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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#1
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526925/polyphenolic-extract-attenuates-fatty-acid-induced-steatosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-hepatic-and-endothelial-cells
#2
Laura Vergani, Giulia Vecchione, Francesca Baldini, Elena Grasselli, Adriana Voci, Piero Portincasa, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro A Casazza, Patrizia Perego
PURPOSE: Phenolic compounds (PC) of virgin olive oil exert several biochemical and pharmacological beneficial effects. Some dietary PC seem to prevent/improve obesity and metabolic-related disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the possible effects of PC extracted from olive pomace (PEOP) and of the main single molecules present in the extract (tyrosol, apigenin, oleuropein, p-coumaric and caffeic acid) in protecting hepatocytes and endothelial cells against triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524171/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-fatty-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Charles E Foulds, Lindsey S Treviño, Brian York, Cheryl L Walker
A growing epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is paralleling the increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in countries that consume a Western diet. As NAFLD can lead to life-threatening conditions such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, an understanding of the factors that trigger its development and pathological progression is needed. Although by definition this disease is not associated with alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental agents that have been linked to other diseases might have a role in the development of NAFLD...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523578/prevalence-and-predictors-of-significant-fibrosis-among-subjects-with-transient-elastography-defined-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Hye Won Lee, Beom Kyung Kim, Seung Up Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang Joon Kim, Kwang-Hyub Han
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient elastography (TE) can be used to assess the degree of liver fibrosis and steatosis. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without significant liver fibrosis in the general population. METHODS: A total of 3033 subjects without alcoholic or chronic viral liver diseases who underwent a medical health check-up including TE were recruited from April 2013 to August 2014. TE-defined NAFLD was defined as a controlled attenuation parameter of ≥250 dB/m, and significant liver fibrosis was defined as a liver stiffness (LS) value of ≥8 kPa...
May 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523305/the-impact-of-liver-steatosis-on-early-and-sustained-treatment-response-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#5
Alice Elena Găman, Anca Marilena Ungureanu, Adriana Turculeanu, Dan IonuŢ Gheonea, Andrei Ioan Drocaş, George Mitroi, Maria DobriŢoiu, Maria Victoria Comănescu, Andreea Doriana Stănculescu, Ramona Cioboată, Claudiu Florin Jieanu, Paul Ioan Tomescu
Steatosis is a frequent feature of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Steatosis may be an important cofactor in both accelerating fibrosis and increasing liver necroinflammatory activity in chronic hepatitis C. The main objective of this study was the evaluation of biological response rates, early viral response, sustained viral response in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with Interferon-alpha (IFN-α), Pegylated (PEG)-IFN-α2a or -α2b plus Ribavirin and to relate it to the presence of hepatic steatosis...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521774/correlation-of-cell-free-dna-plasma-concentration-with-severity-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Thomas Karlas, Lara Weise, Stephanie Kuhn, Felix Krenzien, Matthias Mehdorn, David Petroff, Nicolas Linder, Alexander Schaudinn, Harald Busse, Volker Keim, Johann Pratschke, Johannes Wiegand, Katrin Splith, Moritz Schmelzle
BACKGROUND: The assessment of fibrosis and inflammatory activity is essential to identify patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) at risk for progressive disease. Serum markers and ultrasound-based methods can replace liver biopsy for fibrosis staging, whereas non-invasive characterization of inflammatory activity remains a clinical challenge. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a novel non-invasive biomarker for assessing cellular inflammation and cell death, which has not been evaluated in NAFLD...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521680/fatty-acids-and-effects-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-liver-steatosis
#7
Laura Vergani
Fatty liver, or steatosis, is a condition of excess accumulation of lipids, mainly under form of triglycerides (TG), in the liver, and it is the hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is the most common liver disorder world-wide and it has frequently been associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Free fatty acids (FA) are the major mediators of hepatic steatosis; patients with NAFLD have elevated levels of circulating FA that correlate with disease severity. Steatosis is a reversible condition that can be resolved with changed behaviors, or that can progress towards more severe liver damages such as steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517493/accuracy-of-computed-tomography-for-detecting-hepatic-steatosis-in-donors-for-liver-transplantation-a-meta-analysis
#8
Danping Zheng, Wenshuo Tian, Zhouying Zheng, Jincui Gu, Zhiyong Guo, Xiaoshun He
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of computed tomography (CT) for detecting donor hepatic steatosis (HS) before liver transplantation is not well established. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of CT for HS detection in liver donor candidates. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves, and the area under the curve (AUC) were estimated using HSROC and bivariate random-effects models...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517024/treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-past-present-and-future
#9
REVIEW
Nicolas Lanthier, Peter Stärkel
Alcoholic hepatitis manifests as a clinical syndrome characterized by recent jaundice and liver function deterioration in an actively drinking patient. The principal cause of alcoholic hepatitis is alcoholic steatohepatitis defined histologically by the coexistence of steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and satellitosis. While non-severe alcoholic hepatitis usually responds to alcohol abstinence, severe alcoholic hepatitis, identified by Maddrey scoring ≥ 32, has a bad prognosis and is traditionally treated by a 28-day course of prednisone therapy...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516292/limax-test-improves-diagnosis-of-chemotherapy-associated-liver-injury-before-resection-of-colorectal-liver-metastases
#10
Johan F Lock, Tilman Westphal, Tom Rubin, Maciej Malinowski, Antje Schulz, Maximilian Jara, Jan Bednarsch, Martin Stockmann
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) prior to liver resection implies the risk of chemotherapy-associated liver injury, leading to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the LiMAx (liver maximum capacity) test for diagnosis of chemotherapy-associated liver injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLMs, prior to liver resection. We performed preoperative assessment of liver function using biochemical parameters and the LiMAx test...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515388/nitric-oxide-is-critical-for-avoiding-hepatic-lipid-overloading-via-il6-induction-during-liver-regeneration-after-partial-hepatectomy-in-mice
#11
Yue Yu, Miho Tamai, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa
Nitric oxide (NO), generated from L-arginine by three different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is a pleiotropic factor to regulate physiological functions in almost every organ and tissue. Each knockout mouse of iNOS or eNOS has been used to suggest that NO has a crucial role in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH), for NO may inhibit caspase 3 activity and is required for EGFR signaling. In previous reports, defective mitochondrial β-oxidation was observed in eNOS KO mice, and hepatic steatosis was often correlated to deficient liver regeneration, so we focused on metabolic perspective and hypothesized that NO depletion in PH mice would affect hepatocytic lipolysis and impair hepatocytes proliferation...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515323/%C3%AE-adrenergic-induction-of-lipolysis-in-hepatocytes-is-inhibited-by-ethanol-exposure
#12
Micah B Schott, Karuna Rasineni, Shaun G Weller, Ryan J Schulze, Arthur C Sletten, Carol A Casey, Mark A McNiven
In liver steatosis i.e., fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid-storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are important in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms that stimulate LD metabolism in hepatocytes are poorly defined. In adipocytes, catecholamines target the β-adrenergic (β-AR)/cAMP pathway to activate cytosolic lipases and induce their recruitment to the LD surface. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether hepatocytes, like adipocytes, also undergo cAMP-mediated lipolysis in response to β-AR stimulation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515141/glucagon-induced-extracellular-camp-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#13
Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Jinye Liang, Weida Li, Chao Zhang, Zhenning Zhang, Bing Luan
Hormonal signals help to maintain glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver during periods of fasting. Glucagon, a pancreas-derived hormone induced by fasting, promotes gluconeogenesis through induction of intracellular cAMP production. Glucagon also stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation but the underlying mechanism is poorly characterized. Here we reported that following the acute induction of gluconeogenic genes Glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) expression through CREB, glucagon triggers a second delayed phase of fatty acid oxidation genes Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (Aox) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) expression via extracellular cAMP...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514906/the-effects-of-gymnema-sylvestre-in-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders
#14
Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Sanghwa Kim, Ah Young Lee, Yoonjeong Jang, Orkhonselenge Davaadamdin, Seong-Ho Hong, Jun Sung Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
This study used an integrated approach to investigate the effects of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract as a functional dietary supplement with a high-fat diet. This approach examined insulin resistance, the dysfunction of adipose tissue, and liver steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for the acute and chronic study, in addition to GS in different doses (100, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight). Their body composition changes, serum lipid and glucose parameters, adipose and liver tissue histology, and gene expression were measured...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514904/effects-of-viola-mandshurica-on-atherosclerosis-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-apoe-formula-see-text-via-the-ampk-pathway
#15
Sun Haeng Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Kyoung Jin Nho, Dong Sun Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
Atherosclerosis was previously thought to be a disease that primarily involves lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. In this report, we investigated the effect of Viola mandshurica W. Becker (V. mandshurica) water extract on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE[Formula: see text]) mice. The administration of V. mandshurica to high-fat diet-fed mice reduced body weight, liver weight, and serum levels of lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides), glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514835/genistein-has-beneficial-effects-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-treated-rats
#16
Huanhuan Liu, Huijia Zhong, Yimin Yin, Zhuoqin Jiang
Genistein, a kind of phytoestrogen abundant in soybeans, is beneficial for alleviating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the specific mechanism was not clearly understood. This study was designed to determine the effect of genistein on NAFLD and explore the possible mechanism. 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, high fat-high sucrose diet (HFS) group, HFS with 4mg/kg body weight genistein, and HFS with 8mg/kg body weight genistein. 12 weeks later, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver histopathological examination were characterized...
May 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513780/reduction-of-the-dna-damages-hepatoprotective-effect-and-antioxidant-potential-of-the-coconut-water-ascorbic-and-caffeic-acids-in-oxidative-stress-mediated-by-ethanol
#17
Vanderson S Bispo, Lucas S Dantas, Adriano B Chaves, Isabella F D Pinto, Railmara P DA Silva, Felipe A M Otsuka, Rodrigo B Santos, Aline C Santos, Danielle J Trindade, Humberto R Matos
Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512733/a-lipidomic-cell-based-assay-for-studying-drug-induced-phospholipidosis-and-steatosis
#18
Juan Carlos García-Cañaveras, Manuel David Peris-Díaz, M Isabel Alcoriza, Manuela Cerdán-Calero, M Teresa Donato, Agustín Lahoz
Phospholipidosis and steatosis are two toxic effects, which course with overaccumulation of different classes of lipids in the liver. MS-based lipidomics has become a powerful tool for the comprehensive determination of lipids. LC-MS lipid profiling of HepG2 cells is proposed as an in vitro assay to study and anticipate phospholipidosis and steatosis. Cells with and without pre-incubation with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) (i.e., oleic and palmitic) were exposed to a set of well-known steatogenic and phospholipidogenic compounds...
May 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512356/adamdec1-ednrb-and-ptgs1-cox1-inflammation-genes-upregulated-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-obese-rats-are-downregulated-by-three-probiotic-strains
#19
Julio Plaza-Díaz, Cándido Robles-Sánchez, Francisco Abadía-Molina, Virginia Morón-Calvente, María José Sáez-Lara, Alfonso Ruiz-Bravo, María Jiménez-Valera, Ángel Gil, Carolina Gómez-Llorente, Luis Fontana
We have previously reported that administration of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 to obese Zucker-Lepr (fa/fa) rats attenuates liver steatosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The goal of the present work was to investigate the modulation of gene expression in intestinal mucosa samples of obese Zucker-Lepr (fa/fa) rats fed the probiotic strains using a DNA microarray and postgenomic techniques. We also measured secretory IgA content in the gut and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) in serum...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511345/ros-homeostasis-a-key-determinant-in-liver-ischemic-preconditioning
#20
Ignacio Prieto, María Monsalve
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are key mediators of ischemia-reperfusion injury but also required for the induction of the stress response that limits tissue injury and underlies the protection provided by ischemic-preconditioning protocols. Liver steatosis is an important risk factor for liver transplant failure. Liver steatosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive mitochondrial ROS production. Studies aiming at decreasing the sensibility of the steatotic liver to ischemia-reperfusion injury using pre-conditioning protocols, have shown that the steatotic liver has a reduced capacity to respond to these protocols...
May 4, 2017: Redox Biology
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