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Liver mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529179/mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-targets-for-a-better-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
REVIEW
Alexis Boulinguiez, Bart Staels, Helene Duez, Steve Lancel
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders represent a major health burden, with economic and social consequences. Although adapted lifestyle and bariatric surgery are effective in reducing body weight, obesity prevalence is still rising. Obese individuals often become insulin-resistant. Obesity impacts on insulin responsive organs, such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer. In this review, we discuss the effects of obesity and insulin resistance on skeletal muscle, an important organ for the control of postprandial glucose...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527616/catalase-increases-ethanol-oxidation-through-the-purine-catabolism-in-rat-liver
#2
Daniel Villalobos-García, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
Hepatic ethanoloxidationincreases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526448/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-inhibitors-tolcapone-and-entacapone-uncouple-and-inhibit-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-heparg-cells
#3
David Grünig, Andrea Felser, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
The catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor tolcapone causes hepatotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in animal models. We studied the interaction of tolcapone with mitochondrial respiration in comparison to entacapone in different experimental models. In HepaRG cells (human cell-line), tolcapone decreased the ATP content (estimated IC50 100±15μM) and was cytotoxic (estimated IC50 333±45μM), whereas entacapone caused no cytotoxicity and no ATP depletion up to 200μM. Cytochrome P450 induction did not increase the toxicity of the compounds...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506882/examination-of-the-superoxide-hydrogen-peroxide-forming-and-quenching-potential-of-mouse-liver-mitochondria
#4
Liam Slade, Julia Chalker, Nidhi Kuksal, Adrian Young, Danielle Gardiner, Ryan J Mailloux
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC) and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, it has been found that mitochondria can also serve as sinks for cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, the ROS forming and quenching capacity of liver mitochondria has never been thoroughly examined. Here, we show that mouse liver mitochondria use catalase, glutathione (GSH), and peroxiredoxin (PRX) systems to quench ROS. Incubation of mitochondria with catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (triazole) induced a significant increase in pyruvate or α-ketoglutarate driven O2(●-)/H2O2 formation...
May 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504722/thyroid-hormone-protects-hepatocytes-from-hbx-induced-carcinogenesis-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-turnover
#5
H-C Chi, S-L Chen, S-L Lin, C-Y Tsai, W-Y Chuang, Y-H Lin, Y-H Huang, M-M Tsai, C-T Yeh, K-H Lin
Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) accounts for 50-80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development worldwide, in which the HBV-encoded X protein (HBx) has critical role in the induction of carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that thyroid hormone (TH) suppresses HCC development and protects hepatocytes from HBx-induced damage, thus it is of interest to examine whether TH can protect hepatocytes from HBx-induced carcinogenesis. By treating HBx- transgenic mice with or without TH, we confirmed the protective effects of TH on HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, which was achieved via reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inflicted DNA damage...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502921/umbilical-cord-mscs-reverse-d-galactose-induced-hepatic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-activation-of-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#6
Weihong Yan, Dong Li, Tong Chen, Guiying Tian, Panpan Zhou, Xiuli Ju
Mitochondria are the central hubs for cellular bioenergetics and are crucial to cell survival. It is well accepted that compromised mitochondrial function is linked with hepatocytes injury and contribute to progression of liver diseases. Despite the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation on hepatic disorders have been extensively investigated, the effects of MSCs on mitochondrial function in liver injury models remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects of treatment with umbilical cord (UC) MSC in a rat model of D-Gal induced liver injury, characterized by organ damage, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction...
May 13, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501483/reversal-of-bioenergetics-dysfunction-by-diphenyl-diselenide-is-critical-to-protection-against-the-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure
#7
Nélson R Carvalho, Cintia C Tassi, Fernando Dobraschinski, Guilherme P Amaral, Ana P Zemolin, Ronaldo M Golombieski, Cristiane L Dalla Corte, Jeferson L Franco, José L Mauriz, Javier González-Gallego, Félix A Soares
Physiopathological conditions such as acute liver failure (ALF) induced by acetaminophen (APAP) can often impair the mitochondrial bioenergetics. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] has been shown protects against APAP-induced ALF. The present study aimed to clarify the signaling mechanism involved in the protection of bioenergetics dysfunction associated with ALF-induced by APAP overdose. Mice received APAP (600mg/kg) or (PhSe)2 (15.6mg/kg) alone, or APAP+(PhSe)2, all the solutions were administered by the intraperitoneal (i...
May 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499273/inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-in-mouse-kupffer-cells-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-development
#8
Kun He, Xiwen Zhu, Yan Liu, Chunmu Miao, Tao Wang, Peizhi Li, Lei Zhao, Yaxi Chen, Junhua Gong, Can Cai, Jinzheng Li, Shengwei Li, Xiong Z Ruan, Jianping Gong
NOD-like receptor (NLR) NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been implicated in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It has been also shown that palmitic acid (PA) activates NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in Kupffer cells (KCs). However, the specific mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation is unclear. We studies the molecular mechanisms by investigating the roles of Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and NLRP3 on NAFLD development in patients, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFL and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH in wild type (WT), TXNIP-/- (thioredoxin-interacting protein) and NLRP3-/- mice, and isolated KCs...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498435/plumbagin-enhances-trail-induced-apoptosis-of-human-leukemic-kasumi%C3%A2-1-cells-through-upregulation-of-trail-death-receptor-expression-activation-of-caspase-8-and-inhibition-of-cflip
#9
Xiaoyang Kong, Jing Luo, Tongpeng Xu, Yunjiao Zhou, Zengkai Pan, Yinghua Xie, Limin Zhao, Yingting Lu, Xiyao Han, Zhixiong Li, Ligen Liu
Although the patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a favorable prognosis compared with other non-acute promyelocytic leukemia AML patients, only ~50% patients with this relatively favorable subtype can survive for 5 years and refractory/relapse is common in clinical practice. So it is necessary to find novel agents to treat this type of AML. In this study, the effects and the mechanisms of plumbagin and recombinant soluble tumor necrosis factor‑α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rsTRAIL) on leukemic Kasumi‑1 cells were primarily investigated...
May 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496033/joint-toxicity-of-fluoroquinolone-and-tetracycline-antibiotics-to-zebrafish-danio-rerio-based-on-biochemical-biomarkers-and-histopathological-observation
#10
Lihe Ding, Luxiu Zang, Yuna Zhang, Yuhuan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Weiming Ai, Nani Ding, Huili Wang
Herein, we report on the joint toxicity of four fluoroquinolones and two tetracyclines (β-diketone antibiotics-DKAs) to zebrafish based on a series of toxicological endpoints and histopathological observations. A positive dose-dependence was observed in DKA-exposure groups with a 72-hpf EC50 of 130.3 mg/L for hatching rate, 120-hpf LC50 of 149.8 mg/L, and 120-hpf EC50 of 135.1 mg/L for malformation rate. When zebrafish at 60 dpf were exposed to a series of DKA concentrations (45, 60 and 90 mg/L) for 7, 14 and 21 days, creatine kinase and AChE activities were significantly induced, and intracellular malondialdehyde increased in all treatments except for the 45 mg/L treatment...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495579/a-new-chemotherapy-agent-free-theranostic-system-composed-of-graphene-oxide-nano-complex-and-aptamers-for-treatment-of-cancer-cells
#11
Amirhossein Bahreyni, Rezvan Yazdian-Robati, Shirin Hashemitabar, Mohammad Ramezani, Pouria Ramezani, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
The common cancer treatment strategies like chemotherapy and radiotherapy are nonspecific and can trigger severe side effects by damaging normal cells. So, targeted cancer therapies, such as apoptosis induction, have attracted great attention in recent years. In this project, two nano-complexes, MUC1 aptamer-NAS-24 aptamer-Graphene oxide (GO) and MUC1 aptamer-Cytochrome C aptamer-GO, were designed to induce cell programmed death in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (breast cancer cell lines) and to verify the level of apoptosis in both cell lines...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495578/expression-pattern-and-functional-analysis-of-fundc1-in-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#12
Gongyu Xu, Zhenzhen Li, Jinwen Xiao, Fangqing Li, Weiyuan Ye, Haobin Zhao, Qingchun Zhou, Xueping Zhong
Fundc1 is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and plays important roles in mitochondria fission and hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells. However, there is no relevant report of fundc1 in fish. In the present study, we cloned a 942bp fundc1 cDNA from rare minnow. The cDNA, designated as Grfundc1 cDNA, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 459bp which encodes a polypeptide of 152 amino acid residues. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated that Grfundc1 was highly homologous with those of other vertebrates...
May 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494215/potential-ultrastructure-predicting-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hcv-infected-patients
#13
Soheir S Mansy, Eman El-Ahwany, Soheir Mahmoud, Sara Hassan, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal, Ahmed H Helmy, Mona K Zoheiry, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Moataz H Hassanein
Hepatitis C virus represents one of the rising causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the early diagnosis of HCC is vital for successful curative treatment, the majority of lesions are diagnosed in an irredeemable phase. This work deals with a comparative ultrastructural study of experimentally gradually induced HCC, surgically resected HCC, and potential premalignant lesions from HCV-infected patients, with the prospect to detect cellular criteria denoting premalignant transformation. Among the main detected pathological changes which are postulated to precede frank HCC: failure of normal hepatocyte regeneration with star shape clonal fragmentation, frequent elucidation of hepatic progenitor cells and Hering canals, hepatocytes of different electron density loaded with small sized rounded monotonous mitochondria, increase junctional complexes bordering bile canaliculi and in between hepatocyte membranes, abundant cellular proteinaceous material with hypertrophied or vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), sequestrated nucleus with proteinaceous granular material or hypertrophied RER, formation of lipolysosomes, large autophagosomes, and micro-vesicular fat deposition...
May 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483784/thyroid-states-regulate-subcellular-glucose-phosphorylation-activity-in-male-mice
#14
Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha, Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos, Wagner Seixas da-Silva
The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are very important in organism metabolism and regulate glucose utilization. Hexokinase (HK) is responsible for the first step of glycolysis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate. HK has been found in different cellular compartments, and new functions have been attributed to this enzyme. The effects of hyperthyroidism on subcellular glucose phosphorylation in mouse tissues were examined. Tissues were removed, subcellular fractions isolated from eu- and hyperthyroid (T3, 0...
May 8, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479999/mitochondrial-function-and-bioenergetic-trade-offs-during-lactation-in-the-house-mouse-mus-musculus
#15
Annelise V Mowry, Zachary S Donoviel, Andreas N Kavazis, Wendy R Hood
Energy allocation theory predicts that a lactating female should alter the energetic demands of its organ systems in a manner that maximizes nutrient allocation to reproduction while reducing nutrient use for tasks that are not vital to immediate survival. We posit that organ-specific plasticity in the function of mitochondria plays a key role in mediating these energetic trade-offs. The goal of this project was to evaluate mitochondrial changes that occur in response to lactation in two of the most energetically demanding organs in the body of a rodent, the liver and skeletal muscle...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474303/chronic-don-exposure-and-acute-lps-challenge-effects-on-porcine-liver-morphology-and-function
#16
Lydia Renner, Stefan Kahlert, Tanja Tesch, Erik Bannert, Jana Frahm, Anikó Barta-Böszörményi, Jeannette Kluess, Susanne Kersten, Peter Schönfeld, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter, Sven Dänicke
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of chronic deoxynivalenol (DON) exposition on the liver morphology and function in combination with pre- and post-hepatic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in young pigs fed for 4 weeks with a DON-contaminated diet (4.59 mg/kg feed). At the end of the experiment, LPS (7.5 μg/kg BW) was administered for 1 h pre-hepatically (Vena portae hepatis) or post-hepatically (Vena jugularis). Liver morphology was macroscopically checked and showed haemorrhage in all LPS groups, significantly higher relative liver weights, accompanied by marked oedema in the gallbladder wall...
May 4, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473302/glassy-droplet-inclusions-within-the-cytoplasm-of-kupffer-cells-a-novel-ultrastructural-feature-for-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-autoimmune-hepatitis
#17
Joanna Maria Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska, Urszula Daniluk, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn
Since Kupffer cells/macrophages (KCs/MPs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), this pioneer study was undertaken to evaluate KCs/MPs in pediatric AIH in transmission-electron microscope. METHODS: Ultrastructural analyses were performed using liver biopsies from 14 children with clinicopathologically diagnosed AIH. RESULTS: In all AIH children, ultrastructural findings revealed changes in the cells lining sinusoidal vessels, especially KCs/MPs and endothelial cells...
April 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464033/ectopic-overexpression-of-laptm5-results-in-lysosomal-targeting-and-induces-mcl-1-down-regulation-bak-activation-and-mitochondria-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-hela-cells
#18
Do Youn Jun, Hyejin Kim, Won Young Jang, Ji Young Lee, Kiyoshi Fukui, Young Ho Kim
Human lysosomal-associated protein multispanning membrane 5 (LAPTM5) was identified by an ordered differential display-polymerase chain reaction (ODD-PCR) as an up-regulated cDNA fragment during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation of U937 cells into monocytes/macrophages. After TPA-treatment, the levels of LAPTM5 mRNA and protein increased and reached a maximum at 18-36 h. In healthy human tissues, LAPTM5 mRNA was expressed at high levels in hematopoietic cells and tissues, at low levels in the lung and fetal liver, and was not detected in other non-hematopoietic tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463418/use-of-primary-rat-hepatocytes-for-prediction-of-drug-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#19
Cong Liu, Shuichi Sekine, Binbin Song, Kousei Ito
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury. To evaluate drug-induced mitochondrial impairment, several isolated mitochondria- or cell line-based assays have been reported. Among them, culturing HepG2 cells in galactose provides a remarkable method to assess mitochondrial toxicity by activating mitochondrial aerobic respiration. We applied this assay to primary rat hepatocytes by culturing cells in galactose and hyperoxia to enhance the evaluation of metabolism-related drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity...
May 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457421/later-evaluation-of-ischemia-and-reperfusion-by-the-pringle-maneuver-in-wistar-rats-demonstrating-that-hepatic-lesions-can-be-reversible
#20
G de Lourdes Jorge, R Dos Reis Tártaro, C A Fazzio Escanhoela, I F S F Boin
OBJECTIVE: There has been much research on hepatic ischemia and reperfusion by means of short or longer interruption of the portal triad. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mitochondrial respiratory activity and liver histology at 2 different times after the Pringle maneuver. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats, weighing ∼308 g, with histologic and mitochondrial study: immediate ischemic group (IIG; 40 minutes; 9 animals) and late ischemic group (LIG; 28 days; 9 animals)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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