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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804621/development-of-gene-polymorphisms-in-meditators-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Chun Wang, Jianping Gong, Hao Wu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, the morbidity of which closely correlates with diversity of ethnicity, minority, family and location. Its histology spans from simple steatosis, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which ultimately results in fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The accelerating prevalence of NAFLD is due to an incremental incidence of metabolic syndrome that is distinguished by dyslipidemia, glucose impairment, obesity, excessive oxidative stress and adipocytokine impairment...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803762/apigenin-protects-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-by-regulating-hepatic-cyp2e1-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-ppar%C3%AE-mediated-lipogenic-gene-expression
#2
Feng Wang, Jin-Cheng Liu, Rui-Jun Zhou, Xi Zhao, Mei Liu, Hua Ye, Mei-Lin Xie
Alcohol is a major cause of liver injury, and there are currently no ideal pharmacological reagents that can prevent or reverse this disease. Apigenin is one of the most common flavonoids present in numerous plants and has many beneficial effects. But whether or not apigenin may protect against alcohol-induced liver injury remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect and potential mechanisms. The experimental mice were given 56% erguotou wine or simultaneously given apigenin 150-300 mg/kg by gavage for 30 days...
August 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803504/the-pharmacological-management-of-nafld-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
Savinda Liyanagedera, Robert Patrick Williams, Silvio Veraldi, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum, including 'simple' steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD has followed the international rise in obesity and lifestyle modification is the mainstay therapy for children. To date, pharmacological trials have had varying efficacy but a large number of new agents are in early phase trials for adults. Areas covered: This review explores the effect of current and potential future paediatric NAFLD treatments in terms of histological and biochemical endpoints...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802563/metabolic-circuit-involving-free-fatty-acids-microrna-122-and-triglyceride-synthesis-in-liver-and-muscle-tissues
#4
Chofit Chai, Mila Rivkin, Liav Berkovits, Alina Simerzin, Elina Zorde-Khvalevsky, Nofar Rosenberg, Shiri Klein, Dayana Yaish, Ronen Durst, Shoshana Shpitzen, Shiran Udi, Joseph Tam, Joerg Heeren, Anna Worthmann, Christoph Schramm, Johannes Kluwe, Revital Ravid, Eran Hornstein, Hilla Giladi, Eithan Galun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Effective treatments are needed for hepatic steatosis characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNA 122 (MIR122) is expressed only in the liver, where it regulates lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate MIR122 expression and the effect of MIR122 on triglyceride synthesis. METHODS: We analyzed MIR122 promoter activity and validated its target mRNAs by transfection of luciferase reporter plasmids into Huh7, BNL-1ME, and HEK293 cultured cell lines...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800087/imaging-features-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
REVIEW
Michele Di Martino, Kameliya Koryukova, Mario Bezzi, Carlo Catalano
Non-invasive diagnosis and quantification of liver steatosis is important to overcome limits of liver biopsy, in order to follow up patients during their therapy and to establish a reference standard that can be used in clinical trials and longitudinal studies. Imaging offers several methods in this setting: ultrasound, which is the cheapest technique and easy to perform; magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which reflects the real content of triglycerides in a specific volume; and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) magnetic resonance, which is a simple method that reflects the distribution of the fat in the whole liver...
August 11, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799513/ketogenic-diets-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#6
Maurizio Elia, Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Hans Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Although a larger number of antiepileptic drugs became available in the last decades, epilepsy remains drug-resistant in approximately a third of patients. Ketogenic diet (KD), first proposed at the beginning of the last century, is complex and has anticonvulsant effects, yet not completely understood. Over the last decades, different types of ketogenic diets (KDs) have been developed, namely classical KD and modified Atkins diet (MAD). They offer an effective alternative for children and adults with drug-resistant epilepsies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798347/tonebp-nfat5-haploinsufficiency-attenuates-hippocampal-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#7
Jong Youl Lee, Eun Ae Jeong, Kyung Eun Kim, Chin-Ok Yi, Zhen Jin, Jung Eun Lee, Dong Hoon Lee, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Soo Youn Choi, H Moo Kwon, Gu Seob Roh
Recent studies have shown that overexpression of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is associated with many inflammatory diseases, including diabetes mellitus, which causes neuroinflammation in the hippocampus as well as hepatic steatosis. However, the exact mechanism in diabetic neuroinflammation is unknown. We report that haploinsufficiency of TonEBP inhibits hepatic and hippocampal high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) expression in diabetic mice. Here, mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and received an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) and followed by continued HFD feeding for an additional 4 weeks to induce hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797635/circadian-rhythmicity-a-functional-connection-between-differentiated-embryonic-chondrocyte-1-dec1-and-small-heterodimer-partner-shp
#8
Marek M Marczak, Bingfang Yan
Circadian rhythm misalignment has been increasingly recognized to pose health risk for a wide range of diseases, particularly metabolic disorders. The liver maintains metabolic homeostasis and expresses many circadian genes, such as differentiated embryo chondrocyte-1 (DEC1) and small heterodimer partner (SHP). DEC1 is established to repress transcription through E-box elements, and SHP belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors and has multiple E-box elements in its promoter. Importantly, DEC1 and SHP are inversely oscillated...
August 8, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797039/impact-of-pnpla3-and-ifnl3-polymorphisms-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-asian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#9
Chao-Min Huang, Kuo-Chin Chang, Chao-Hung Hung, King-Wah Chiu, Sheng-Nan Lu, Jing-Houng Wang, Chien-Hung Chen, Kwong-Ming Kee, Yuan-Hung Kuo, Ming-Chao Tsai, Po-Lin Tseng, Ming-Tsung Lin, Cheng-Kun Wu, Tsung-Hui Hu, Chung-Lung Cho, Yi-Hao Yen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A recent meta-analysis revealed that the genotype PNPLA3 rs738409 GG is associated with a higher risk of hepatic steatosis (HS) in Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, controversial results were found regarding Asian populations. Furthermore, previous studies have shown a negative association between interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3) rs12979860 CC and HS in Caucasian CHC patients, but there have been no reports indicating any such association in Asian populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796629/hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-nrf2-expression-following-perinatal-and-peripubertal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-liver-disease
#10
Prajakta C Shimpi, Vijay R More, Maneesha Paranjpe, Ajay C Donepudi, Jaclyn M Goodrich, Dana C Dolinoy, Beverly Rubin, Angela L Slitt
BACKGROUND: Exposure to chemicals during critical windows of development may re-program liver for increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Bisphenol A (BPA), a plastics component, has been described to impart adverse effects during gestational and lactational exposure. Our work has pointed to nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) being a modulator of hepatic lipid accumulation in models of NAFLD. OBJECTIVES: To determine if chemical exposure can prime liver for steatosis via modulation of NRF2 and epigenetic mechanisms...
August 4, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796410/steatosis-severity-affects-the-diagnostic-performances-of-noninvasive-fibrosis-tests-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Sae Kyung Joo, Won Kim, Donghee Kim, Jung Ho Kim, Sohee Oh, Kook Lae Lee, Mee Soo Chang, Yong Jin Jung, Young Ho So, Myoung Seok Lee, Jeong Mo Bae, Byeong Gwan Kim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a wide spectrum of heterogeneous metabolic subtypes. This study compared the diagnostic performances of noninvasive fibrosis tests in predicting advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and examined the effects of the subgroup on their diagnostic performances. METHODS: Three hundred fifteen patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were prospectively enrolled. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) was performed to obtain liver stiffness measurements (LSMs)...
August 10, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796299/complement-c3-and-fatty-liver-disease-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Francesco Ursini, Emilio Russo, Daniele Mauro, Ludovico Abenavoli, Giorgio Ammerata, Alfonso Serrao, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Giovambattista De Sarro, Ignazio Olivieri, Salvatore D'Angelo
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested a potential role of complement fraction C3 as a biomarker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of C3 for prediction of NAFLD in RA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the present study, consecutive RA patients were recruited. NAFLD was diagnosed according to predefined ultrasonographic (US) criteria. For comparison, the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) was calculated...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792616/proteomic-profiling-of-liver-and-plasma-in-chronic-ethanol-feeding-model-of-hepatic-alcohol-dehydrogenase-deficient-deer-mice
#13
Kamlesh K Bhopale, Samir M Amer, Lata Kaphalia, Kizhake V Soman, John E Wiktorowicz, G A Shakeel Ansari, Bhupendra S Kaphalia
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol abuse, a major risk factor for such diseases as hepatitis and cirrhosis, impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, key ethanol metabolizing enzyme). Therefore, differentially altered hepatic and plasma proteomes were identified in chronic ethanol feeding model of hepatic ADH-deficient (ADH(-) ) deer mice to understand the metabolic basis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: ADH(-) deer mice were fed 3.5g% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for three months, and histology of the liver assessed...
August 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791501/skeletal-muscle-mass-to-visceral-fat-area-ratio-is-an-important-determinant-affecting-hepatic-conditions-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Takashi Shida, Kentaro Akiyama, Sechang Oh, Akemi Sawai, Tomonori Isobe, Yoshikazu Okamoto, Kazunori Ishige, Yuji Mizokami, Kenji Yamagata, Kojiro Onizawa, Hironori Tanaka, Hiroko Iijima, Junichi Shoda
BACKGROUND: Not only obesity but also sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD. The influence of altered body composition on the pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine whether skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) affects NAFLD pathophysiology. METHODS: A total of 472 subjects were enrolled. The association between SV ratio and NAFLD pathophysiological factors was assessed in a cross-sectional nature by stratification analysis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791439/metabolic-crosstalk-between-fatty-pancreas-and-fatty-liver-effects-on-local-inflammation-and-insulin-secretion
#15
Felicia Gerst, Robert Wagner, Gabriele Kaiser, Madhura Panse, Martin Heni, Jürgen Machann, Malte N Bongers, Tina Sartorius, Bence Sipos, Falko Fend, Christian Thiel, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Susanne Ullrich, Dorothea Siegel-Axel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity-linked ectopic fat accumulation is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Whether pancreatic and liver steatosis impairs insulin secretion is controversial. We examined the crosstalk of human pancreatic fat cells with islets and the role of diabetogenic factors, i.e. palmitate and fetuin-A, a hepatokine released from fatty liver. METHODS: Human pancreatic resections were immunohistochemically stained for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and the macrophage/monocyte marker CD68...
August 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790196/trif-dependent-toll-like-receptor-signaling-suppresses-scd1-transcription-in-hepatocytes-and-prevents-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis
#16
Jing Chen, Jin Li, Jensen H C Yiu, Jenny K W Lam, Chi-Ming Wong, Bernhard Dorweiler, Aimin Xu, Connie W Woo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a spectrum of diseases that ranges in severity from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, the latter of which is a major predisposing factor for liver cirrhosis and cancer. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which is critical for innate immunity, is generally believed to aggravate disease progression by inducing inflammation. Unexpectedly, we found that deficiency in TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), a cytosolic adaptor that transduces some TLR signals, worsened hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and that such exacerbation was independent of myeloid cells...
August 8, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777879/sarcopenia-in-hiding-the-risk-and-consequence-of-underestimating-muscle-dysfunction-in-nash
#17
Rahima A Bhanji, Praveena Narayanan, Alina M Allen, Harmeet Malhi, Kymberly D Watt
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Up to one third of individuals with NAFLD will develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with progression to cirrhosis and is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. It is seen in up to 60% of patients with end-stage liver disease and portends a poor prognosis...
August 4, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777337/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inducer-tunicamycin-alters-hepatic-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#18
Bin Feng, Xiaohua Huang, Dandan Jiang, Lun Hua, Yong Zhuo, De Wu
Disorders of hepatic energy metabolism, which can be regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lead to metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis and hypoglycemia. Tunicamycin, a pharmacological ER stress inducer, is used to develop an anti-cancer drug. However, the effects of tunicamycin on hepatic energy metabolism have not been well elucidated. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with tunicamycin or vehicle. Twenty-four hours later, hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content and serum lipids profiles were analyzed, as well as the expression of lipogenic and gluconeogenic genes...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776153/visual-liver-score-to-stratify-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-risk-and-determine-selective-intraoperative-liver-biopsy-in-obesity
#19
Geraldine J Ooi, Paul R Burton, Arul Earnest, Cheryl Laurie, William W Kemp, Peter D Nottle, Catriona A McLean, Stuart K Roberts, Wendy A Brown
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are endemic in obesity. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of a simple intraoperative visual liver score to stratify the risk of NASH and NAFLD in obesity and determine the need for liver biopsy. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of obese adults undergoing bariatric surgery. The surgical team used a visual liver score to evaluate liver colour, size and surface...
August 3, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775376/altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-and-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-tac1-deficient-mice
#20
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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