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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143783/metformin-potentiates-the-benefits-of-dietary-restraint-a-metabolomic-study
#1
Marta Riera-Borrull, Anabel García-Heredia, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemí Cabré, Elisabet Cuyàs, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Jordi Camps, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Prevention of the metabolic consequences of a chronic energy-dense/high-fat diet (HFD) represents a public health priority. Metformin is a strong candidate to be incorporated in alternative therapeutic approaches. We used a targeted metabolomic approach to assess changes related to the multi-faceted metabolic disturbances provoked by HFD. We evaluated the protective effects of metformin and explored how pro-inflammatory and metabolic changes respond when mice rendered obese, glucose-intolerant and hyperlipidemic were switched to diet reversal with or without metformin...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142166/fish-oil-feeding-reverses-hepatomegaly-and-disrupted-hepatic-function-due-to-the-lack-of-fxr-signaling
#2
Masaaki Miyata, Kouhei Shinno, Tomoki Kinoshita, Yuichi Kinoshita, Yoshimasa Sugiura
Mice lacking farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are used as a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease because their livers exhibit hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic inflammation. The influence of fish oil feeding on hepatomegaly and disrupted hepatic function was investigated using female Fxr-null mice and wild-type mice fed a fish oil diet (2% fish oil and 2% corn oil) or a control diet (4% corn oil) for 4 weeks. Hepatic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, including 22:6 n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 20:5 n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly higher in the fish oil group than those in the control group of Fxr-null mice and wild-type mice...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142082/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy
#3
Robert D Guber, Varun Takyar, Angela Kokkinis, Derrick A Fox, Hawwa Alao, Ilona Kats, Dara Bakar, Alan T Remaley, Stephen M Hewitt, David E Kleiner, Chia-Ying Liu, Colleen Hadigan, Kenneth H Fischbeck, Yaron Rotman, Christopher Grunseich
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and features of fatty liver disease in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). METHODS: Two groups of participants with SBMA were evaluated. In the first group, 22 participants with SBMA underwent laboratory analysis and liver imaging. In the second group, 14 participants with SBMA were compared to 13 female carriers and 23 controls. Liver biopsies were done in 4 participants with SBMA. RESULTS: Evidence of fatty liver disease was detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in all participants with SBMA in the first group, with an average dome intrahepatic triacylglycerol of 27% (range 6%-66%, ref ≤5...
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141573/liver-protective-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-interaction-between-its-chemical-composition-and-the-cell-signaling-pathways-involved-in-protection
#4
Sandra A Soto-Alarcon, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The liver is an organ susceptible to a multitude of injuries that causes liver damage, like steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), presents several protective effects on the liver, reducing hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrogenesis, preventing lipid peroxidation, among other effects. Due to its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid and phenolic compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, EVOO is able to participate in the activation of different signaling pathways in the hepatocytes involved in the prevention of inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, allowing the prevention or resolution of liver damage...
November 14, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140550/lncrna-h19-interacts-with-polypyrimidine-tract-binding-protein-1-to-reprogram-hepatic-lipid-homeostasis
#5
Chune Liu, Zhihong Yang, Jianguo Wu, Li Zhang, Sangmin Lee, Dong-Ju Shin, Melanie Tran, Li Wang
H19 is an imprinted long non-coding RNA abundantly expressed in embryonic liver and repressed after birth. Here we show that H19 serves as a lipid sensor by synergizing with RNA-binding protein PTBP1 to modulate hepatic metabolic homeostasis. H19RNA interacts with PTBP1 to facilitate its association with SREBP1c mRNA and protein, leading to increased stability and nuclear transcriptional activity. H19 and PTBP1 are upregulated by fatty acids in hepatocytes and in diet-induced fatty liver, which further augments lipid accumulation...
November 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139555/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption-in-nafld-mice
#6
Weijun Wang, Jinfang Zhao, Wenfang Gui, Dan Sun, Haijiang Dai, Li Xiao, Huikuan Chu, Fan Du, Qingjing Zhu, Bernd Schnabl, Kai Huang, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate medicine for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition in a murine NAFLD model were analysed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: An NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138227/the-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-are-up-regulated-in-the-state-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-may-differently-impact-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans
#7
Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Harald Staiger, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Alfred Königsrainer, Ingmar Koenigsrainer, Erwin D Schleicher, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
The liver is a central regulator of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis and hepatokines, like fetuin-A, have been identified as markers and mediators of fatty liver-induced cardiometabolic risk. The closely related protein fetuin-B was shown to be up-regulated in the fatty liver and to impact on glucose homeostasis in mice. In the present study we aimed to test the relevance of these findings in humans. In 55 subjects hepatic mRNA expression of both hepatokines, fetuin-A and fetuin-B, associated positively with liver triglyceride content, while only fetuin-A expression associated with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137226/the-neglected-avian-hepatotropic-virus-induces-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-in-ducks-an-alternative-model-for-hepatology
#8
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Yunchao Ma, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck Hepatitis A Virus (DHAV) belongs to the Avihepatovirus, which is also classified into Picornaviridae with Hepatovirus, Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In humans, the pathogenesis of HAV is not well understood because of limited work with animal models. Here, we investigated the progress of duck viral hepatitis caused by DHAV and their potential for dissecting the pathogenesis of HAV. During the course of infection, the duck model had undergone hepatocellular lesions (vacuolation, acidophilic degeneration and steatosis), lymphocytes recruitment (neutrophil granulocytes, heterophilic granulocytes and T cells or plasm cells) and repair (activation of hepatic stellate cells, fibrosis and regeneration)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136950/a-novel-sesquiterpene-glycoside-from-loquat-leaf-alleviates-oleic-acid-induced-steatosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-hepg2-cells
#9
Tunyu Jian, Yuexian Wu, Xiaoqin Ding, Han Lv, Li Ma, Yuanyuan Zuo, Bingru Ren, Lei Zhao, Bei Tong, Jian Chen, Weilin Li
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf has displayed beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome. In our previously study, total sesquiterpene glycosides (TSG) isolated from Loquat leaf exhibited therapeutic effect on Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vivo, but the accurate active compound remains unknown. Sesquiterpene glycoside 1 (SG1) is a novel compound, which is exclusively isolated from Loquat leaf, but its biological activity has been rarely reported. The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effect of SG1, the main component of TSG, in oleic acid (OA)-induced HepG2 cell model of NAFLD with its related mechanisms of action...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136819/alteration-in-the-liver-metabolome-of-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-after-treatment-with-hydroxytyrosol-a-mass-spectrometry-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics-study
#10
Ioanna Dagla, Dimitra Benaki, Eirini Baira, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Hemant Poudyal, Lindsay Brown, Anthony Tsarbopoulos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Emmanouel Mikros, Evagelos Gikas
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a group of abnormalities that enhances the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an important dietary pattern, which reduces the incidence of MetS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) - a simple phenol found in olive oil - has received increased attention for its antioxidant activity. Recently, the European Foods Safety Authority (EFSA) claimed that dietary consumption of HT exhibits a protective role against cardiovascular disease. In this study, an experimental protocol has been setup, including isolated HT administration in a diet induced model of MetS in young Wistar rats, in order to find out whether HT has a protective effect against MetS...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136776/dihydroartemisinin-inhibits-er-stress-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway-to-attenuate-hepatocyte-lipoapoptosis-via-blocking-the-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#11
Xingran Chen, Mianli Bian, Chenxi Zhang, Jun Kai, Zhen Yao, Huanhuan Jin, Chunfeng Lu, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), characterized by accumulation of fatty acids in liver cells, is usually caused by Chronic alcohol consumption. Our previous study has identified that DA protects against alcoholic liver injury in alcohol-fed rats through alleviating hepatocyte steatosis. It has emerged that saturated fatty acids could provoke endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in hepatocytes. This study was aimed to explore the impact of DA on ALD and further elaborate the underlying mechanisms. Results demonstrated that DA attenuates alcoholic liver injury in mice...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133343/clinical-and-histologic-characterization-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-african-american-patients
#12
Fernando Bril, Paola Portillo-Sanchez, I-Chia Liu, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Kristin Dayton, Kenneth Cusi
OBJECTIVE: There has been a widespread misconception among physicians that African Americans are protected from developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, a formal histologic and metabolic comparison against well-matched Caucasians has never been performed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-seven African American patients were matched 2:1 to Caucasians (n = 134) for age, sex, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Screening for NASH included measurement of intrahepatic triglyceride content by proton MRS ((1)H-MRS), followed by a liver biopsy if patients had hepatic steatosis...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133088/fructose-human-serum-albumin-interaction-undergoes-numerous-biophysical-and-biochemical-changes-before-forming-ages-and-aggregates
#13
Asif Zaman, Zarina Arif, Moinuddin, Khursheed Alam
Fructose is a reducing and highly lipogenic sugar that has unique metabolic effects in the liver. Non-enzymatic fructosylation of proteins generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Human serum albumin (HSA) may undergo fructosylation vis-à-vis AGEs formation. High fructose consumption may lead to structurally altered and functionally compromised fructosylated-HSA-AGEs, which can cause damage to hepatocytes resulting in hepatic macro- and microvesicular steatosis. In this study, HSA was incubated with varying concentrations of fructose for 10days and the induced changes were studied...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133084/mri-for-the-measurement-of-liver-iron-content-and-for-the-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-iron-overload-disorders
#14
Anita Paisant, Gaspard d'Assignies, Elise Bannier, Edouard Bardou-Jacquet, Yves Gandon
MRI is now the reference method for detecting and quantifying hepatic and extrahepatic iron overload, regardless of its cause. The decrease of the hepatic signal is proportional to the amount of iron in the tissues. It is more pronounced with T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences. It increases proportionally with the strength of the magnetic field. Thus a 3-T MRI is be more sensitive and probably more accurate to detect a slight iron overload, as seen in dysmetabolic hepatosiderosis. Conversely, a 1.5-T MRI better estimates a high overload...
November 10, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132522/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
REVIEW
Patrick H Sweet, Teresa Khoo, Steven Nguyen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a condition of hepatic steatosis with or without hepatic injury. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence worldwide and presents a public health burden. Most patients are asymptomatic, although some present with fatigue and right upper quadrant pain. NAFLD is discovered incidentally when patients have elevated liver enzymes or fatty liver is seen on imaging modalities. Imaging studies can confirm fatty deposits in the liver, but needle biopsy is needed to determine degree of inflammation...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132399/automated-quantification-of-steatosis-agreement-with-stereological-point-counting
#16
André Homeyer, Patrik Nasr, Christiane Engel, Stergios Kechagias, Peter Lundberg, Mattias Ekstedt, Henning Kost, Nick Weiss, Tim Palmer, Horst Karl Hahn, Darren Treanor, Claes Lundström
BACKGROUND: Steatosis is routinely assessed histologically in clinical practice and research. Automated image analysis can reduce the effort of quantifying steatosis. Since reproducibility is essential for practical use, we have evaluated different analysis methods in terms of their agreement with stereological point counting (SPC) performed by a hepatologist. METHODS: The evaluation was based on a large and representative data set of 970 histological images from human patients with different liver diseases...
November 13, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132235/a-cell-based-assay-to-investigate-hypolipidemic-effects-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-therapeutics
#17
Tapan Dave, Arno William Tilles, Muralikrishna Vemula
In the recent past, there has been a growing interest in developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) therapeutics. As a result, a need for in vitro cell models of human hepatic steatosis and high-throughput assays to measure intracellular lipid levels has arisen. To address this growing need, we optimized the conditions based on the current literature to fatten HepG2 hepatocytes by adding a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (oleate/palmitate, 2:1 molar ratio) without inducing any overt cytotoxicity...
November 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130075/association-between-cytokines-and-liver-histology-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Emily R Perito, Veeral Ajmera, Nathan M Bass, Philip Rosenthal, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Katherine P Yates, Anna Mae Diehl, Jean P Molleston, Karen F Murray, Ann Scheimann, Ryan Gill, David Glidden, Bradley Aouizerat
Background: Reliable non-invasive markers to characterize inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. We investigated the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and features of NAFLD histology to gain insight into cellular pathways driving NASH and to identify potential non-invasive discriminators of NAFLD severity and pattern. Methods: Cytokines were measured from plasma obtained at enrollment in pediatric participants in NASH Clinical Research Network studies with liver biopsy-proven NAFLD...
September 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129819/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-improves-energy-homeostasis-and-inhibits-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Dong-Jie Li, Jian Liu, Xia Hua, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Yi-Bo Fei, Wen-Jie Lu, Fu-Ming Shen, Pei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide; yet, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR) plays an indispensable role in the vagus nerve-regulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the key role of α7nAChR in NAFLD development. Male wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR knockout (α7nAChR(-/-)) mice were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129239/an-iso-%C3%AE-acid-rich-extract-from-hops-humulus-lupulus-attenuates-acute-alcohol-induced-liver-steatosis-in-mice
#20
Marianne Hege, Finn Jung, Cathrin Sellmann, Chengjun Jin, Doreen Ziegenhardt, Claus Hellerbrand, Ina Bergheim
OBJECTIVE: Results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that consumption of beer is less harmful for the liver than consumption of spirits. It also has been suggested that secondary plant compounds derived from hops such as xanthohumol or iso-α-acids may have beneficial effects on the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether iso-α-acids consumed in doses achieved by "normal" beer consumption have beneficial effects on health...
January 2018: Nutrition
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