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Shimaa A H Abdel Monaim, Estelle J Ramchuran, Ayman El-Faham, Fernando Albericio, Beatriz G de la Torre
Teixobactin is a head to side chain cyclodepsipeptide that contains two positive charges. One is found in the cycle, as a result of the presence of the guanidino-unusual amino acid L-allo-End, while the other is at the N-terminal. Here we introduce 26 new Teixobactin analogues with an increasing number of positive charges. In an attempt to fine-tune the biological activity of Teixobactin, we examined the effect of cationicity on the SAR of these analogues. The maximum number of positive charges to maintain the activity are three to four...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
William D Fiers, Mark Craighead, Ishwar Singh
Increasing bacterial resistance against current antibiotics and lack of new molecules to combat bacterial resistance are key challenges to global health. There is, therefore, a continuing need to develop new antibiotics. Teixobactin, a cyclic undecapeptide, displays excellent antibacterial activities against a range of pathogenic bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Interestingly, it operates by multiple modes of actions and is bactericidal toward S...
August 3, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
Anish Parmar, Abhishek Iyer, Daniel G Lloyd, Charlotte S Vincent, Stephen H Prior, Annemieke Madder, Edward J Taylor, Ishwar Singh
The recently discovered cyclic depsipeptide, teixobactin, is a highly potent antibiotic against multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobaterium tuberculosis. It comprises of 4 D amino acids and a rare l-allo-enduracididine amino acid. The synthesis of a properly protected l-allo-enduracididine amino acid and its incorporation into teixobactin is time consuming, synthetically challenging and low yielding and is therefore a major bottleneck in the development of potent analogues of teixobactin...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kang Jin, Kathy Hiu Laam Po, Shengxi Wang, Jonathan Avraham Reuven, Chi Nga Wai, Ho Ting Lau, Ting Ho Chan, Sheng Chen, Xuechen Li
Convergent Ser/Thr ligation has been used to prepare a series of teixobactin analogues (28 in total) to establish a structure-activity relationship of teixobactin. anti-bacterial evaluations of these synthetic analogues have revealed the critical amino acid residues and the sites tolerable of modifications. These studies will shed lights on the further development of teixobactin analogues with improved antibacterial activities.
April 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
H Yang, D R Du Bois, J W Ziller, J S Nowick
The X-ray crystallographic structure of a truncated teixobactin analogue reveals hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions and a cavity that binds a chloride anion. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays against Gram-positive bacteria correlate the observed structure with antibiotic activity.
February 28, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Roel M van Harten, Rob J L Willems, Nathaniel I Martin, Antoni P A Hendrickx
Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E...
June 2017: Trends in Microbiology
Anish Parmar, Stephen H Prior, Abhishek Iyer, Charlotte S Vincent, Dorien Van Lysebetten, Eefjan Breukink, Annemieke Madder, Edward J Taylor, Ishwar Singh
The discovery of the highly potent antibiotic teixobactin, which kills the bacteria without any detectable resistance, has stimulated interest in its structure-activity relationship. However, a molecular structure-activity relationship has not been established so far for teixobactin. Moreover, the importance of the individual amino acids in terms of their l/d configuration and their contribution to the molecular structure and biological activity are still unknown. For the first time, we have defined the molecular structure of seven teixobactin analogues through the variation of the d/l configuration of its key residues, namely N-Me-d-Phe, d-Gln, d-allo-Ile and d-Thr...
January 26, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Philipp Klahn, Mark Brönstrup
The development of bacterial resistance against current antibiotic drugs necessitates a continuous renewal of the arsenal of efficacious drugs. This imperative has not been met by the output of antibiotic research and development of the past decades for various reasons, including the declining efforts of large pharma companies in this area. Moreover, the majority of novel antibiotics are chemical derivatives of existing structures that represent mostly step innovations, implying that the available chemical space may be exhausted...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Tomoyuki Homma, Austin Nuxoll, Autumn Brown Gandt, Patrick Ebner, Ina Engels, Tanja Schneider, Friedrich Götz, Kim Lewis, Brian P Conlon
Teixobactin represents the first member of a newly discovered class of antibiotics that act through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Teixobactin binds multiple bactoprenol-coupled cell wall precursors, inhibiting both peptidoglycan and teichoic acid synthesis. Here, we show that the impressive bactericidal activity of teixobactin is due to the synergistic inhibition of both targets, resulting in cell wall damage, delocalization of autolysins, and subsequent cell lysis. We also find that teixobactin does not bind mature peptidoglycan, further increasing its activity at high cell densities and against vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) isolates with thickened peptidoglycan layers...
November 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kang Jin, Iek Hou Sam, Kathy Hiu Laam Po, Du'an Lin, Ebrahim H Ghazvini Zadeh, Sheng Chen, Yu Yuan, Xuechen Li
To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.
August 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Vivian Ng, Weng C Chan
Research into antibacterial agents has recently gathered pace in light of the disturbing crisis of antimicrobial resistance. The development of modern tools offers the opportunity of reviving the fallen era of antibacterial discovery through uncovering novel lead compounds that target vital bacterial cell components, such as lipid II. This paper provides a summary of the role of lipid II as well as an overview and insight into the structural features of macrocyclic peptides that inhibit this bacterial cell wall component...
August 26, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hyunjun Yang, Kevin H Chen, James S Nowick
This paper elucidates the teixobactin pharmacophore by comparing the arginine analogue of teixobactin Arg10-teixobactin to seven homologues with varying structure and stereochemistry. The roles of the guanidinium group at position 10, the stereochemistry of the macrolactone ring, and the "tail" comprising residues 1-5 are investigated. The guanidinium group is not necessary for activity; Lys10-teixobactin is more active than Arg10-teixobactin against Gram-positive bacteria in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays...
July 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Andrew M Giltrap, Luke J Dowman, Gayathri Nagalingam, Jessica L Ochoa, Roger G Linington, Warwick J Britton, Richard J Payne
The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
June 3, 2016: Organic Letters
Tejal Rawal, Shital Butani
After 50 years drought, several drugs are looming from the pipeline to combat tuberculosis. They will serve as a boon to the field that has been burdened with primitive, inadequate treatments and drug-resistant bacterial strains. From the decades, due to lack of interest and resources, the field has suffered a lot. Learning from the flaws, scientists have renovated their approaches to the finding of new antitubercular drugs. The first line drugs take about six months or more for the entire treatment. The second line remedy for resistant-tuberculosis requires daily injections which carry severe side effects...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jian-Lin Dou, Yi-Wei Jiang, Jun-Qiu Xie, Xiao-Gang Zhang
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen of wound infections. Thus far, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become the major causative agent in wound infections, especially for nosocomial infections. MRSA infections are seldom eradicated by routine antimicrobial therapies. More concerning, some strains have become resistant to the newest antibiotics of last resort. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of a polymyxin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae, by which resistance to the last group of antibiotics will likely spread rapidly...
April 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anish Parmar, Abhishek Iyer, Charlotte S Vincent, Dorien Van Lysebetten, Stephen H Prior, Annemieke Madder, Edward J Taylor, Ishwar Singh
The discovery of the new antibiotic teixobactin has been timely in the race for unearthing novel antibiotics wherein the emergence of drug resistant bacteria poses a serious threat worldwide. Herein, we present the total syntheses and biological activities of two teixobactin analogues. This approach is simple, efficient and has several advantages: it uses commercially available building blocks (except AllocHN-d-Thr-OH), has a single purification step and a good recovery (22%). By using this approach we have synthesised two teixobactin analogues and established that the d-amino acids are critical for the antimicrobial activity of these analogues...
April 26, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Wonsik Lee, Kaitlin Schaefer, Yuan Qiao, Veerasak Srisuknimit, Heinrich Steinmetz, Rolf Müller, Daniel Kahne, Suzanne Walker
Lysobactin, also known as katanosin B, is a potent antibiotic with in vivo efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It was previously shown to inhibit peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, but its molecular mechanism of action has not been established. Using enzyme inhibition assays, we show that lysobactin forms 1:1 complexes with Lipid I, Lipid II, and Lipid II(A)(WTA), substrates in the PG and wall teichoic acid (WTA) biosynthetic pathways. Therefore, lysobactin, like ramoplanin and teixobactin, recognizes the reducing end of lipid-linked cell wall precursors...
January 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yahya E Jad, Gerardo A Acosta, Tricia Naicker, Melissa Ramtahal, Ayman El-Faham, Thavendran Govender, Hendrik G Kruger, Beatriz G de la Torre, Fernando Albericio
The first synthesis and biological activity of a teixobactin analogue is reported. Substitution of the unusual L-allo-enduracididine residue by the naturally occurring L-arginine was achieved, and the analogue gave an activity trend similar to that of teixobactin (against Gram-postive bacteria) and meropenem, which was approved by the FDA in 1996. The synthetic route used allows for the synthesis of the natural product as well as the development of a program of medicinal chemistry.
December 18, 2015: Organic Letters
Lanlan Han, Alan W Schwabacher, Graham R Moran, Nicholas R Silvaggi
L-Enduracididine (L-End) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid found in a number of bioactive peptides, including the antibiotics teixobactin, enduracidin, and mannopeptimycin. The potent activity of these compounds against antibiotic-resistant pathogens like MRSA and their novel mode of action have garnered considerable interest for the development of these peptides into clinically relevant antibiotics. This goal has been hampered, at least in part, by the fact that L-End is difficult to synthesize and not currently commercially available...
December 1, 2015: Biochemistry
W V Kern
After some years of stagnation there have been several new successful developments in the field of antibacterial agents. Most of these new developments have been in conventional antibacterial classes. New drugs among the beta-lactam agents are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) active cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and new combinations of beta-lactam with beta-lactamase inhibitors (ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and meropenem/RPX7009). New developments can also be observed among oxazolidinones (tedizolid, radezolid, cadazolid and MRX-I), macrolides/ketolides (modithromycin and solithromycin), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (nemonoxacin, delafloxacin and avarofloxacin), tetracyclines (omadacycline and eravacycline) as well as among glycopeptides and lipopeptides (oritavancin, telavancin, dalbavancin and surotomycin)...
November 2015: Der Internist
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