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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919341/human-epidermal-stem-cells-role-in-adverse-skin-reactions-and-carcinogenesis-from-radiation
#1
Michèle T Martin, Adeline Vulin, Jolyon H Hendry
In human skin, keratinopoiesis is based on a functional hierarchy among keratinocytes, with rare slow-cycling stem cells responsible for the long-term maintenance of the tissue through their self-renewal potential, and more differentiated daughter progenitor cells actively cycling to permit epidermal renewal and turn-over every month. Skin is a radio-responsive tissue, developing all types of radiation damage and pathologies, including early tissue reactions such as dysplasia and denudation in epidermis, and later fibrosis in the dermis and acanthosis in epidermis, with the TGF-beta 1 pathway as a known master switch...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910859/t-cell-programming-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Y D Seo, V G Pillarisetty
Despite recent advancements in multimodal therapy, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) continues to have a dismal prognosis. In the era of burgeoning immune therapies against previously difficult-to-treat malignancies, there has been growing interest in activating the immune system against PDA; however, unlike in other cancers such as melanoma and lymphoma, immunotherapy has not yielded many clinically significant results. To harness these mechanisms for therapeutic use, an in-depth understanding of T-cell programming in the immune microenvironment of PDA must be achieved...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909722/expression-of-soluble-programmed-death-1-protein-in-peripheral-blood-regulatory-t-cells-and-its-effects-on-rheumatoid-arthritis-progression
#4
Chun-Feng Ren, Ya-Xin Zhao, Chun-Feng Hou, Luan Luan, Guo-Qing Duan, Shu-Jie Li, Jian-Hong Zhao
The present study aimed to investigate the role of the soluble programmed death‑1 (sPD-1) protein, which is released by peripheral blood regulatory T cells (Treg) during the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). From October 2012 to May 2014, 82 RA patients (RA group) and 90 healthy volunteers (healthy controls; HC) were recruited. Cluster of differentiation (CD)4, CD25 and forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) and expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Foxp3 were detected by flow cytometry...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894302/anti-inflammatory-and-burn-injury-wound-healing-properties-of-the-shell-of-haliotis-diversicolor
#5
Zhi-Cheng Chen, Shing-Yi Sean Wu, Wei-Yang Su, Yuan-Chuan Lin, Yi-Hsin Lee, Wei-Hao Wu, Chun-Hong Chen, Zhi-Hong Wen
BACKGROUND: The shell of Haliotis diversicolor, or shijueming (SJM), is a type of traditional Chinese medicine. The SJM has appeared in historical records as early as the third and fourth centuries. Historical records have revealed that SJM had mainly been used to treat eye diseases. After the Qing Dynasty (1757), records had emerged, detailing the use of SJM for treating skin injuries, particularly for treating poorly managed ulcers or traumatic wounds. Furthermore, in our anti-inflammation-screening system, SJM significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins...
November 28, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893708/tgf-%C3%AE-upregulates-the-translation-of-usp15-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-to-promote-p53-stability
#6
W-T Liu, K-Y Huang, M-C Lu, H-L Huang, C-Y Chen, Y-L Cheng, H-C Yu, S-Q Liu, N-S Lai, H-B Huang
Crosstalk between transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling and p53 has a critical role in cancer progression. TGF-β signals via Smad and non-Smad pathways. Under normal conditions, wild-type p53 forms a complex with Smad2/3 and co-activates transcription of a variety of tumor suppressor genes, resulting in tumor suppressive effects. Thus, p53 stability is essential in progression of tumor suppressive responses mediated by TGF-β signaling. However, it remains unknown whether p53 stability is regulated by TGF-β...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888159/transmembrane-tnf-alpha-reverse-signaling-leading-to-tgf-beta-production-is-selectively-activated-by-tnf-targeting-molecules-therapeutic-implications
#7
REVIEW
Zsuzsa Szondy, Anna Pallai
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine exerting pleiotropic effects on various cell types. It is synthesized in a precursor form called transmembrane TNF-α (mTNF-α) which, after being processed by metalloproteinases, is released in a soluble form to mediate its biological activities through Type 1 and 2 TNF receptors in TNF receptor expressing cells. In addition to acting in soluble form, TNF-α also acts in the transmembrane form both as a ligand by activating TNF receptors, as well as a receptor that transmits outside-to-inside (reverse) signals back into mTNF-α bearing cells...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880803/wdr68-mediates-dorsal-and-ventral-patterning-events-for-craniofacial-development
#8
Estibaliz Alvarado, Mina Yousefelahiyeh, Greg Alvarado, Robin Shang, Taryn Whitman, Andrew Martinez, Yang Yu, Annie Pham, Anish Bhandari, Bingyan Wang, Robert M Nissen
Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880731/smad4-in-t-cells-plays-a-protective-role-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-in-the-nonobese-diabetic-mouse
#9
Donghee Kim, Jae Young Kim, Hee-Sook Jun
We investigated the role of Smad4, a signaling molecule of the TGF-beta pathway, in T cells on the pathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of SS. T cell-specific Smad4-deleted (Smad4fl/fl,CD4-Cre; Smad4 tKO) NOD mice had accelerated development of SS compared with wild-type (Smad4+/+,CD4-Cre; WT) NOD mice, including increased lymphocyte infiltration into exocrine glands, decreased tear and saliva production, and increased levels of autoantibodies at 12 weeks of age...
November 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871783/human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-suppress-alloantigen-induced-immunity-by-stimulating-t-cells-to-release-transforming-growth-factor-beta
#10
Kyu Hwan Kwack, Jung Min Lee, Sang Hyuk Park, Hyeon Woo Lee
INTRODUCTION: Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are ideal candidates for regenerating damaged dental tissue. To examine the possibility that hDPSCs may be used to regenerate pulp, we tested their in vitro effects on acute allogeneic immune responses. METHODS: A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay and immunoglobulin (Ig) production assay were performed to evaluate the immunosuppressive properties of hDPSCs. RESULTS: The mixed lymphocyte reaction was suppressed by incubation with hDPSCs...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866969/overexpression-of-cd109-in-the-epidermis-differentially-regulates-alk1-versus-alk5-signaling-and-modulates-extracellular-matrix-synthesis-in-the-skin
#11
Joshua Vorstenbosch, Christopher M Nguyen, Shufeng Zhou, You Jung Seo, Aya Siblini, Kenneth W Finnson, Albane A Bizet, Simon D Tran, Anie Philip
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional growth factor involved in many physiological processes including wound healing and inflammation. Excessive TGF-β signaling in the skin has been implicated in fibrotic skin disorders such as keloids and scleroderma. We have previously identified CD109 as a TGF- β co-receptor and inhibitor of TGF-ß signaling, and have shown that transgenic mice overexpressing CD109 in the epidermis display decreased scarring. In certain cell types, in addition to the canonical type I receptor, ALK5 which activates Smad2/3, TGF-β can signal through another type I receptor ALK1 which activates Smad1/5...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865848/retinol-dehydrogenase-13-deficiency-diminishes-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#12
Xiaofang Cui, Suying Dang, Yan Wang, Yan Chen, Jia Zhou, Chunling Shen, Ying Kuang, Jian Fei, Lungen Lu, Zhugang Wang
Retinol dehydrogenase 13 (RDH13) is a mitochondrion-localized member of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) superfamily that participates in metabolism of some compounds. Rdh13 mRNA is most highly expressed in mouse liver. Rdh13 deficiency reduces the extent of liver injury and fibrosis, reduces hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, attenuates collagen I (II), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgf-β1) expression. The results indicate an important role of Rdh13 and suggest RDH13 as a possible new therapeutic target for CCl4-induced fibrosis...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863384/a-novel-highly-potent-trivalent-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-trap-inhibits-early-stage-tumorigenesis-and-tumor-cell-invasion-in-murine-pten-deficient-prostate-glands
#13
Tai Qin, Lindsey Barron, Lu Xia, Haojie Huang, Maria M Villarreal, John Zwaagstra, Cathy Collins, Junhua Yang, Christian Zwieb, Ravindra Kodali, Cynthia S Hinck, Sun Kyung Kim, Robert L Reddick, Chang Shu, Maureen D O'Connor-McCourt, Andrew P Hinck, Lu-Zhe Sun
The effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling on prostate tumorigenesis has been shown to be strongly dependent on the stage of development, with TGF-β functioning as a tumor suppressor in early stages of disease and as a promoter in later stages. To study in further detail the paradoxical tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting roles of the TGF-β pathway, we investigated the effect of systemic treatment with a TGF-β inhibitor on early stages of prostate tumorigenesis. To ensure effective inhibition, we developed and employed a novel trivalent TGF-β receptor trap, RER, comprised of domains derived from the TGF-β type II and type III receptors...
November 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863299/study-on-the-physicochemical-properties-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-paeonol-in-rats-with-tnbs-induced-ulcerative-colitis
#14
Shi-Yu Zong, Yi-Qiong Pu, Ben-Liang Xu, Tong Zhang, Bing Wang
Paeonol, an active component from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., has a variety of biological activities, such as vascular endothelial cell protection, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the basic physicochemical properties of paeonol, including solubility, oil-water partition coefficient, and permeability. Then evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of paeonol were evaluated on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. The rats were divided randomly into 6 groups, namely, normal, model, paeonol-treated (100, 200, and 400mg/kg), and positive...
November 15, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853137/cug-binding-protein-1-regulates-hsc-activation-and-liver-fibrogenesis
#15
Xingxin Wu, Xudong Wu, Yuxiang Ma, Fenli Shao, Yang Tan, Tao Tan, Liyun Gu, Yang Zhou, Beicheng Sun, Yang Sun, Xuefeng Wu, Qiang Xu
Excessive activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key step in liver fibrogenesis. Here we report that CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) expression is elevated in HSCs and positively correlates with liver fibrosis severity in human liver biopsies. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) selectively increases CUGBP1 expression in cultured HSCs in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent manner. Knockdown of CUGBP1 inhibits alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and promotes interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in HSCs in vitro...
November 17, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849108/influence-of-calcium-salts-and-bovine-thrombin-on-growth-factor-release-from-equine-platelet-rich-gel-supernatants
#16
Carlos E Giraldo, María E Álvarez, Jorge U Carmona
OBJECTIVE: To compare five activation methods in equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by determination of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) concentrations in platelet-rich gel (PRG) supernatants. METHODS: Platelet-rich plasma from 20 horses was activated by calcium chloride (CC), calcium gluconate (CG), bovine thrombin (BT), and their combinations, BTCC and BTCG. Both growth factor concentrations in PRG supernatants were measured by ELISA and compared with plasma and platelet lysates (PL) over time...
November 16, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845895/hyaluronan-activates-hyal-2-wwox-smad4-signaling-and-causes-bubbling-cell-death-when-the-signaling-complex-is-overexpressed
#17
Li-Jin Hsu, Qunying Hong, Shur-Tzu Chen, Hsiang-Lin Kuo, Lori Schultz, John Heath, Sing-Ru Lin, Ming-Hui Lee, Dong-Zhang Li, Zih-Ling Li, Hui-Ching Cheng, Gerard Armand, Nan-Shan Chang
Malignant cancer cells frequently secrete significant amounts of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), hyaluronan (HA) and hyaluronidases to facilitate metastasizing to target organs. In a non-canonical signaling, TGF-β binds membrane hyaluronidase Hyal-2 for recruiting tumor suppressors WWOX and Smad4, and the resulting Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 complex is accumulated in the nucleus to enhance SMAD-promoter dependent transcriptional activity. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that WWOX acts as a bridge to bind both Hyal-2 and Smad4...
November 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835939/anti-fibrotic-action-of-pirfenidone-in-dupuytren-s-disease-derived-fibroblasts
#18
Chaoming Zhou, Fang Liu, Phillip H Gallo, Mark E Baratz, Sandeep Kathju, Latha Satish
BACKGROUND: Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a complex fibro-proliferative disorder of the hand that is often progressive and eventually can cause contractures of the affected fingers. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) has been implicated as a key stimulator of myofibroblast activity and fascial contraction in DD. Pirfenidone (PFD) is an active small molecule shown to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated action in other fibrotic disorders. This study investigates the efficacy of PFD in vitro in inhibiting TGF-β1-mediated cellular functions leading to Dupuytren's fibrosis...
November 11, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826032/sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-srebp-1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-i-t%C3%AE-ri-through-exosomal-secretion
#19
Richard Van Krieken, Guang Chen, Bo Gao, Jolene Read, Hassan A Al Saleh, Renzhong Li, Khalid Al-Nedawi, Joan C Krepinsky
Accumulation of matrix in the glomerulus is a classic hallmark of diabetic nephropathy. The profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) plays a central role in the development of glomerular sclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 is an important regulator of glomerular sclerosis through both induction of TGF-β1 as well as facilitation of its signaling. Here we have identified that SREBP-1 is also a novel regulator of TGF-β receptor I (TβRI) expression in kidney mesangial cells...
November 5, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814572/tgf-beta1-wnt-and-shh-signaling-in-tumor-progression-and-in-fibrotic-diseases
#20
Maria D Castellone, Mikko O Laukkanen
Activation of resting fibroblasts to myofibroblasts characterizes several physiological and pathological conditions, from wound healing to aggressive metastatic cancers. In tissue damage, including wound healing, fibroblasts are activated in response to injury for a limited period of time to stimulate the healing process. Similar biological mechanisms are maintained in pathological conditions, e.g., scleroderma and cancer, where myofibroblasts persist in producing cytokines and growth factors to drive the development of fibrosis and the progression of disease...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
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