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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786900/avian-demographic-responses-to-drought-and-fire-a-community-level-perspective
#1
James F Saracco, Stephen M Fettig, George L San Miguel, David W Mehlman, Steven K Albert
Drought stress is an important consideration for wildlife in arid and semi-arid regions under climate change. Drought can impact plant and animal populations directly, through effects on their physiology, as well as indirectly through effects on vegetation productivity and resource availability, and by creating conditions conducive to secondary disturbance, such as wildfire. We implemented a novel approach to understanding community-level demographic responses of birds and their habitats to these stressors in the context of climate change at 14 study sites in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States...
May 22, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785657/novel-non-invasive-early-detection-of-lung-cancer-using-liquid-immunobiopsy-metabolic-activity-profiles
#2
Yochai Adir, Shoval Tirman, Shirley Abramovitch, Cynthia Botbol, Aviv Lutaty, Tali Scheinmann, Eyal Davidovits, Irit Arbel, Giora Davidovits, Sonia Schneer, Michal Shteinberg, Hagit Peretz Soroka, Ruven Tirosh, Fernando Patolsky
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Survival is largely dependent on the stage of diagnosis: the localized disease has a 5-year survival greater than 55%, whereas, for spread tumors, this rate is only 4%. Therefore, the early detection of lung cancer is key for improving prognosis. In this study, we present an innovative, non-invasive, cancer detection approach based on measurements of the metabolic activity profiles of immune system cells. For each Liquid ImmunoBiopsy test, a 384 multi-well plate is loaded with freshly separated PBMCs, and each well contains 1 of the 16 selected stimulants in several increasing concentrations...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784955/integration-of-large-scale-data-for-extraction-of-integrated-arabidopsis-root-cell-type-specific-models
#3
Michael Scheunemann, Siobhan M Brady, Zoran Nikoloski
Plant organs consist of multiple cell types that do not operate in isolation, but communicate with each other to maintain proper functions. Here, we extract models specific to three developmental stages of eight root cell types or tissue layers in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a state-of-the-art constraint-based modeling approach with all publicly available transcriptomics and metabolomics data from this system to date. We integrate these models into a multi-cell root model which we investigate with respect to network structure, distribution of fluxes, and concordance to transcriptomics and proteomics data...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782486/clinical-socioeconomic-and-behavioural-factors-at-age-50-years-and-risk-of-cardiometabolic-multimorbidity-and-mortality-a-cohort-study
#4
Archana Singh-Manoux, Aurore Fayosse, Séverine Sabia, Adam Tabak, Martin Shipley, Aline Dugravot, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is increasingly common and is associated with adverse health outcomes, highlighting the need to broaden the single-disease framework that dominates medical research. We examined the role of midlife clinical characteristics, socioeconomic position, and behavioural factors in the development of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (at least 2 of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke), along with how these factors modify risk of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on 8,270 men and women were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study, with mean follow-up of 23...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780432/-in-silico-toxicology-comprehensive-benchmarking-of-multi-label-classification-methods-applied-to-chemical-toxicity-data
#5
REVIEW
Arwa B Raies, Vladimir B Bajic
One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Computational Molecular Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778509/longitudinal-observations-using-simultaneous-fmri-multiple-channel-electrophysiology-recording-and-chemical-microiontophoresis-in-the-rat-brain
#6
Saul Jaime, Jose E Cavazos, Yihong Yang, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has been widely used as a surrogate for neural activity. However, interpreting differences in BOLD fMRI based on underlying neuronal activity remains a challenge. Concurrent rsMRI data collection and electrophysiological recording in combination with microiontophoretically injected modulatory chemicals allows for improved understanding of the relationship between resting state BOLD and neuronal activity. NEW METHODS: Simultaneous fMRI, multi-channel intracortical electrophysiology and focal pharmacological manipulation data to be acquired longitudinally in rats for up to 2 months...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777928/binding-studies-of-triclocarban-with-bovine-serum-albumin-insights-from-multi-spectroscopy-and-molecular-modeling-methods
#7
Jiao Guan, Xin Yan, Yajing Zhao, Yinhe Sun, Xin Peng
The antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) is frequently found in various personal care products (PCPs), and recent studies have demonstrated that it shows a high unintended biological activity on humans and wildlife. To evaluate the toxicity of TCC at the protein level, the effect of TCC on bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated using various spectroscopic methods in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of fluorescence quenching data of BSA revealed the formation of a ground state BSA-TCC complex with a binding constant of 2...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776749/determinants-of-cost-of-routine-immunization-programme-in-india
#8
Susmita Chatterjee, Arpita Ghosh, Palash Das, Nicolas A Menzies, Ramanan Laxminarayan
The costs of delivering routine immunization services in India vary widely across facilities, districts and states. Understanding the factors influencing this cost variation could help predict future immunization costs and suggest approaches for improving the efficiency of service provision. We examined determinants of facility cost for immunization services based on a nationally representative sample of sub-centres and primary health centres (99 and 89 facilities, respectively) by regressing logged total facility costs, both including and excluding vaccine cost, against several explanatory variables...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775665/use-of-computational-fluid-dynamics-for-improving-freeze-dryers-design-and-process-understanding-part-1-modelling-the-lyophilisation-chamber
#9
Antonello A Barresi, Valeria Rasetto, Daniele L Marchisio
This manuscript shows how computational models, mainly based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), can be used to simulate different parts of an industrial freeze-drying equipment and to properly design them; in particular, the freeze-dryer chamber and the duct connecting the chamber with the condenser, with the valves and vanes eventually present are analysed in this work. In Part 1, it will be shown how CFD can be employed to improve specific designs, to perform geometry optimization, to evaluate different design choices and how it is useful to evaluate the effect on product drying and batch variance...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775455/atomic-resolution-mechanism-of-ligand-binding-to-a-solvent-inaccessible-cavity-in-t4-lysozyme
#10
Jagannath Mondal, Navjeet Ahalawat, Subhendu Pandit, Lewis E Kay, Pramodh Vallurupalli
Ligand binding sites in proteins are often localized to deeply buried cavities, inaccessible to bulk solvent. Yet, in many cases binding of cognate ligands occurs rapidly. An intriguing system is presented by the L99A cavity mutant of T4 Lysozyme (T4L L99A) that rapidly binds benzene (~106 M-1s-1). Although the protein has long served as a model system for protein thermodynamics and crystal structures of both free and benzene-bound T4L L99A are available, the kinetic pathways by which benzene reaches its solvent-inaccessible binding cavity remain elusive...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769636/molecular-details-of-dimerization-kinetics-reveal-negligible-populations-of-transient-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-homodimers-at-physiological-concentrations
#11
Derya Meral, Davide Provasi, Diego Prada-Gracia, Jan Möller, Kristen Marino, Martin J Lohse, Marta Filizola
Various experimental and computational techniques have been employed over the past decade to provide structural and thermodynamic insights into G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) dimerization. Here, we use multiple microsecond-long, coarse-grained, biased and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations (a total of ~4 milliseconds) combined with multi-ensemble Markov state models to elucidate the kinetics of homodimerization of a prototypic GPCR, the µ-opioid receptor (MOR), embedded in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol lipid bilayer...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768401/near-real-time-forecasting-for-cholera-decision-making-in-haiti-after-hurricane-matthew
#12
Damiano Pasetto, Flavio Finger, Anton Camacho, Francesco Grandesso, Sandra Cohuet, Joseph C Lemaitre, Andrew S Azman, Francisco J Luquero, Enrico Bertuzzo, Andrea Rinaldo
Computational models of cholera transmission can provide objective insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic and aid decision making on allocation of health care resources. However, models are typically designed, calibrated and interpreted post-hoc. Here, we report the efforts of a team from academia, field research and humanitarian organizations to model in near real-time the Haitian cholera outbreak after Hurricane Matthew in October 2016, to assess risk and to quantitatively estimate the efficacy of a then ongoing vaccination campaign...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765629/reliability-modelling-and-analysis-of-a-multi-state-element-based-on-a-dynamic-bayesian-network
#13
Zhiqiang Li, Tingxue Xu, Junyuan Gu, Qi Dong, Linyu Fu
This paper presents a quantitative reliability modelling and analysis method for multi-state elements based on a combination of the Markov process and a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), taking perfect repair, imperfect repair and condition-based maintenance (CBM) into consideration. The Markov models of elements without repair and under CBM are established, and an absorbing set is introduced to determine the reliability of the repairable element. According to the state-transition relations between the states determined by the Markov process, a DBN model is built...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765351/multiscale-information-transfer-in-functional-corticomuscular-coupling-estimation-following-stroke-a-pilot-study
#14
Xiaoling Chen, Ping Xie, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yuling Chen, Fangmei Yang, Litai Zhang, Xiaoli Li
Recently, functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) between the cortex and the contralateral muscle has been used to evaluate motor function after stroke. As we know, the motor-control system is a closed-loop system that is regulated by complex self-regulating and interactive mechanisms which operate in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Multiscale analysis can represent the inherent complexity. However, previous studies in FCMC for stroke patients mainly focused on the coupling strength in single-time scale, without considering the changes of the inherently directional and multiscale properties in sensorimotor systems...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765054/resolution-of-superluminal-signalling-in-non-perturbative-cavity-quantum-electrodynamics
#15
Carlos Sánchez Muñoz, Franco Nori, Simone De Liberato
Recent technological developments have made it increasingly easy to access the non-perturbative regimes of cavity quantum electrodynamics known as ultrastrong or deep strong coupling, where the light-matter coupling becomes comparable to the bare modal frequencies. In this work, we address the adequacy of the broadly used single-mode cavity approximation to describe such regimes. We demonstrate that, in the non-perturbative light-matter coupling regimes, the single-mode models become unphysical, allowing for superluminal signalling...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764363/gatc-a-genetic-algorithm-for-gene-tree-construction-under-the-duplication-transfer-loss-model-of-evolution
#16
Emmanuel Noutahi, Nadia El-Mabrouk
BACKGROUND: Several methods have been developed for the accurate reconstruction of gene trees. Some of them use reconciliation with a species tree to correct, a posteriori, errors in gene trees inferred from multiple sequence alignments. Unfortunately the best fit to sequence information can be lost during this process. RESULTS: We describe GATC, a new algorithm for reconstructing a binary gene tree with branch length. GATC returns optimal solutions according to a measure combining both tree likelihood (according to sequence evolution) and a reconciliation score under the Duplication-Transfer-Loss (DTL) model...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764319/rabies-in-alaska-from-the-past-to-an-uncertain-future
#17
Karsten Hueffer, Molly Murphy
Rabies is a serious zoonotic disease with significant public health consequences in the circumpolar North. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the disease ecology in Alaska. In this paper, we review historical records of rabies in Alaska ranging from the late nineteenth century to the present, analyse the public health impact in the state and review studies on disease ecology before assessing challenges and anticipated altered disease dynamics in the face of a rapidly changing North. Rabies is a disease that has been present in Alaska continuously for over 100 years...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763754/determinants-of-cancer-treatment-and-mortality-in-older-cancer-patients-using-a-multi-state-model-results-from-a-population-based-study-the-incapac-study
#18
Angéline Galvin, Catherine Helmer, Gaëlle Coureau, Brice Amadeo, Pierre Joly, Camille Sabathé, Alain Monnereau, Isabelle Baldi, Muriel Rainfray, Pierre Soubeyran, Fleur Delva, Simone Mathoulin-Pélissier
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported disparities in the care management and survival of older cancer patients. The aim of our study was to identify determinants of treatment administration in this population of cancer patients aged over 65 years taking into account competing risks of death. METHODS: The INCAPAC study is a population-based study. Four cancer registries and three prospective cohort studies on older subjects (age ≥65 years) from Gironde, a French department, were merged to identify older cancer patients...
May 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762517/the-potential-cost-effectiveness-and-equity-impacts-of-restricting-television-advertising-of-unhealthy-food-and-beverages-to-australian-children
#19
Vicki Brown, Jaithri Ananthapavan, Lennert Veerman, Gary Sacks, Anita Lal, Anna Peeters, Kathryn Backholer, Marjory Moodie
Television (TV) advertising of food and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) influences food preferences and consumption. Children from lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have higher exposure to TV advertising due to more time spent watching TV. This paper sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of legislation to restrict HFSS TV advertising until 9:30 pm, and to examine how health benefits and healthcare cost-savings differ by SEP. Cost-effectiveness modelling was undertaken (i) at the population level, and (ii) by area-level SEP...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761957/-the-research-of-near-infrared-blood-glucose-measurement-using-particle-swarm-optimization-and-artificial-neural-network
#20
Juan Dai, Zhong Ji, Yubao Du
Existing near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose detection modelings mostly detect multi-spectral signals with different wavelength, which is not conducive to the popularization of non-invasive glucose meter at home and does not consider the physiological glucose dynamics of individuals. In order to solve these problems, this study presented a non-invasive blood glucose detection model combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial neural network (ANN) by using the 1 550 nm near-infrared absorbance as the independent variable and the concentration of blood glucose as the dependent variable, named as PSO-2ANN...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
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