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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101923/how-suboptimal-is-suboptimal-choice
#1
Jay E Hinnenkamp, Timothy A Shahan, Gregory J Madden
In a frequently used suboptimal-choice procedure pigeons choose between an alternative that delivers three food pellets with p = 1.0 and an alternative that delivers ten pellets with p = 0.2. Because pigeons reliably choose the probabilistic (suboptimal) alternative, the procedure has been proposed as a nonhuman analog of human gambling. The present experiments were conducted to evaluate two potential threats to the validity of this procedure. Experiments 1 and 2 evaluated if pigeons obtained food at a lower unit price (i...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097927/assessment-and-comparison-of-three-high-aluminum-fly-ash-utilization-scenarios-in-inner-mongolia-china-using-an-eco-efficiency-indicator
#2
Shuo Yang, Ling Lin, Shao Peng Li, Qiang Li, Xiu Teng Wang, Liang Sun
Utilization of fly ash is of great importance in China in the context of resource and environmental crises. Different fly ash utilization processes are proposed, and some have been practically applied. However, none of these fly ash utilization pathways has been evaluated comprehensively by integrating both environmental and economic perspectives. In this study, three high-aluminum fly ash utilization methods in Mongolia were assessed and compared based on the concept of eco-efficiency. The environmental assessment was conducted in accordance with life-cycle assessment principles, and a monetization-weighting approach was applied to obtain social willingness-to-pay as a reflection of environmental impact...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097904/estimated-burden-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-value-based-price-range-for-evolocumab-in-a-high-risk-secondary-prevention-population-in-the-us-payer-context
#3
Peter P Toth, Mark Danese, Guillermo Villa, Yi Qian, Anne Beaubrun, Armando Lira, Jeroen P Jansen
AIM: To estimate real-world cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and value-based price range of evolocumab for a US-context, high-risk, secondary-prevention population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Burden of CVD was assessed using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in order to capture complete CV burden including CV mortality. Patients on standard of care (SOC; high-intensity statins) in CPRD were selected based on eligibility criteria of FOURIER, a phase 3 CV outcomes trial of evolocumab, and categorized into 4 cohorts: high-risk prevalent atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) cohort (N = 1448), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (N = 602), ischemic stroke (IS) (N = 151), and heart failure (HF) (N = 291) incident cohorts...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095759/living-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#4
Karen Schipper, Elleke Landeweer, Tineke A Abma
BACKGROUND: Living with a renal disease often reduces quality of life because of the stress it entails. No attention has been paid to the moral challenges of living with renal disease. OBJECTIVES: To explore the moral challenges of living with a renal disease. RESEARCH DESIGN: A case study based on qualitative research. We used Walker's ethical framework combined with narrative ethics to analyse how negotiating care responsibilities lead to a new perspective on moral issues...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095757/ethical-leadership-outcomes-in-nursing
#5
Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Tahereh Ashktorab, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh
BACKGROUND: Leadership style adopted by nursing managers is a key element in progress and development of nursing and quality of healthcare services received by the patients. In this regard, the role of ethical leadership is of utmost importance. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to elaborate on the ethical leadership and its role in professional progress and growth of nurses in the light of work condition in health providing institutes. METHODS: The study was carried out as a qualitative study following conventional content analysis method...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092717/the-culture-war-modern-economics-and-environmental-education-in-the-united-states
#6
Eugene C Hargrove
Teaching ethics in public schools in the United States has been made almost impossible because of the Culture War and Modern Economics. When Catholics began to migrate to the United States in the early nineteenth century, they found that Protestant religion and ethics were taught in public schools and they created their own parochial schools. This controversy has continued for two hundred years. To encourage the Catholics to send their children to the public schools, by 1860 religion and ethics had been removed from the public schools...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089185/joint-replacement-volume-positively-correlates-with-improved-hospital-performance-on-centers-for-medicare-and-medicaid-services-quality-metrics
#7
Rachel A Sibley, Vanessa Charubhumi, Lorraine H Hutzler, Albit R Paoli, Joseph A Bosco
BACKGROUND: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is transitioning Medicare from a fee-for-service program into a value-based pay-for-performance program. In order to accomplish this goal, CMS initiated 3 programs that attempt to define quality and seek to reward high-performing hospitals and penalize poor-performing hospitals. These programs include (1) penalties for hospital-acquired conditions (HACs), (2) penalties for excess readmissions for certain conditions, and (3) performance on value-based purchasing (VBP)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081164/economic-evaluation-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-in-reducing-cardiovascular-risk-from-health-system-and-private-payer-perspectives
#8
Alejandro Arrieta, Timothy F Page, Emir Veledar, Khurram Nasir
The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077769/dog-directed-speech-why-do-we-use-it-and-do-dogs-pay-attention-to-it
#9
Tobey Ben-Aderet, Mario Gallego-Abenza, David Reby, Nicolas Mathevon
Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075579/human-health-and-economic-impacts-of-ozone-reductions-by-income-group
#10
Rebecca Karina Saari, Tammy M Thompson, Noelle E Selin
Low-income households may be disproportionately affected by ozone pollution and ozone policy. We quantify how three factors affect the relative benefits of ozone policies with household income: (1) unequal ozone reductions; (2) policy delay; and (3) economic valuation methods. We model ozone concentrations under baseline and policy conditions across the full continental U.S. to estimate the distribution of ozone-related health impacts across nine income groups. We enhance an economic model to include these impacts across household income categories, and present its first application to evaluate the benefits of ozone reductions for low-income households...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061841/supervised-neuromuscular-exercise-prior-to-hip-and-knee-replacement-12-month-clinical-effect-and-cost-utility-analysis-alongside-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Linda Fernandes, Ewa M Roos, Søren Overgaard, Allan Villadsen, Rikke Søgaard
BACKGROUND: There are indications of beneficial short-term effect of pre-operative exercise in reducing pain and improving activity of daily living after total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. Though, information from studies conducting longer follow-ups and economic evaluations of exercise prior to THR and TKR is needed. The aim of the study was to analyse 12-month clinical effect and cost-utility of supervised neuromuscular exercise prior to THR and TKR surgery...
January 6, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058202/how-much-are-ecuadorians-willing-to-pay-to-reduce-maternal-mortality-results-from-a-pilot-study-on-contingent-valuation
#12
María Isabel Roldós, Phaedra Corso, Justin Ingels
CONTEXT: There is an established association between the provision of health care services and maternal mortality. In Ecuador, little is known if the societal value is greater than the resources expended in preventive medicine. AIMS: The purpose of this research is to investigate Ecuadorians' willingness to pay to prevent maternal death and disabilities due to complications of care during childbirth in the context of universal coverage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study elicited a "contingent" market on morbidity and mortality outcomes, specific to Ecuador's epidemiologic profiles between a hypothetical market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal mortality from 100 to 50 per 100,000, and a market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal morbidity from 4,000 to 2,000 per 100,000...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045714/how-much-should-we-pay-to-minimize-pancreatic-leak-the-cost-effectiveness-of-pasireotide-in-pancreatic-resection-retracted
#13
Daniel E Abbott, Jeffrey M Sutton, Peter L Jernigan, Alex Chang, Patrick Frye, Shimul A Shah, Daniel P Schauer, Mark H Eckman, Syed A Ahmad, Jeffrey J Sussman
INTRODUCTION: Pasireotide was recently shown to decrease leak rates after pancreatic resection, though the significant cost of the drug may be prohibitive. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine whether prophylactic pasireotide possesses a reasonable cost profile by improving outcomes. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness model was constructed to compare pasireotide administration after pancreatic resection versus usual care, populated by probabilities of clinical outcomes from a recent randomized trial and hospital costs (2013 US$) from a university pancreatic disease center...
December 30, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045700/exploring-meaning-in-the-life-of-chinese-breast-cancer-survivors
#14
Hao-Zhi Xia, Lei Gao, Hong Yue, Bao-Xin Shi
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and spiritual fulfillment such as experiencing meaning in life plays an important role in coping with the disease. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to explore and understand Chinese breast cancer survivors' perspective on meaning in life. METHODS: This study used Grounded Theory; 23 participants were recruited using convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and theoretical sampling...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042350/evaluating-the-practice-of-iranian-community-pharmacists-regarding-oral-contraceptive-pills-using-simulated-patients
#15
Nazanin Foroutan, Fatemeh Dabaghzadeh
BACKGROUND: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method...
October 2016: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041575/the-impact-of-major-depression-on-heart-rate-variability-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Esra Aydin Sunbul, Murat Sunbul, Huseyin Gulec
BACKGROUND: Depression is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the cardiac autonomic functions and pro-inflammatory processes are potential biological factors. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable CAD. METHODS: The study group included 65 CAD patients with a diagnosis of major depression and 54 CAD patients without major depression...
January 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028288/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-self-debriefing-versus-instructor-debriefing-for-simulated-crises-in-perioperative-medicine-in-canada
#17
Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Fahad Alam, Jeffrey Hoch, Sylvain Boet
PURPOSE: High-fidelity simulation training is effective for learning crisis resource management (CRM) skills, but cost is a major barrier to implementing high-fidelity simulation training into the curriculum. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of self-debriefing and traditional instructor debriefing in CRM training programs and to calculate the minimum willingness-to-pay (WTP) value when one debriefing type becomes more cost-effective than the other. METHODS: This study used previous data from a randomized controlled trial involving 50 anesthesiology residents in Canada...
2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009815/the-impact-of-body-image-on-the-wtp-values-for-reduced-fat-and-low-salt-content-potato-chips-among-obese-and-non-obese-consumers
#18
Tiziana de-Magistris, Belinda López-Galán, Vincenzina Caputo
The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers' willingness to pay among consumer groups...
December 21, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003781/evaluation-of-the-acute-effect-of-haemodialysis-on-retina-and-optic-nerve-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#19
Sinan Emre, Anıl Öztürkeri, Mahmut Oğuz Ulusoy, Cem Cankurtaran
PURPOSE: The primary objective of haemodialysis (HD) was to correct the composition and volume of body fluids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of HD on mean arterial pressure changes and on retina and optic nerve with optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Fifty-three eyes of 28 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients' retinal and RNFL thicknesses were measured by OCT and mean arterial pressure alterations were recorded before and immediately after HD session...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001140/cultivating-administrative-support-for-a-clinical-ethics-consultation-service
#20
Courtney R Bruce, Mary A Majumder, Ashley Stephens, Janet Malek, Amy McGuire
Hospital administrators may lack familiarity with what clinical ethicists do (and do not do), and many clinical ethicists report receiving inadequate financial support for their clinical ethics consultation services (CECSs). Ethics consultation is distinct in that it is not reimbursable by third parties, and its financial benefit to the hospital may not be quantifiable. These peculiarities make it difficult for clinical ethicists to resort to tried-and-true outcome-centered evaluative strategies, like cost reduction or shortened length of stay for patients, to show a "need" for ethics consultation...
2016: Journal of Clinical Ethics
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