)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470830/a-critique-of-the-principle-of-respect-for-autonomy-grounded-in-african-thought
#13
Kevin G Behrens
I give an account how the principle of 'respect for autonomy' dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, 'respect for persons' and 'respect for free power of choice'. I argue that 'respect for autonomy' is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within the nexus of their communal relationships...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469440/the-exercise-of-autonomy-by-older-cancer-patients-in-palliative-care-the-biotechnoscientific-and-biopolitical-paradigms-and-the-bioethics-of-protection
#14
REVIEW
Márcio Niemeyer-Guimarães, Fermin Roland Schramm
Toward the end of life, older cancer patients with terminal illness often prefer palliative over life-extending care and also prefer to die at home. However, care planning is not always consistent with patients' preferences. In this article, discussions will be centered on patients' autonomy of exercising control over their bodies within the current biotechnoscientific paradigm and in the context of population aging. More specifically, the biopolitical strategy of medicine in the context of hospital-centered health care control and of the frail condition of cancer patients in the intensive care unit will be considered in terms of the bioethics of protection...
2017: Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468027/controversies-on-the-beginning-of-human-life-science-and-religions-closer-and-closer
#15
Asim Kurjak
One of the most controversial topics in modern bioethics, science, and philosophy is the beginning of individual human life. In the seemingly endless debate, strongly stimulated by recent technologic advances in human reproduction, a synthesis between scientific data and hypothesis, philosophical thought, and issues of humanities has become a necessity to deal with ethical, juridical, and social problems. Furthermore, in this field there is a temptation to ask science to choose between opinions and beliefs, which neutralize one another...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468025/science-as-religion-when-science-becomes-too-irrational
#16
Amir Muzur, Iva Rinčić
Science is expected to be objective: however, since practiced and produced by humans, it has to reflect human flows - prejudices, stubbornness, malice, and the tendency to be misused. No wonder an excellent scientist like John Eccles proclaimed science to be among the most personal activities he had known. By analysing a few examples from the history of science (in particular the intellectual development of Van Rensselaer Potter, the American onco-biochemist and bioethics pioneer), as well as the current trend of the evidence-based approach, the present paper will try to demonstrate that denying, distrusting, and opposing science for the sake of religion, as seen so many times in human history, has significant similarities to the overestimation of science we more often encounter in our times...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462750/health-equality-social-justice-and-the-poverty-of-autonomy
#17
Christopher Newdick
How does the concept of autonomy assist public responses to 'lifestyle' diseases? Autonomy is fundamental to bioethics, but its emphasis on self-determination and individuality hardly supports public health policies to eat and drink less and take more exercise. Autonomy rejects a 'nanny' state. Yet, the cost of non-communicable diseases is increasing to individuals personally and to public health systems generally. Health care systems are under mounting and unsustainable pressure. What is the proper responsibility of individuals, governments and corporate interests working within a global trading environment? When public health care resources are unlikely to increase, we cannot afford to be so diffident to the cost of avoidable diseases...
May 2, 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462397/an-overview-on-ethical-considerations-in-stem-cell-research-in-iran-and-ethical-recommendations-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Tahmineh Farajkhoda
Conducting research on the stem cell lines might bring some worthy good to public. Human Stem Cells (hSCs) research has provided opportunities for scientific progresses and new therapies, but some complex ethical matters should be noticed to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of stem cell research, code of ethics for stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendation. Generation of stem cells for research from human embryo or adult stem cells, saving, maintenance and using of them are the main ethical, legal and jurisprudence concerns in Iran...
February 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459355/toward-a-bioethical-framework-for-antibiotic-use-antimicrobial-resistance-and-for-empirically-designing-ethically-robust-strategies-to-protect-human-health-a-research-protocol
#19
Pablo Hernández-Marrero, Sandra Martins Pereira, Patrícia Joana de Sá Brandão, Joana Araújo, Ana Sofia Carvalho
Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenging global and public health issue, raising bioethical challenges, considerations and strategies. Objectives This research protocol presents a conceptual model leading to formulating an empirically based bioethics framework for antibiotic use, AMR and designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health. Methods Mixed methods research will be used and operationalized into five substudies. The bioethical framework will encompass and integrate two theoretical models: global bioethics and ethical decision-making...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459009/bioethics-a-brief-review
#20
Jharna Mandal, Dinoop Korol Ponnambath, Subhash Chandra Parija
Medical and life sciences research is a key driver in development, which leads to better quality of life. These pursuits can lead to discrimination, human rights violation, and injustice. The field of bioethics explores the ethical issues arising due to these advances in research and encompasses social, judicial, and environmental aspects affecting human beings. This brief review discusses the origin of bioethics, its principles, various international organizations, and their network involved in the development and propagation of guidelines on conducting biomedical research...
January 2017: Tropical Parasitology
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