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Steatosis liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220523/inflammation-is-independent-of-steatosis-in-a-murine-model-of-steatohepatitis
#1
Wei Wang, Ming-Jiang Xu, Yan Cai, Zhou Zhou, Haixia Cao, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Pal Pacher, Shusen Zheng, Frank J Gonzalez, Bin Gao
Obesity and alcohol consumption synergistically promote steatohepatitis, and neutrophil infiltration is believed to be associated with steatosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a complex role in lipid metabolism and inflammation, therefore, the purpose of this study was to dissect its role in regulating steatosis and neutrophil infiltration in a clinically relevant mouse steatohepatitis model of 3-month high-fat diet (HFD) feeding plus a binge of ethanol (HFD -plus-binge ethanol)...
February 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220039/hormone-signaling-and-fatty-liver-in-females-analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mutant-mice
#2
S Hart-Unger, Y Arao, K J Hamilton, S L Lierz, D E Malarkey, S C Hewitt, M Freemark, K S Korach
BACKGROUND: Treatment with estrogen in early menopausal women protects against development of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD but estrogen has undesirable side effects which negate its beneficial effects in pre- and post-menopausal women. Targeted therapies require better understanding of the target sites and mechanisms by which estrogen signaling exerts its protective effects in women. ERα is thought to be the primary mediator for estrogen signaling to protect against hepatic steatosis...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219837/chronic-maternal-calcium-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-deficiency-in-wistar-rats-programs-abnormal-hepatic-gene-expression-leading-to-hepatic-steatosis-in-female-offspring
#3
Sona S Sharma, Nivedita M Jangale, Abhay M Harsulkar, Medha K Gokhale, Bimba N Joshi
Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216979/association-between-endotoxemia-and-histological-features-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Hiroyuki Kitabatake, Naoki Tanaka, Naoyuki Fujimori, Michiharu Komatsu, Ayaka Okubo, Kyogo Kakegawa, Takefumi Kimura, Ayumi Sugiura, Tomoo Yamazaki, Soichiro Shibata, Yuki Ichikawa, Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Akihiro Matsumoto, Masayoshi Koinuma, Kenji Sano, Toshifumi Aoyama, Eiji Tanaka
AIM: To assess whether surrogate biomarkers of endotoxemia were correlated with the histological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: One hundred twenty-six NAFLD patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy were enrolled. Serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and anti-endotoxin core immunoglobulin G (EndoCab IgG) antibody concentrations at the time of liver biopsy were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to examine for relationships between biomarker levels and histological scores...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215615/factors-associated-with-persistent-increase-in-level-of-alanine-aminotransferase-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-receiving-oral-antiviral-therapy
#5
Ira M Jacobson, Mary K Washington, Maria Buti, Alexander Thompson, Nezam Afdhal, Robert Flisiak, Ulus Salih Akarca, Konstantin G Tchernev, John F Flaherty, Raul Aguilar Schall, Robert P Myers, G Mani Subramanian, John G McHutchison, Zobair Younossi, Patrick Marcellin, Keyur Patel
BACKGROUND & AIM: Despite complete suppression of viral DNA with antiviral agents, in some patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) do not normalize. We investigated factors associated with persistent increases in level of ALT in patients with CHB given long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: We analyzed data from 471 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients with CHB participating in 2 phase 3 trials...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215317/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-as-phospholipids-did-not-improve-the-incorporation-of-this-fatty-acid-into-rat-fetal-brain-compared-with-the-triglyceride-form
#6
Antonio Gázquez, Inmaculada Hernández-Albaladejo, Elvira Larqué
Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply is important to ensure an adequate infant neurodevelopment. Several fat supplements with DHA under different chemical structures are available. There is an increased placental phospholipase activity at the end of pregnancy. The hypothesis of this study was to discern whether DHA consumption during pregnancy as phospholipids (PLs) could be more available for placental DHA uptake and fetal accretion than triglycerides (TGs) form. We aimed to evaluate maternofetal DHA status in pregnant rats fed with DHA as PL from egg yolk or TG from algae oil to determine which source might be most effective during pregnancy...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214827/potential-regulators-driving-the-transition-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-stage-based-view
#7
Yi Lou, Yi-Dan Chen, Fu-Rong Sun, Jun-Ping Shi, Yu Song, Jin Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), ranging from mild steatosis to hepatocellular injury and inflammation, increases with the rise of obesity. However, the implications of transcription factors network in progressive NAFLD remain to be determined. METHODS: A co-regulatory network approach by combining gene expression and transcription influence was utilized to dissect transcriptional regulators in different NAFLD stages...
January 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#8
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212548/branched-chain-amino-acids-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-and-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-mouse-model
#9
Kai Takegoshi, Masao Honda, Hikari Okada, Riuta Takabatake, Naoto Matsuzawa-Nagata, Jean S Campbell, Masashi Nishikawa, Tetsuro Shimakami, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Yoshio Sakai, Taro Yamashita, Toshinari Takamura, Takuji Tanaka, Shuichi Kaneko
Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212343/oxyresveratrol-supplementation-to-c57bl-6-mice-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet-ameliorates-obesity-associated-symptoms
#10
Hui Yuan Tan, Iris Mei Ying Tse, Edmund Tsze Shing Li, Mingfu Wang
Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212318/alcohol-%C3%A2-adipose%C3%A2-tissue%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lipid%C3%A2-dysregulation
#11
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long-term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged...
February 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212047/multimaterial-decomposition-algorithm-for-the-quantification-of-liver-fat-content-by-using-fast-kilovolt-peak-switching-dual-energy-ct-clinical-evaluation
#12
Tomoko Hyodo, Norihisa Yada, Masatoshi Hori, Osamu Maenishi, Peter Lamb, Kosuke Sasaki, Minori Onoda, Masatoshi Kudo, Teruhito Mochizuki, Takamichi Murakami
Purpose To assess the clinical accuracy and reproducibility of liver fat quantification with the multimaterial decomposition (MMD) algorithm, comparing the performance of MMD with that of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy by using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and patients provided written informed consent. Thirty-three patients suspected of having hepatic steatosis underwent non-contrast material-enhanced and triple-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) (80 and 140 kVp) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy within 30 days before liver biopsy...
February 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#13
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#14
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205519/mitochondrial-atp-transporter-depletion-protects-mice-against-liver-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Joonseok Cho, Yujian Zhang, Shi-Young Park, Anna-Maria Joseph, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Sung-Kook Chun, Drake Morgan, Jae-Sung Kim, Shinichi Someya, Clayton E Mathews, Young Jae Lee, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Nishanth E Sunny, Hui-Young Lee, Cheol Soo Choi, Takayuki Shiratsuchi, S Paul Oh, Naohiro Terada
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder in obese individuals. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) exchanges ADP/ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane, and Ant2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the liver. Here we demonstrate that targeted disruption of Ant2 in mouse liver enhances uncoupled respiration without damaging mitochondrial integrity and liver functions. Interestingly, liver specific Ant2 knockout mice are leaner and resistant to hepatic steatosis, obesity and insulin resistance under a lipogenic diet...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203279/a-noninvasive-diagnostic-model-to-assess-nonalcoholic-hepatic-steatosis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#16
Hongjie Ou, Shaohang Cai, Ying Liu, Muye Xia, Jie Peng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a noninvasive diagnostic test for nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) by using routinely available clinical markers. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with CHB, with or without hepatic steatosis (fatty change) who were diagnosed with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measured by transient elastography were included. Patient information was analyzed on lifestyle; laboratory tests, including serum lipid levels; blood pressure; blood uric acid; and medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202906/bar502-a-dual-fxr-and-gpbar1-agonist-promotes-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-reverses-liver-steatosis-and-fibrosis
#17
Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Silvia Marchianò, Michele Biagioli, Chiara Santorelli, Annibale Donini, Angela Zampella, Maria Chiara Monti, Stefano Fiorucci
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease. Here, we have investigated whether BAR502, a non-bile acid, steroidal dual ligand for FXR and GPBAR1, reverses steato-hepatitis in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and fructose. After 9 week, mice on HFD gained ≈30% of b.w (P < 0.01 versus naïve) and were insulin resistant. These overweighting and insulin resistant mice were randomized to receive HFD or HFD in combination with BAR502. After 18 weeks, HFD mice developed NASH like features with severe steato-hepatitis and fibrosis, increased hepatic content of triacylglycerol and cholesterol and expression of SREPB1c, FAS, ApoC2, PPARα and γ, α-SMA, α1 collagen and MCP1 mRNAs...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201854/impact-of-anthropometric-features-on-the-applicability-and-accuracy-of-fibroscan%C3%A2-m-and-xl-in-overweight-obese-patients
#18
Marc Puigvehí, Teresa Broquetas, Susanna Coll, Montserrat Garcia-Retortillo, Nuria Cañete, Rosa Fernández, Javier Gimeno, Juan Sanchez, Felipe Bory, Juan Pedro-Botet, Ricard Solà, José A Carrión
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transient elastography (TE) is the reference method for liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in the general population, having lower applicability in obese patients. We evaluated the applicability and diagnostic accuracy of the M and XL probes in overweight/obese patients to establish the most appropriate approach. METHODS: From May 2013 to March 2015 we evaluated patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m(2) . We constructed an algorithm with variables independently related to unreliable LSM with the M probe...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#19
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197978/managing-cardiovascular-risk-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#20
REVIEW
James J Maciejko
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
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