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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792193/research-ethics-review-at-university-eduardo-mondlane-uem-maputo-central-hospital-mozambique-2013-2016-a-descriptive-analysis-of-the-start-up-of-a-new-research-ethics-committee-rec
#1
Jahit Sacarlal, Vasco Muchanga, Carlos Mabutana, Matilde Mabui, Arlete Mariamo, Assa Júlio Cuamba, Leida Artur Fumo, Jacinta Silveira, Elizabeth Heitman, Troy D Moon
BACKGROUND: Mozambique has seen remarkable growth in biomedical research over the last decade. To meet a growing need, the National Committee for Bioethics in Health of Mozambique (CNBS) encouraged the development of ethical review processes at institutions that regularly conduct medical and social science research. In 2012, the Faculty of Medicine (FM) of University Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) and the Maputo Central Hospital (MCH) established a joint Institutional Committee on Bioethics for Health (CIBS FM & MCH)...
May 23, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790999/editorial-reflections-on-bioethics-and-law-yesterday-today-and-tomorrow
#2
Margaret Brazier, Sarah Devaney, Alexandra Mullock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785711/illness-as-a-crisis-of-meaning
#3
REVIEW
Michael Hauskeller
In Phenomenological Bioethics: Medical Technologies, Human Suffering, and the Meaning of Being Alive, the Swedish philosopher Fredrik Svenaeus aims to show how the continental tradition of phenomenology can enrich bioethical debates by adding important but often-ignored perspectives, namely, that of lived experience. Phenomenology focuses not on supposedly objective, scientifically validated facts, but on the "life world" of the individuals affected by a situation. Individuals' life worlds consist of their experience of their own lived bodies (or Leiber) and the meaning structures of their everyday worlds...
May 21, 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776669/-the-role-of-end-of-life-palliative-sedation-medical-and-ethical-aspects-review
#4
REVIEW
Miriam S Menezes, Maria das Graças Mota da Cruz de Assis Figueiredo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Palliative sedation is a medical procedure that has been used for more than 25 years to relieve refractory symptoms not responsive to any previous treatment in patients with no possibility of cure and near the end of life. Many uncertainties persist on the issue regarding definition, indications, decision making, most appropriate place to perform the procedure, most used drugs, need for monitoring, fluids and nutritional support, and possible ethical dilemmas...
May 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775477/cryptococcus-neoformans-can-form-titan-like-cells-in-vitro-in-response-to-multiple-signals
#5
Nuria Trevijano-Contador, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Rocío García-Rodas, Suélen Andreia Rossi, Irene Llorente, Ángel Zaballos, Guilhem Janbon, Joaquín Ariño, Óscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic yeast that can change the size of the cells during infection. In particular, this process can occur by enlarging the size of the capsule without modifying the size of the cell body, or by increasing the diameter of the cell body, which is normally accompanied by an increase of the capsule too. This last process leads to the formation of cells of an abnormal enlarged size denominated titan cells. Previous works characterized titan cell formation during pulmonary infection but research on this topic has been hampered due to the difficulty to obtain them in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771249/-new-italian-law-about-end-of-life-self-determination-and-shared-care-pathway
#6
Rosagemma Ciliberti, Matteo Gulino, Ilaria Gorini
The Italian Parliament has recently approved the Law n. 219/2017 concerning "Rules on informed consent and advance directives". The manuscript points out the main key points of the new law, in order to clarify the role of the advance directives and to provide clear operational guidelines for healthcare personnel. Taking into consideration the Italian deontological and juridical context, along with the main jurisprudential judgements, the law has been analysed. The Authors discussed the new rules and the bioethical issues also in relation to the provisions stated by the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of Oviedo)...
May 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766727/-human-life-as-goodness-why-euthanasia-is-morally-unacceptable
#7
David Černý
The current discussion of the moral admissibility or inadmissibility of euthanasia should, in my opinion, consider the greatest possible number of the shared premises of the two opinion camps. That is why I followed a thesis in this paper that the question of the good life is the focus of ethical interest, as this is what connects the advocates and the opponents to euthanasia. In the first part of the paper I critically discuss the two main theories of the good life widely embraced among the advocates of euthanasia: hedonism and desire-fulfilment theory...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753624/a-critical-review-and-analysis-of-ethical-issues-associated-with-the-artificial-pancreas
#8
REVIEW
A Quintal, V Messier, R Rabasa-Lhoret, E Racine
The artificial pancreas combines a hormone infusion pump with a continuous glucose ontinuous glucose monitoring, supported by a dosing algorithm currently installed on the pump. It allows for dynamic infusions of insulin (and possibly other hormones such as glucagon) tailored to patient needs. For patients with type 1 diabetes the artificial pancreas has been shown to prevent more effectively hypoglycaemic events and hyperglycaemia than insulin pump therapy and has the potential to simplify care. However, the potential ethical issues associated with the upcoming integration of the artificial pancreas into clinical practice have not yet been discussed...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748717/ethical-challenges-in-resuscitation
#9
REVIEW
Spyros D Mentzelopoulos, Anne-Marie Slowther, Zoe Fritz, Claudio Sandroni, Theodoros Xanthos, Clifton Callaway, Gavin D Perkins, Craig Newgard, Eleni Ischaki, Robert Greif, Erwin Kompanje, Leo Bossaert
PURPOSE: A rapidly evolving resuscitation science provides more effective treatments to an aging population with multiple comorbidites. Concurrently, emergency care has become patient-centered. This review aims to describe challenges associated with the application of key principles of bioethics in resuscitation and post-resuscitation care; propose actions to address these challenges; and highlight the need for evidence-based ethics and consensus on ethical principles interpretation. METHODS: Following agreement on the article's outline, subgroups of 2-3 authors provided narrative reviews of ethical issues concerning autonomy and honesty, beneficence/nonmaleficence and dignity, justice, specific practices/circumstances such as family presence during resuscitation, and emergency research...
May 10, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746161/clean-blood-religion-and-moral-triage-in-tuberculosis-vaccine-trials
#10
Justin Dixon, Michèle Tameris
During ethnographic research at a tuberculosis vaccine trial site in South Africa, trial participants often evoked the idiom of "clean blood." In this article, we illustrate how the trials enacted a form of moral triage in which "objective" bioscientific knowledge and moral subjectivity were coproduced. Participation created possibilities to demonstrate healthiness, respectability, and godliness in a context where positive self-imaginings were hard won, but could also lead to dejection and shame...
May 10, 2018: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742044/end-of-life-decision-making-in-palliative-care-and-recommendations-of-the-council-of-europe-qualitative-secondary-analysis-of-interviews-and-observation-field-notes
#11
Sandra Martins Pereira, Emília Fradique, Pablo Hernández-Marrero
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decisions (ELDs) are embedded in clinical, sociocultural, political, economic, and ethical concerns. In 2014, the Council of Europe (CoE) through its Committee on Bioethics launched the "Guide on the decision-making process regarding medical treatment in end-of-life situations," aiming at improving decision-making processes and empowering professionals in making ELDs. OBJECTIVE: To analyze if end-of-life decision making in palliative care (PC) is consistent with this Guide and to identify if disputed/controversial issues are part of current ELDs...
May 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738040/nephrologists-between-power-and-vulnerability-in-times-of-technology
#12
José Miguel Viscarra Obregón, Marcio Fabri Dos Anjos
The doctor-patient relationship is often discussed from the perspective of patient vulnerability. Little attention is given to the vulnerability of nephrologists in their professional practice, a reality often affected by profound cultural transformation arising from technological development. Nephrology is based on research and procedure instrumentalization, both permeated with technology. In addition, the relationship between nephrologists and institutions is governed by market rules. Recent data showed a shortage of new nephrologists and the need to improve the technical training of new professionals, foster the establishment of interventional nephrology, and attract more graduating physicians to this medical specialty...
May 3, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732973/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-neuropsychopathological-therapeutical-and-bioethical-aspects
#13
Ignazio Vecchio, Cristina Tornali, Giulia Malaguarnera, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Michele Malaguarnera
The progressive supranuclear palsy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by Parkinsonism, oculomotor abnormalities, early postural instability and cognitive impairment. Neurodegeneration in PSP is associated with tau protein, but the mechanisms by which tau abnormalities lead to cell dysfunction and death are not well understood. Neuro-behavioural problems related to the fear and loss of autonomy can determinate many bioethical implications. Careful planning involving patients' families, academic and industry researchers were necessary to ensure improvement in quality of life...
May 6, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725893/moral-conflicts-and-religious-convictions-what-role-for-clinical-ethics-consultants
#14
John C Moskop
Moral conflicts over medical treatment that are the result of differences in fundamental moral commitments of the stakeholders, including religiously grounded commitments, can present difficult challenges for clinical ethics consultants. This article begins with a case example that poses such a conflict, then examines how consultants might use different approaches to clinical ethics consultation in an effort to facilitate the resolution of conflicts of this kind. Among the approaches considered are the authoritarian approach, the pure consensus approach, and the ethics facilitation approach described in the Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation report of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, as well as a patient advocate approach, a clinician advocate approach, and an institutional advocate approach...
May 3, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724152/ethical-responsibilities-of-health-research-funders-to-advance-global-health-justice
#15
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
Research funders from high-income countries have an ethical obligation to support health research in low and middle-income countries that promotes justice in global health. Conceptual work from bioethics proposes funders should do so through their design of grants programs, investments, and grants management. That work has begun to specify the content of funders' ethical responsibility with regards to health systems research, but it has thus far not been informed by their practice. As a first step to bridge that gap, this paper focuses on health systems research funders' design of grants programs...
May 4, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714586/truth-in-advertising-disclosure-of-participant-payment-in-research-recruitment-materials
#16
Luke Gelinas, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Emily A Largent, Carmel Shachar, I Glenn Cohen, Barbara E Bierer
The practice of paying research participants has received significant attention in the bioethics literature, but the focus has been almost exclusively on consideration of factors relevant to determining acceptable payment amounts. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to what happens once the payment amount is set. What are the ethical parameters around how offers of payment may be advertised to prospective participants? This article seeks to answer this question, focusing on the ethical and practical issues associated with disclosing information about payment, and payment amounts in particular, in recruitment materials...
May 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708219/-bioethics-and-environmental-justice-in-the-health-of-the-andean-residents-of-peru
#17
Diana E Alcantara Zapata, Marinella Mazzei Pimental
This article attempts to capture the bioethical-environmental panorama of the health in the residents who live on the Peruvian highlands, highlighting the inequity in access to health services that exist in this region and reflecting on the possible historical and current contextual causes that have originated differences between Inca-Andean settler and modern-Andean settler. The change in the view of the world about the environment and natural resources, the decline of justice approach, loss of solidarity, welfare, and respect to human being and nature...
2018: Revista Latinoamericana de bioética
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697399/-legal-regulation-of-transplantology-at-the-present-stage-ukrainian-issue-and-experience-of-foreign-states
#18
O Sovgyria
The objective of the research is to analyze the legal regulation in the transplantology field at the present stage in Ukraine. To address identified challenges, the author investigates the foreign countries experience and suggests ways of improving certain mechanism for legal regulation in the field of organ transplantation and anatomical materials. The empiric material of the study included a wide range of legal instruments regulating this sphere of legal relationships, information regarding the problems of their application, statistics, expert analysis of Ukrainian and foreign researchers...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697343/in-search-of-a-place-for-mystery-in-clinical-bioethics
#19
William Douglas Grinstead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697339/a-feminist-bioethics-approach-to-diagnostic-uncertainty
#20
Anna K Swartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
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