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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144455/bioethics-justice-in-genomics
#1
Rosario Isasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131502/racial-identity-aesthetic-surgery-and-yor%C3%A3-b%C3%A3-african-values
#2
Ademola K Fayemi
The question of racial identity in the process and outcome of aesthetic surgery is gaining increasing attention in bioethical discourse. This paper attempts an ethical examination of the racial identity issues involved in aesthetic surgery. Dominant moral values in Western culture are explored in the evaluation of aesthetic surgery. The paper argues that African values are yet to receive the universal attention they arguably deserve especially in the rethinking of values underlying aesthetic surgery as racial transformation...
November 12, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130260/thank-you-to-developing-world-bioethics-reviewers
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129955/a-comparative-analysis-of-bioethical-issues-from-view-points-of-religious-affairs-administration-in-turkey-roman-catholicism-and-orthodox-judaism
#4
Cemal Huseyin Güvercin, Kerim M Munir
The arguments set forth by religious authority are important since they play a crucial role in shaping the social values of the public and influence the decision of individuals in practice pertaining to bioethical issues. The Religious Affairs Administration (RAA) was established at the inception of the Republic of Turkey in 1924 to guide religious considerations moving out of the Ottoman caliphate to a secular bioethical framework. In this article, the bioethical views of the RAA under Islamic tradition is examined and contrasted with those influenced by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Judaic traditions...
July 2017: Acta Bioethica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127644/erasmus-mundus-master-of-bioethics-a-case-for-an-effective-model-for-international-bioethics-education
#5
Jan Piasecki, Kevin Dirksen, Hamilton Inbadas
Designing bioethics curriculum for international postgraduate students is a challenging task. There are at least two main questions, which have to be resolved in advance: (1) what is a purpose of a particular teaching program and (2) how to respectfully arrange a classroom for students coming from different cultural and professional backgrounds. In our paper we analyze the case of the Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics program and provide recommendations for international bioethics education. In our opinion teaching bioethics to postgraduate international students goes beyond curriculum...
November 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119870/current-and-emerging-global-themes-in-the-bioethics-of-regenerative-medicine-the-tangled-web-of-stem-cell-translation
#6
Sarah Chan
Probably the most serious problem facing the field of regenerative medicine today is the challenge of effective translation and development of viable stem cell-based therapies. Particular concerns have been raised over the growing market in unproven cell therapies. In this article, I explore recent developments in the stem cell therapy landscape and argue that while the sale of unproven therapies undoubtedly poses ethical concerns, it must be understood as part of a larger problem at the interface between biomedicine, healthcare, publics, policy and the market...
October 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118898/power-to-the-people-data-citizens-in-the-age-of-precision-medicine
#7
Barbara J Evans
Twentieth-century bioethics celebrated individual autonomy but framed autonomy largely in terms of an individual's power to make decisions and act alone. The most pressing challenges of big data science in the twenty-first century can only be resolved through collective action and common purpose. This Article surveys some of these challenges and asks how common purpose can ever emerge on the present bioethical and regulatory landscape. The solution may lie in embracing a broader concept of autonomy that empowers individuals to protect their interests by exercising meaningful rights of data citizenship...
2017: Vanderbilt J Entertain Technol Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116984/speaking-up-an-ethical-action-exercise
#8
James Dwyer, Kathy Faber-Langendoen
PROBLEM: Health care professionals encounter situations in which they need to speak up to prevent harm, ensure better care, and/or address unprofessional behavior. Speaking up is often difficult, especially for medical students; nonetheless, it is a skill students must practice, so they can better advocate for patients. APPROACH: The authors have designed an ethical action exercise and incorporated it into a required bioethics course that meets concurrently with third-year clerkships...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116905/epistemic-injustice-in-dementia-and-autism-patient-organizations-an-empirical-analysis
#9
Karin Jongsma, Elisabeth Spaeth, Silke Schicktanz
Patient organizations (POs) represent patient collectives in health care policy. The inclusion of people with a 'neuro-psychiatric' condition poses a particular challenge for the organizational processes and political representation of such collectives. In recent years, new POs (POs of) have been established in the field of autism spectrum disorder and dementia that advocate a different agenda and have a different organizational structure than traditional POs (POs for). The divide between these two types of POs indicates a different standpoint with regard to who should be included on an organizational level, which voices are accepted and who should represent these voices on the political level...
November 8, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111941/reasons-to-amplify-the-role-of-parental-permission-in-pediatric-treatment
#10
Mark Christopher Navin, Jason Adam Wasserman
Two new documents from the Committee on Bioethics of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) expand the terrain for parental decision making, suggesting that pediatricians may override only those parental requests that cross a harm threshold. These new documents introduce a broader set of considerations in favor of parental authority in pediatric care than previous AAP documents have embraced. While we find this to be a positive move, we argue that the 2016 AAP positions actually understate the importance of informed and voluntary parental involvement in pediatric decision making...
November 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111938/review-of-calvin-wai-loon-ho-juridification-in-bioethics-governance-of-human-pluripotent-cell-research
#11
Edward S Dove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110730/a-meta-science-for-a-global-bioethics-and-biomedicine
#12
David S Basser
BACKGROUND: As suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science. METHODS: A philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics...
November 7, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110256/philosophy-of-medicine-2017-reviewing-the-situation
#13
EDITORIAL
Patrick Daly
In this introduction to a special subsection of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics comprising separate reviews of the Springer Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine, and The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine, I compare the three texts with respect to their overall organization and their approach to the relation between the science and the art of medicine. I then indicate two areas that merit more explicit attention in developing a comprehensive philosophy of medicine going forward: health economics and systematic relations within the field as a whole...
November 6, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110204/shiite-perspective-on-the-moral-status-of-the-early-human-embryo-a-critical-review
#14
Kiarash Aramesh
According to Shiite perspective, the relative inviolability of the human embryo starts at the time of implantation and attains complete ethical status at ensoulment. Different paradigms of embryology have been influential on the understanding of Shiite jurists of the relevant Qur'anic verses. This paper provides a critical review of the process of issuing religious decrees on issues related to the early human life and concludes that Shiite jurisprudence needs to obtain consistency in its adopted account of embryology and adopt a proactive approach toward the bioethical new-emerging issues...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108141/teaching-ob-gyn-residents-bioethics-within-a-catholic-healthcare-context
#15
Andrew Steele
Residents entering training in the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) often have misconceptions as to what medical interventions Roman Catholic healthcare institutions prohibit, and why certain restrictions are placed on the provision of reproductive health options that are otherwise legally available to women. The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Healthcare Services, produced by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops seeks to provide a stable framework upon which reproductive health decisions can be based...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101665/human-and-nonhuman-bioethics
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael J Selgelid, Justin Oakley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090010/stem-cell-research-and-clinical-translation-a-roadmap-about-good-clinical-practice-and-patient-care
#17
REVIEW
Paola Frati, Matteo Scopetti, Alessandro Santurro, Vittorio Gatto, Vittorio Fineschi
The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of "Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation" by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient's welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082482/germline-mutations-in-brca1-and-brca2-incidentally-revealed-in-a-biobank-research-study-experiences-from-re-contacting-mutation-carriers-and-relatives
#18
Martin P Nilsson, Monica Emmertz, Ulf Kristoffersson, Åke Borg, Christer Larsson, Martin Rehn, Christof Winter, Lao H Saal, Yvonne Brandberg, Niklas Loman
Once an incidental finding (IF) is discovered in the course of genomic research, the researchers are faced with the question of whether or not that finding should be reported back to the study participant. A large number of hypothetical studies and policy documents on this issue have been published, but there are very few empirical studies to inform the bioethics debate. Within a biobank research study of somatic mutations in breast carcinomas, ten germline BRCA1/2 mutations were incidentally detected. After thorough discussions within a group of experts, the mutation carriers (n = 7) or relatives of deceased carriers (n = 3) were re-contacted and informed about the findings...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071572/tri-parent-baby-technology-and-preservation-of-lineage-an-analysis-from-the-perspective-of-maqasid-al-shari-ah-based-islamic-bioethics
#19
Abdul Halim Ibrahim, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman, Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen, Madiha Baharuddin
Tri-parent baby technology is an assisted reproductive treatment which aims to minimize or eliminate maternal inheritance of mutated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The technology became popular following the move by the United Kingdom in granting license to a group of researchers from the Newcastle Fertility Centre, Newcastle University to conduct research on the symptoms of defective mtDNA. This technology differs from other assisted reproductive technology because it involves the use of gamete components retrieved from three different individuals...
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067599/legislative-enforcement-of-nonconsensual-determination-of-neurological-brain-death-in-muslim-patients-a-violation-of-religious-rights
#20
Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
Death is defined in the Quran with a single criterion of irreversible separation of the ruh (soul) from the body. The Quran is a revelation from God to man, and the primary source of Islamic knowledge. The secular concept of death by neurological criteria, or brain death, is at odds with the Quranic definition of death. The validity of this secular concept has been contested scientifically and philosophically. To legitimize brain death for the purpose of organ donation and transplantation in Muslim communities, Chamsi-Pasha and Albar (concurring with the US President's Council on Bioethics) have argued that irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness and breathing (apneic coma) in brain death defines true death in accordance with Islamic sources...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
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