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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900733/web-based-self-help-for-problematic-alcohol-use-a-large-naturalistic-study
#1
Magnus Johansson, Kristina Sinadinovic, Anders Hammarberg, Christopher Sundström, Ulric Hermansson, Sven Andreasson, Anne H Berman
PURPOSE: This observational study examined user characteristics, intervention use patterns, and variables associated with reductions in alcohol consumption for anonymous Internet help-seekers using a Web-based self-help program. METHOD: A Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program with eight modules delivered over 10 weeks was offered to participants with at least hazardous use of alcohol according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) (n = 4165)...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886526/food-and-beverage-product-reformulation-as-a-corporate-political-strategy
#2
C Scott, B Hawkins, C Knai
Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880996/oxidative-stress-induced-damage-to-paternal-genome-and-impact-of-meditation-and-yoga-can-it-reduce-incidence-of-childhood-cancer
#3
Dada Rima, Basant Kumar Shiv, Chawla Bhavna, Bisht Shilpa, Khan Saima
Background: Sperm DNA damage is underlying aetiology of poor implantation and pregnancy rates but also affects health of offspring and may also result in denovo mutations in germ line and post fertilization. This may result in complex diseases, polygenic disorders and childhood cancers. Childhood cancer like retinoblastoma (RB) is more prevalent in developing countries and the incidence of RB has increased more than three fold in India in the last decade. Recent studies have documented increased incidence of cancers in children born to fathers who consume alcohol in excess and tobacco or who were conceived by assisted conception...
January 9, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880755/-spanish-adaptation-of-the-2016-european-guidelines-on-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-clinical-practice
#4
Miguel Angel Royo-Bordonada, Pedro Armario, José María Lobos Bejarano, Juan Pedro-Botet, Fernando Villar Álvarez, Roberto Elosua, Carlos Brotons Cuixart, Olga Cortés, Benilde Serrano, Miguel Camafort Babkowski, Antonio Gil Núñez, Antonio Pérez, Antonio Maiques, Ana de Santiago Nocito, Almudena Castro, Eduardo Alegría, Ciro Baeza, María Herranz, Susana Sans, Pilar Campos
The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk...
November 24, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870642/hepatocellular-carcinoma-surveillance-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-in-a-population-based-integrated-health-care-delivery-system
#5
Amit G Singal, Jasmin Tiro, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, Jessica Chubak
PURPOSE: Fewer than 1 in 5 patients with cirrhosis receive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance; however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. Further, few reported guideline-concordant consistent surveillance rates. GOALS: Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861340/prognostic-factors-associated-with-mortality-and-major-in-hospital-complications-in-patients-with-bacteremic-pneumococcal-pneumonia-population-based-study
#6
Jessica A Beatty, Sumit R Majumdar, Gregory J Tyrrell, Thomas J Marrie, Dean T Eurich
Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) causes considerable mortality and morbidity. We aimed to identify prognostic factors associated with mortality and major in-hospital complications in BPP.A prospective, population-based clinical registry of 1636 hospitalized adult patients (≥18 years) with BPP was established between 2000 and 2010 in Northern Alberta, Canada. Prognostic factors for mortality and major in-hospital complications (e.g., cardiac events, mechanical ventilation, aspiration) were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854528/youth-exposure-to-alcohol-advertising-in-national-magazines-in-the-united-states-2001-2011
#7
Craig S Ross, Elizabeth R Henehan, David H Jernigan
OBJECTIVES: To update public health surveillance of alcohol advertising to underage populations by assessing alcohol industry compliance with their voluntary guidelines for US magazine advertisements from 2001 to 2011. METHODS: Using advertising industry standard sources The Nielsen Company and MediaMark, we evaluated youth exposure to alcohol advertising, and relative advertising exposure of youths versus adults, in 168 national magazines. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2011, magazine alcohol advertising seen by youths declined by 62...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851714/preexposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-large-integrated-health-care-system-adherence-renal-safety-and-discontinuation
#8
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Charles Bradley Hare, Dong Phuong Nguyen, Tony Phengrasamy, Michael J Silverberg, Juliet E Stoltey, Jonathan E Volk
BACKGROUND: Placebo-controlled and open-label studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection, but data are limited on real-world PrEP use. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study from July 2012 through June 2015 of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members initiating PrEP. We assessed pharmacy refill adherence and discontinuation, decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV incidence...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842785/toxicology-in-pain-management
#9
REVIEW
Daniel A Schwarz, M P George, Martin H Bluth
Toxicology testing in pain management has become the standard of care. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention published guidelines including urine drug testing prior to initiating opioid therapy and for monitoring prescription and illicit drugs. Physicians must know indications for toxicology testing, and the frequency based upon risk stratification. This includes personal and family history of alcohol or substance related disorders, mental illness and smoking. Knowledge of opioid metabolism and various matrices to test are described...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842443/clinical-update-on-benefit-versus-risks-of-oral-paracetamol-alone-or-with-codeine-still-a-good-option
#10
Hans Georg Kress, Gerald Untersteiner
BACKGROUND: After decades of worldwide use of paracetamol/acetaminophen as a popular and apparently safe prescription and over-the-counter medicine, the future role of this poorly understood analgesic has been seriously questioned by recent concerns about prenatal, cardiovascular (CV) and hepatic safety, and also about its analgesic efficacy. At the same time the usefulness of codeine in combination products has come under debate. METHODS: Based on a PubMed database literature search on the terms efficacy, safety, paracetamol, acetaminophen, codeine and their combinations up to and including June 2016, this clinical update reviews the current evidence of the benefit and risks of oral paracetamol alone and with codeine for mild-to-moderate pain in adults, and compares the respective efficacy and safety profiles with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
November 15, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836830/using-alcohol-unit-marked-glasses-enhances-capacity-to-monitor-intake-evidence-from-a-mixed-method-intervention-trial
#11
Richard de Visser, Clare Brown, Richard Cooke, Greg Cooper, Anjum Memon
AIMS: In the UK, people tend to have poor knowledge of government guidelines for alcohol use, and lack the motivation and skills required to use them to monitor their drinking. The study aim was to determine whether using glasses marked with such guidelines would improve knowledge and attitudes, increase frequency of counting units and lower alcohol intake. METHODS: A total of 450 adults in the UK participated in an intervention vs control study with 1-month follow-up...
November 10, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835066/mental-illness-and-mental-healthcare-receipt-among-hospitalized-veterans-with-serious-physical-illnesses
#12
Melissa M Garrido, Holly G Prigerson, Suvam Neupane, Joan D Penrod, Christopher E Johnson, Kenneth S Boockvar
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial distress among patients with limited life expectancy influences treatment decisions, treatment adherence, and physical health. Veterans may be at elevated risk of psychosocial distress at the end of life, and understanding their mental healthcare needs may help identify hospitalized patients to whom psychiatric services should be targeted. OBJECTIVE: To examine mental illness prevalence and mental health treatment rates among a national sample of hospitalized veterans with serious physical illnesses...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832555/driving-impairment-due-to-propofol-at-effect-site-concentrations-relevant-after-short-propofol-only-sedation
#13
J L Telles, S Agarwal, J Monagle, C Stough, R King, L Downey
Australian guidelines state "Following brief surgery or procedures with short acting anaesthetic drugs, the patient may be fit to drive after a normal night's sleep. After long surgery or procedures requiring longer lasting anaesthesia, it may not be safe to drive for 24 hours or more". The increasing use of the short-acting anaesthetic drug propofol as a solitary sedative medication for simple endoscopy procedures suggests a need to review this blanket policy. Thirty patients presenting for elective day surgery were recruited as volunteers for a pre-procedure driving simulation study and randomised to propofol or placebo arms...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826443/belgian-hand-hygiene-campaigns-in-icu-2005-2015
#14
Sylvanus Fonguh, Annie Uwineza, Boudewijn Catry, Anne Simon
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are still a major problem especially in most intensive care units (ICU). Incompliance by clinical staff with hand hygiene (HH) increases rates of preventable infections. We report the outcome of the Belgian national hand hygiene campaign from 2005 to 2015 with focus on intensive care units. METHODS: Using the World Health organisation (WHO) standardised observation roster, trained infection control teams measured adherence to HH guidelines by direct observation...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818965/alcohol-related-dementia-and-neurocognitive-impairment-a-review-study
#15
REVIEW
Ankur Sachdeva, Mina Chandra, Mona Choudhary, Prabhoo Dayal, Kuljeet Singh Anand
CONTEXT: Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms "alcohol and dementia", "alcohol and cognitive impairment", and "alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff" mentioned in the title of the published papers...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815395/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-like-abnormalities-in-a-routine-neuropathology-service
#16
Shawna Noy, Sherry Krawitz, Marc R Del Bigio
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been described mainly in professional athletes and military personnel and is characterized by deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau at the depths of cortical sulci and around blood vessels. To assess CTE-like changes in a routine neuropathology service, we prospectively examined 111 brains (age 18-60 years). The presence of tau-immunoreactive deposits was staged using guidelines described by others and was correlated with the medical history. 72/111 cases were negative for CTE-like changes; 34/111 were CTE stage <1; 3/111 were CTE stage 1; and 2/111 were CTE stage 2...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813060/lifecourse-socioeconomic-status-and-cancer-related-risk-factors-analysis-of-the-who-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage
#17
Tomi Akinyemiju, Kemi Ogunsina, Michelle Okwali, Swati Sakhuja, Dejana Braithwaite
Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810652/alcohol-use-and-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-outcomes-among-patients-receiving-direct-antiviral-agents
#18
Judith I Tsui, Emily C Williams, Pamela K Green, Kristin Berry, Feng Su, George N Ioannou
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether alcohol use negatively impacts HCV treatment outcomes in the era of direct antiviral agents (DAAs). We aimed to evaluate the associations between current levels of drinking and treatment response among persons treated for HCV with DAAs in the national Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. METHODS: We identified patients who initiated HCV DAAs over 18 months (1/1/14-6/30/15) and had documented alcohol screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire within one year prior to initiating therapy...
October 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801991/short-to-midterm-effectiveness-of-a-brief-motivational-intervention-to-reduce-alcohol-use-and-related-problems-for-alcohol-intoxicated-children-and-adolescents-in-pediatric-emergency-departments-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Nicolas Arnaud, Silke Diestelkamp, Lutz Wartberg, Peter-Michael Sack, Anne Daubmann, Rainer Thomasius
OBJECTIVES: The proportion of children and adolescents receiving emergency care for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) in Germany has sharply increased over the past years. Despite this, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have studied guideline- and evidence-based interventions to prevent future alcohol misuse within this population. The objective of our investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief motivational intervention (b-MI) to reduce drinking and associated problems within pediatric emergency departments (PED) in Hamburg, Germany...
November 1, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798670/prospective-multicentre-nationwide-clinical-data-from-600-cases-of-acute-pancreatitis
#20
Andrea Párniczky, Balázs Kui, Andrea Szentesi, Anita Balázs, Ákos Szűcs, Dóra Mosztbacher, József Czimmer, Patrícia Sarlós, Judit Bajor, Szilárd Gódi, Áron Vincze, Anita Illés, Imre Szabó, Gabriella Pár, Tamás Takács, László Czakó, Zoltán Szepes, Zoltán Rakonczay, Ferenc Izbéki, Judit Gervain, Adrienn Halász, János Novák, Stefan Crai, István Hritz, Csaba Góg, János Sümegi, Petra Golovics, Márta Varga, Barnabás Bod, József Hamvas, Mónika Varga-Müller, Zsuzsanna Papp, Miklós Sahin-Tóth, Péter Hegyi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a prospectively collected, large, multicentre cohort and to validate the major recommendations in the IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of AP. DESIGN: Eighty-six different clinical parameters were collected using an electronic clinical research form designed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group. PATIENTS: 600 adult patients diagnosed with AP were prospectively enrolled from 17 Hungarian centres over a two-year period from 1 January 2013...
2016: PloS One
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