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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441748/convergent-validity-of-a-wearable-sensor-system-for-measuring-sub-task-performance-during-the-timed-up-and-go-test
#1
James Beyea, Chris A McGibbon, Andrew Sexton, Jeremy Noble, Colleen O'Connell
BACKGROUND: The timed-up-and-go test (TUG) is one of the most commonly used tests of physical function in clinical practice and for research outcomes. Inertial sensors have been used to parse the TUG test into its composite phases (rising, walking, turning, etc.), but have not validated this approach against an optoelectronic gold-standard, and to our knowledge no studies have published the minimal detectable change of these measurements. METHODS: Eleven adults performed the TUG three times each under normal and slow walking conditions, and 3 m and 5 m walking distances, in a 12-camera motion analysis laboratory...
April 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441743/smartphone-location-independent-physical-activity-recognition-based-on-transportation-natural-vibration-analysis
#2
Taeho Hur, Jaehun Bang, Dohyeong Kim, Oresti Banos, Sungyoung Lee
Activity recognition through smartphones has been proposed for a variety of applications. The orientation of the smartphone has a significant effect on the recognition accuracy; thus, researchers generally propose using features invariant to orientation or displacement to achieve this goal. However, those features reduce the capability of the recognition system to differentiate among some specific commuting activities (e.g., bus and subway) that normally involve similar postures. In this work, we recognize those activities by analyzing the vibrations of the vehicle in which the user is traveling...
April 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441425/role-of-route-previewing-strategies-on-climbing-fluency-and-exploratory-movements
#3
Ludovic Seifert, Romain Cordier, Dominic Orth, Yoan Courtine, James L Croft
This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks) they used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430147/suitability-of-strain-gage-sensors-for-integration-into-smart-sport-equipment-a-golf-club-example
#4
Anton Umek, Yuan Zhang, Sašo Tomažič, Anton Kos
Wearable devices and smart sport equipment are being increasingly used in amateur and professional sports. Smart sport equipment employs various sensors for detecting its state and actions. The correct choice of the most appropriate sensor(s) is of paramount importance for efficient and successful operation of sport equipment. When integrated into the sport equipment, ideal sensors are unobstructive, and do not change the functionality of the equipment. The article focuses on experiments for identification and selection of sensors that are suitable for the integration into a golf club with the final goal of their use in real time biofeedback applications...
April 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410534/comparison-of-operation-modes-for-spin-exchange-optically-pumped-spin-oscillators
#5
Zhiguo Wang, Xiang Peng, Hui Luo, Hong Guo
The nuclear spin precesses continually when a positive feedback nuclear magnetic resonance field is applied. The characteristics of this behaviour depend not only on the parameters of the spin ensemble but also on the type and parameters of the feedback loop. We theoretically analysed two types of feedback loops which use direct feedback and phase-lock feedback, respectively. We also compared the oscillating frequency of the spin oscillators using rotating and linear magnetic fields, respectively. Some interesting results on the frequency and start-time of the oscillator were found...
May 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409808/aircraft-navigation-grade-laser-driven-fog-with-gaussian-noise-phase-modulation
#6
Jacob Chamoun, Michel J F Digonnet
A laser-driven fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is demonstrated with an angular random walk noise of 5.5×10<sup>-4</sup>  deg/√h, a drift of 6.8×10<sup>-3</sup>  deg/h, and an inferred scale-factor stability of 0.15 ppm, making it, to the best of our knowledge, the first laser-driven FOG to satisfy the performance requirements for inertial navigation of commercial aircraft. This is achieved using Gaussian white noise phase modulation to broaden the linewidth of the source laser and to strongly suppress the narrow-linewidth optical carrier...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409797/ultrasensitive-micro-scale-parity-time-symmetric-ring-laser-gyroscope
#7
J Ren, H Hodaei, G Harari, A U Hassan, W Chow, M Soltani, D Christodoulides, M Khajavikhan
We propose a new scheme for ultrasensitive laser gyroscopes that utilizes the physics of exceptional points. By exploiting the properties of such non-Hermitian degeneracies, we show that the rotation-induced frequency splitting becomes proportional to the square root of the gyration speed (Ω), thus enhancing the sensitivity to low angular rotations by orders of magnitudes. In addition, at its maximum sensitivity limit, the measurable spectral splitting is independent of the radius of the rings involved. This Letter paves the way toward a new class of ultrasensitive miniature ring laser gyroscopes on chip...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398232/use-of-the-magnetic-field-for-improving-gyroscopes-biases-estimation
#8
Estefania Munoz Diaz, Fabian de Ponte Müller, Juan Jesús García Domínguez
An accurate orientation is crucial to a satisfactory position in pedestrian navigation. The orientation estimation, however, is greatly affected by errors like the biases of gyroscopes. In order to minimize the error in the orientation, the biases of gyroscopes must be estimated and subtracted. In the state of the art it has been proposed, but not proved, that the estimation of the biases can be accomplished using magnetic field measurements. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of using magnetic field measurements to estimate the biases of medium-cost micro-electromechanical sensors (MEMS) gyroscopes...
April 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394307/novel-compensation-scheme-for-the-modulation-gain-to-suppress-the-quantization-induced-bias-in-a-fiber-optic-gyroscope
#9
Xiong Pan, Pengcheng Liu, Shaobo Zhang, Jing Jin, Ningfang Song
A novel digital compensation scheme is demonstrated to control the gain of the modulation chain and suppress the influence of quantization error on bias. The error produced by the quantization multiplied by the scaling factor is theoretically analyzed. Simulations indicate that the quantization error varies with the input angular velocity and temperature, which is verified by experiments. By switching the integration and compression operations in the modulation chain, this quantization error is reduced, while automatic reset of the digital phase ramp register is achieved...
April 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391210/atrial-fibrillation-detection-via-accelerometer-and-gyroscope-of-a-smartphone
#10
Olli Lahdenoja, Tero Hurnanen, Zuhair Iftikhar, Sami Nieminen, Timo Knuutila, Antti Saraste, Tuomas Kiviniemi, Tuija Vasankari, Juhani Airaksinen, Mikko Pankaala, Tero Koivisto
We present a smartphone-only solution for the detection of Atrial Fibrillation (AFib), which utilizes the builtin accelerometer and gyroscope sensors (Inertial Measurement Unit, IMU) in the detection. Depending on the patient's situation, it is possible to use the developed smartphone application either regularly or occasionally for making a measurement of the subject. The smartphone is placed on the chest of the patient who is adviced to lay down and perform a non-invasive recording, while no external sensors are needed...
April 5, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387642/biomechanical-head-impact-characteristics-during-sparring-practice-sessions-in-high-school-taekwondo-athletes
#11
David M O'Sullivan, Gabriel P Fife
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to monitor head impact magnitude and characteristics, such as impact location and frequency, at high school taekwondo sparring sessions. METHODS Eight male high school taekwondo athletes participated in this study. The head impact characteristics were recorded by X-Patch, a wireless accelerometer and gyroscope, during 6 taekwondo sparring sessions. The outcome measures were the peak linear acceleration ( g = 9.81 msec(2)), peak rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, and Head Injury Criterion...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380839/simultaneous-mapping-of-reflectance-transmittance-and-optical-loss-of-highly-reflective-and-anti-reflective-coatings-with-two-channel-cavity-ring-down-technique
#12
Hao Cui, Bincheng Li, Shilei Xiao, Yanling Han, Jing Wang, Chunming Gao, Yafei Wang
We demonstrate the use of a two-channel cavity ring-down (CRD) technique for simultaneously measuring/mapping the reflectance R, transmittance T and optical loss L (absorption plus scattering losses) of highly reflective (HR) and anti-reflective (AR) laser components. High reflectance/transmittance of HR/AR components is measured with the ring-down time of CRD signals, while the low residual transmittance/ reflectance of HR/AR components is determined by the amplitude ratio of two CRD signals, and the optical loss is then determined via L = 1-R-T...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375273/analysis-of-fiber-optic-gyroscope-vibration-error-based-on-improved-local-mean-decomposition-and-kernel-principal-component-analysis
#13
Rui Song, Xiyuan Chen
The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG), one version of an all solid-state rotation sensor, has been widely used in navigation and position applications. However, the elastic-optic effect of fiber will introduce a non-negligible error in the output of FOG in a vibration and shock environment. To overcome the limitations of mechanism structure improvement methods and the traditional nonlinear analysis approaches, a hybrid algorithm of an optimized local mean decomposition-kernel principal component analysis (OLMD-KPCA) method is proposed in this paper...
March 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372423/deep-underground-rotation-measurements-gingerino-ring-laser-gyroscope-in-gran-sasso
#14
Jacopo Belfi, Nicolò Beverini, Filippo Bosi, Giorgio Carelli, Davide Cuccato, Gaetano De Luca, Angela Di Virgilio, André Gebauer, Enrico Maccioni, Antonello Ortolan, Alberto Porzio, Gilberto Saccorotti, Andreino Simonelli, Giuseppe Terreni
GINGERino is a large frame laser gyroscope investigating the ground motion in the most inner part of the underground international laboratory of the Gran Sasso, in central Italy. It consists of a square ring laser with a 3.6 m side. Several days of continuous measurements have been collected, with the apparatus running unattended. The power spectral density in the seismic bandwidth is at the level of 10(-10) (rad/s)/Hz. A maximum resolution of 30 prad/s is obtained with an integration time of few hundred seconds...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367109/low-latency-estimation-of-motor-intentions-to-assist-reaching-movements-along-multiple-sessions-in-chronic-stroke-patients-a-feasibility-study
#15
Jaime Ibáñez, Esther Monge-Pereira, Francisco Molina-Rueda, J I Serrano, Maria D Del Castillo, Alicia Cuesta-Gómez, María Carratalá-Tejada, Roberto Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Isabel M Alguacil-Diego, Juan C Miangolarra-Page, Jose L Pons
Background: The association between motor-related cortical activity and peripheral stimulation with temporal precision has been proposed as a possible intervention to facilitate cortico-muscular pathways and thereby improve motor rehabilitation after stroke. Previous studies with patients have provided evidence of the possibility to implement brain-machine interface platforms able to decode motor intentions and use this information to trigger afferent stimulation and movement assistance. This study tests the use a low-latency movement intention detector to drive functional electrical stimulation assisting upper-limb reaching movements of patients with stroke...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356163/a-novel-system-for-continuous-real-time-monitoring-of-heart-motion-signals
#16
Guy Dori, Jorge E Schliamser, Oscar Lichtenstein, Ilia Anshelevich, Moshe Y Flugelman
BACKGROUND: Understanding cardiac mechanics is important for developing cardiac therapies. Current modalities for assessing cardiac mechanics sample patient's heart at specific heart rate, contractility, preload, and afterload. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a novel system composed of intra-cardiac leads equipped with an inertial module chip (3D accelerometers and 3D gyroscopes) in monitoring continuous heart motion. METHODS: In this descriptive study, four healthy pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with motion-sensitive intra-cardiac leads; the temporal correlation between signals from motion sensors and tissue Doppler from the chest wall were studied; changes in real-time heart accelerations (ACC) and angular velocity (ANGV) were reported as percentages of change from baseline...
March 29, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335540/a-vehicle-steering-recognition-system-based-on-low-cost-smartphone-sensors
#17
Xinhua Liu, Huafeng Mei, Huachang Lu, Hailan Kuang, Xiaolin Ma
Recognizing how a vehicle is steered and then alerting drivers in real time is of utmost importance to the vehicle and driver's safety, since fatal accidents are often caused by dangerous vehicle maneuvers, such as rapid turns, fast lane-changes, etc. Existing solutions using video or in-vehicle sensors have been employed to identify dangerous vehicle maneuvers, but these methods are subject to the effects of the environmental elements or the hardware is very costly. In the mobile computing era, smartphones have become key tools to develop innovative mobile context-aware systems...
March 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304337/inertial-motion-capture-costume-design-study
#18
Agnieszka Szczęsna, Przemysław Skurowski, Ewa Lach, Przemysław Pruszowski, Damian Pęszor, Marcin Paszkuta, Janusz Słupik, Kamil Lebek, Mateusz Janiak, Andrzej Polański, Konrad Wojciechowski
The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system's architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps...
March 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302315/the-development-and-concurrent-validity-of-a-real-time-algorithm-for-temporal-gait-analysis-using-inertial-measurement-units
#19
E Allseits, J Lučarević, R Gailey, V Agrawal, I Gaunaurd, C Bennett
The use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) for gait analysis has emerged as a tool for clinical applications. Shank gyroscope signals have been utilized to identify heel-strike and toe-off, which serve as the foundation for calculating temporal parameters of gait such as single and double limb support time. Recent publications have shown that toe-off occurs later than predicted by the dual minima method (DMM), which has been adopted as an IMU-based gait event detection algorithm.In this study, a real-time algorithm, Noise-Zero Crossing (NZC), was developed to accurately compute temporal gait parameters...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293869/an-intelligent-body-posture-analysis-model-using-multi-sensors-for-long-term-physical-rehabilitation
#20
Chin-Feng Lai, Ren-Hung Hwang, Ying-Hsun Lai
Sensors can be installed on various body parts to provide information for computer diagnosis to identify the current body state. However, as human posture is subject to gravity, the direction of the force on each limb differs. For example, the directions of gravitational force on legs and trunk differ. In addition, each person's height and structure of limbs differs, hence, the acceleration and rotation resulted from such differences on force and length of the limbs of a person in motion would be different, and be presented by cases of different postures...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
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