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Liver mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165897/lithospermum-erythrorhizon-root-and-its-naphthoquinones-repress-srebp1c-and-activate-pgc1%C3%AE-through-ampk%C3%AE
#1
Rodney A Velliquette, Arun Rajgopal, John Rebhun, Kelly Glynn
OBJECTIVE: To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. METHODS: Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158819/pro-inflammatory-cxcr3-impairs-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Jinghua Du, Xiang Zhang, Juqiang Han, Kwan Man, Yanquan Zhang, Eagle Sh Chu, Yuemin Nan, Jun Yu
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the regulator of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH is still largely unclear. CXCR3 is an essential pro-inflammatory factor in chronic liver diseases. We explored the significance of CXCR3 in regulating mitochondrial function during NASH development in animal models and cultured hepatocytes. METHODS: The effects of CXCR3 on mitochondrial function were evaluated by genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition in mouse models and in vitro...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156373/mitochondria-targeted-ubiquinone-mitoq-enhances-acetaldehyde-clearance-by-reversing-alcohol-induced-posttranslational-modification-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-a-molecular-mechanism-of-protection-against-alcoholic-liver-disease
#3
Liuyi Hao, Qian Sun, Wei Zhong, Wenliang Zhang, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
Alcohol metabolism in the liver generates highly toxic acetaldehyde. Breakdown of acetaldehyde by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in the mitochondria consumes NAD(+) and generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which represents a fundamental mechanism in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). A mitochondria-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) has been shown to confer greater protection against oxidative damage in the mitochondria compared to untargeted antioxidants. The present study aimed to investigate if MitoQ could preserve mitochondrial ALDH2 activity and speed up acetaldehyde clearance, thereby protects against ALD...
November 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145655/paternal-exposure-to-environmental-chemical-stress-affectsmale-offspring-s-hepatic-mitochondria
#4
Roger Godschalk, Alex Remels, Camiel Hoogendoorn, Jan van Benthem, Mirjam Luijten, Nur Duale, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Freek G Bouwman, Armelle Munnia, Marco Peluso, Edwin Mariman, Frederik Jan van Schooten
Pre-conceptional paternal exposures may affect offspring's health, which cannot be explained by mutations in germ cells, but by persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether pre-conceptional paternal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could alter the offspring's phenotype. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to B[a]P by gavage for 6 weeks, 3x per week, and were crossed with unexposed BALB-c females 6 weeks after the final exposure. The offspring was kept under normal feeding conditions and was sacrificed at 3 weeks of age...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141998/vanillic-acid-attenuates-obesity-via-activation-of-the-ampk-pathway-and-thermogenic-factors-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#5
Yunu Jung, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, Jung-Eun Sim, Dong-Hyun Youn, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Mi-Young Jeong, Woong Mo Yang, Seok-Geun Lee, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um
Energy expenditure is a target gaining recent interest for obesity treatment. The antiobesity effect of vanillic acid (VA), a well-known flavoring agent, was investigated in vivo and in vitro High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and genetically obese db/db mice showed significantly decreased body weights after VA administration. Two major adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), were reduced while the key factor of energy metabolism, AMPKα, was increased in the white adipose tissue and liver tissue of VA-treated mice...
November 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137472/changes-in-transcription-pattern-lead-to-a-marked-decrease-in-cox-cs-and-sqr-activity-after-the-developmental-point-of-the-22-nd-gestational-week
#6
H Kolarova, J Krizova, M Hulkova, H Hansikova, H Hulkova, V Smid, J Zeman, T Honzik, M Tesarova
Tissue differentiation and proliferation throughout fetal development interconnect with changes in the Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OXPHOS) on the cellular level. Reevaluation of the expression data revealed a significant increase in COX4 and MTATP6 liver transcription levels after the 22(nd) gestational week (GW) which inspired us to characterize its functional impact. Specific activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), citrate synthase (CS), succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) and mtDNA determined by spectrophotometry and RT-PCR were studied in a set of 25 liver and 18 skeletal muscle samples at 13(th) to 29(th) GW...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136945/mitochondria-protection-as-a-mechanism-underlying-the-hepatoprotective-effects-of-glycine-in-cholestatic-mice
#7
Reza Heidari, Vahid Ghanbarinejad, Hamidreza Mohammadi, Asrin Ahmadi, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Narges Abdoli, Fatemeh Aghaei, Athena Esfandiari, Negar Azarpira, Hossein Niknahad
Cholestasis is the stoppage of bile flow which could lead to serious clinical complications if not managed. Cytotoxic bile acids are involved in the pathogenesis of liver injury during cholestasis. There are no promising pharmacological interventions against cholestasis and its associated complications. This study examined the impact of glycine supplementation on liver mitochondria as a major target of bile acids-induced toxicity during cholestasis. Mice underwent BDL operation and received glycine (0.25% and 1% w:v in drinking water)...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136776/dihydroartemisinin-inhibits-er-stress-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway-to-attenuate-hepatocyte-lipoapoptosis-via-blocking-the-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#8
Xingran Chen, Mianli Bian, Chenxi Zhang, Jun Kai, Zhen Yao, Huanhuan Jin, Chunfeng Lu, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), characterized by accumulation of fatty acids in liver cells, is usually caused by Chronic alcohol consumption. Our previous study has identified that DA protects against alcoholic liver injury in alcohol-fed rats through alleviating hepatocyte steatosis. It has emerged that saturated fatty acids could provoke endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in hepatocytes. This study was aimed to explore the impact of DA on ALD and further elaborate the underlying mechanisms. Results demonstrated that DA attenuates alcoholic liver injury in mice...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135887/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-aged-livers-the-energy-metabolism-inflammatory-response-and-autophagy
#9
Chunyi Kan, Luisa Ungelenk, Amelie Lupp, Olaf Dirsch, Uta Dahmen
Due to the lack of adequate organs, the number of patients with end-stage liver diseases, acute liver failure or hepatic malignancies waiting for liver transplantation is constantly increasing. Accepting aged liver grafts is one of the strategies expanding the donor pool to ease the discrepancy between the growing demand and the limited supply of donor organs. However, recipients of organs from old donors may show an increased post-transplantation morbidity and mortality due to enhanced ischemia reperfusion injury...
November 11, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128607/effects-of-a-new-antiprotozoal-drug-n-n-diphenyl-4-methoxy-benzamidine-on-energy-linked-functions-of-rat-liver-mitochondria
#10
Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Amanda do Rocio Andrade Pires, Aurea Echevarria, Cláudio Eduardo Rodrigues-Santos, Maria Eliane Merlin Rocha, Alexandra Acco, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena
Amidines are chemically characterized by the presence of two nitrogen atoms that bind to the same carbon atom in its structure. Several biological activities have been ascribed to these compounds. Pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine, is effective in the treatment against Pneumocystis carinii and leishmaniasis, but it can also have severe side effects. New amidine derivatives have been synthesized, among them N,N'-diphenyl-4-methoxy-benzamidine (methoxyamidine), which is effective against Leishmania amazonensis (LD50 = 20 μM) and Trypanosoma cruzi (LD50 = 59 nM)...
November 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116185/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-abnormal-hepatic-energy-metabolism-by-depletion-of-%C3%AE-carotene-oxygenase-2-in-mice
#11
Lei Wu, Xin Guo, Yi Lyu, Stephen L Clarke, Edralin A Lucas, Brenda J Smith, Deana Hildebrand, Weiqun Wang, Denis M Medeiros, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) is a carotenoid cleavage enzyme located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Ablation of BCO2 impairs mitochondrial function leading to oxidative stress. Herein, we performed a targeted metabolomics study using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to discriminate global metabolites profiles in liver samples from six-week-old male BCO2 systemic knockout (KO), heterozygous (Het), and wild type (WT) mice fed a chow diet...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115436/sirt5-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-targeting-e2f1
#12
Liang Chang, Liang Xi, Yubin Liu, Rui Liu, Zhongshi Wu, Zhixiang Jian
Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a member of the NAD+‑dependent class III protein deacetylases. Although it is known that SIRT5 deacetylates and activates urate oxidase in the liver mitochondria of mice, the mechanism of SIRT5 in the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the expression and functional significance of SIRT5 in HCC, and examined the relevant mechanism. SIRT5 was found to be upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines, and the higher expression of SIRT5 indicated poorer overall survival...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112771/role-of-mitochondria-and-mitochondria-targeted-agents-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith
Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the fatty acid oxidation and have been found to be affected early during the macrovesicular fat accumulation in the hepatocytes. The fatty infiltration is the primary cause of oxidative stress and inflammation in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which can lead to the peroxidation of phospholipids, such as cardiolipin. Oxidative stress-induced damage to mitochondrial DNA can result in the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation and further increases the generation of reactive oxygen species...
November 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108969/dietary-butylated-hydroxytoluene-improves-lipid-metabolism-antioxidant-and-anti-apoptotic-response-of-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#14
L L Yu, H H Yu, X F Liang, N Li, X Wang, F H Li, X F Wu, Y H Zheng, M Xue, X F Liang
A 10-week growth trail was conducted to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of dietary butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) by evaluating inflammation, apoptosis and hepatic disease related to oxidative stress in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Four experimental diets were prepared with BHT supplement levels of 0 (B0), 150 (B150), 300 (B300) and 1500 (B1500) mg/kg, in which B150 was at the maximum recommended level established by European Union Regulation, and the B300 and B1500 levels were 2 and 10-fold of B150, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107792/caffeine-and-acetaminophen-association-effects-on-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#15
Débora F Gonçalves, Nelson R de Carvalho, Martim B Leite, Aline A Courtes, Diane D Hartmann, Sílvio T Stefanello, Ingrid K da Silva, Jéferson L Franco, Félix A A Soares, Cristiane L Dalla Corte
AIMS: Many studies have been demonstrating the role of mitochondrial function in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Since APAP is commonly consumed with caffeine, this work evaluated the effects of the combination of APAP and caffeine on hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetic function in mice. MAIN METHODS: Mice were treated with caffeine (20mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) or its vehicle and, after 30min, APAP (250mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle. Four hours later, livers were removed, and the parameters associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were evaluated...
October 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102763/a-reactive-oxygen-species-activation-mechanism-contributes-to-sophoridine-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-liver-brl-3a-cells
#16
Mingning Qiu, Fangyun Shi, Fei Dai, Runjie Song, Shuai Wang, Yanfei You, Baoyu Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora alopecuroides L, a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used to treat numerous diseases throughout China. Quinolizidine alkaloids were identified as active components in Sophora alopecuroides L, and Sophoridine (SRI) is the major component in the Quinolizidine alkaloids. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the toxic effects of SRI in rat liver BRL-3A cells and to explore potential ROS-related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, intracellular generation of ROS, GSH/GSSG ratio and levels of proteins in mitochondria apoptosis pathway were analyzed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101745/changes-in-the-functional-activity-of-mitochondria-isolated-from-the-liver-of-rat-that-passed-the-preadaptation-to-ultra-low-deuterium-concentration
#17
S S Dzhimak, A A Basov, N N Volchenko, A A Samkov, L V Fedulova, M G Baryshev
The incubation in deuterium-depleted medium of mitochondria isolated from the liver of rats that consumed drinking diet with depleted deuterium (46 ppm) revealed a higher (by 35%) generation of hydrogen peroxide in comparison with the mitochondria (isolated from the liver of rats that consumed drinking diet with 152 ppm deuterium) incubated in medium that contained 152 ppm deuterium. Succinate addition to the reaction system led to an increase in the production of hydrogen peroxide in isolated mitochondria by 44-81%, whereas the difference in the generation of H2O2 between the organelles incubated in mediums 46 and 152 ppm was reduced by 14%...
September 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101324/cyclophilin-d-regulates-the-dynamic-assembly-of-mitochondrial-atp-synthase-into-synthasomes
#18
Gisela Beutner, Ryan E Alanzalon, George A Porter
Mitochondrial electron transport is essential for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Electron transport chain (ETC) activity generates an electrochemical gradient that is used by the ATP synthase to make ATP. ATP synthase is organized into supramolecular units called synthasomes that increase the efficiency of ATP production, while within ATP synthase is the cyclophilin D (CypD) regulated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP). We investigated whether synthasomes are dynamic structures that respond to metabolic demands and whether CypD regulates this dynamic...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098061/%C3%AE-naphthoflavone-induced-mitochondrial-respiratory-damage-in-cyp1-knockout-mouse-and-in-cell-culture-systems-attenuation-by-resveratrol-treatment
#19
Suresh Kumar Anandasadagopan, Naveen M Singh, Haider Raza, Seema Bansal, Venkatesh Selvaraj, Shilpee Singh, Anindya Roy Chowdhury, Nicolae Adrian Leu, Narayan G Avadhani
A number of xenobiotic-inducible cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are now known to be localized in the mitochondrial compartment, though their pharmacological or toxicological roles remain unclear. Here, we show that BNF treatment markedly inhibits liver mitochondrial O2 consumption rate (OCR), ADP-dependent OCR, and also reserve OCR, in wild-type mice but not in Cyp1a1/1a2(-/-) double knockout mice. BNF treatment markedly affected mitochondrial complex I and complex IV activities and also attenuated mitochondrial gene expression...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097244/the-role-of-the-atpase-inhibitor-factor-1-if1-in-cancer-cells-adaptation-to-hypoxia-and-anoxia
#20
G Sgarbi, S Barbato, A Costanzini, G Solaini, A Baracca
The physiological role of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex is to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Indeed, the enzyme can reverse its activity and hydrolyze ATP under ischemic conditions, as shown in isolated mitochondria and in mammalian heart and liver. However, what occurs when cancer cells experience hypoxia or anoxia has not been well explored. In the present study, we investigated the bioenergetics of cancer cells under hypoxic/anoxic conditions with particular emphasis on ATP synthase, and the conditions driving it to work in reverse...
October 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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