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Valentina Camomilla, Elena Bergamini, Silvia Fantozzi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Henri De Vroey, Filip Staes, Ive Weygers, Evie Vereecke, Jos Vanrenterghem, Jan Deklerck, Geert Van Damme, Hans Hallez, Kurt Claeys
BACKGROUND: The use of inertial measurement units for the evaluation of temporal parameters of gait has been studied in many populations. However, currently no studies support the use of inertial measurement units for this purpose in the knee arthroplasty population. The objective of the present study was to investigate the agreement between an inertial measurement and camera based system for the assessment of temporal gait parameters in a knee arthroplasty population. METHODS: Sixteen knee arthroplasty patients performed 3 gait trials at a self-selected speed along a 6 m walk-way...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Jussi Jaakkola, Samuli Jaakkola, Olli Lahdenoja, Tero Hurnanen, Tero Koivisto, Mikko Pänkäälä, Timo Knuutila, Tuomas O Kiviniemi, Tuija Vasankari, K E Juhani Airaksinen
Because of the frequent asymptomatic presentation of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke is too often its first manifestation.1 For effective stroke prevention, timely diagnosis of AF is crucial. Mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous, providing significant possibilities for screening applications. In mechanocardiography, mechanical cardiac activity is recorded with accelerometers and gyroscopes, standard components of modern smartphones.2 In our previous proof-of-concept study, smartphone mechanocardiography demonstrated 94% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting AF among 39 subjects...
March 11, 2018: Circulation
Dong Li, Chao Bi, Yajun Jiang, Jianlin Zhao
The deduction of the augmented 5×5 matrix describing all the possible angular and decentration misalignment perturbation sources on a spherical prism plane during the refraction is presented in detail for the first time. Combining the augmented matrices and the condition of eigenmode self-consistency, the optical axis perturbation properties (described with the optical axis perturbation sensitivity factor SD1, ST1, SD2, and ST2) in a total reflection prism ring resonator are also analyzed. The singular points of the optical axis perturbation sensitivity factor are found at L/R=0...
March 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Jessica Rose
Temporal-spatial reach parameters are revealing of upper-limb function in children with motor impairments, but have not been quantified in a toddler population. This work quantitatively characterizes temporal-spatial reach in typically-developing (TD) and very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm toddlers, who are at increased risk of motor impairment. 47 children born VLBW (<1500 g birth-weight; ≤32 weeks gestation) and 22 TD children completed a reaching assessment at 18-22 months of age, adjusted for prematurity...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jonas Verbrugghe, Els Knippenberg, Steven Palmaers, Thomas Matheve, Wout Smeets, Peter Feys, Annemie Spooren, Annick Timmermans
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a burden on the healthcare system. Exercise therapy is an important part of MSD rehabilitation. Motion detection systems are developed to support exercise therapy settings. This systematic review aims 1) to investigate which types of motion detection systems have been used as a technological support for exercise therapy, 2) to investigate the characteristics of motion detection supported exercise therapy in relation to its clinical indications, and 3) to evaluate the effectiveness of motion detection supported exercise therapy, in MSD rehabilitation...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Emily Walton, Christy Casey, Jurgen Mitsch, Jorge A Vázquez-Diosdado, Juan Yan, Tania Dottorini, Keith A Ellis, Anthony Winterlich, Jasmeet Kaler
Automated behavioural classification and identification through sensors has the potential to improve health and welfare of the animals. Position of a sensor, sampling frequency and window size of segmented signal data has a major impact on classification accuracy in activity recognition and energy needs for the sensor, yet, there are no studies in precision livestock farming that have evaluated the effect of all these factors simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of position (ear and collar), sampling frequency (8, 16 and 32 Hz) of a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope sensor and window size (3, 5 and 7 s) on the classification of important behaviours in sheep such as lying, standing and walking...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Eric S Cooper, Molly A Mosher, Carolyn M Cross, Dwight L Whitaker
Fruits of Ruellia ciliatiflora (Acanthaceae) explosively launch small (2.5 mm diameter × 0.46 mm thick), disc-shaped seeds at velocities over 15 m s-1 , reaching distances of up to 7 m. Through high-speed video analysis, we observe that seeds fly with extraordinary backspin of up to 1660 Hz. By modelling the seeds as spinning discs, we show that flying with backspin is stable against gyroscopic precession. This stable backspin orientation minimizes the frontal area during flight, decreasing drag force on the seeds and thus increasing dispersal distance...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Han Byul Kim, Woong Woo Lee, Aryun Kim, Hong Ji Lee, Hye Young Park, Hyo Seon Jeon, Sang Kyong Kim, Beomseok Jeon, Kwang S Park
Tremor is a commonly observed symptom in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD), and accurate measurement of tremor severity is essential in prescribing appropriate treatment to relieve its symptoms. We propose a tremor assessment system based on the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to differentiate the severity of symptoms as measured in data collected from a wearable device. Tremor signals were recorded from 92 PD patients using a custom-developed device (SNUMAP) equipped with an accelerometer and gyroscope mounted on a wrist module...
February 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Matthew J Murray, Hannah M Ogden, Amy S Mullin
The collision dynamics of optically centrifuged CO2 with Ar and He are reported here. The optical centrifuge produces an ensemble of CO2 molecules in high rotational states (with J ∼ 220) with oriented angular momentum. Polarization-dependent high-resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the relaxation dynamics in the presence of Ar or He by probing the CO2 J = 76 and 100 states with Erot =2306 and 3979 cm-1 , respectively. The data show that He relaxes the CO2 super rotors more quickly than Ar...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zongkai Wu, Wei Wang
Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and magnetometers are usually integrated into a sensor module or chip and widely used in a variety of applications. In existing integrated gyroscope and magnetometer calibration methods, rotation in all possible orientations is a necessary condition for a good calibration result. However, rotation around two or more axes is difficult to attain, as it is limited by the range of movement of vehicles such as cars, ships, or planes. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an integrated magnetometer and gyroscope calibration method with level rotation...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Roberto López-Blanco, Miguel A Velasco, Antonio Méndez-Guerrero, Juan Pablo Romero, María Dolores Del Castillo, J Ignacio Serrano, Julián Benito-León, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, Eduardo Rocon
BACKGROUND: The use of wearable technology is an emerging field of research in movement disorders. This paper introduces a clinical study to evaluate the feasibility, clinical correlation and reliability of using a system based in smartwatches to quantify tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients and check its acceptance as clinical monitoring tool. NEW METHOD: The system is based on a commercial smartwatch and an Android smartphone. An investigational Android application controls the process of recording raw data from the smartwatch three-dimensional gyroscopes...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Oliver Findling, Rens van der Logt, Krassen Nedeltchev, Lutz Achtnichts, John H J Allum
INTRODUCTION: We compared changes in balance control due to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and non-inflammatory (non-inf) polyneuropathy (PNP) to each other and with respect to healthy controls (HCs). Differences in patients' subjective impressions of balance capabilities were also compared. METHODS: Balance control of 11 CIDP patients (mean age 61.1±(sd) 11, 8 male) and 10 non-inf PNP patients (mean age 68.5±11.7, all male) was examined and compared to that of 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
2018: PloS One
B Hu, P C Dixon, J V Jacobs, J T Dennerlein, J M Schiffman
The aim of this study was to investigate if a machine learning algorithm utilizing triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from an inertial motion unit (IMU) could detect surface- and age-related differences in walking. Seventeen older (71.5 ± 4.2 years) and eighteen young (27.0 ± 4.7 years) healthy adults walked over flat and uneven brick surfaces wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMU) over the L5 vertebra. IMU data were binned into smaller data segments using 4-s sliding windows with 1-s step lengths...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Rongya Luo, Yulin Li, Sheng Deng, Chao Peng, Zhengbin Li
The impact of residual coherent phase error in a dual-polarization interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) is investigated. Although it has been intuitively assumed that the coherence of a light source can be eliminated by a sufficient long fiber delay, the experiment and theory indicate that it still contributes a remarkable portion to long-term instability. After the residual coherent phase error is well handled, we demonstrate a dual-polarization IFOG with bias instability of 3.56×10-4°/h. Comparisons show that such performance is even better than the conventional "minimal scheme" that operates on one polarization...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Y Bidel, N Zahzam, C Blanchard, A Bonnin, M Cadoret, A Bresson, D Rouxel, M F Lequentrec-Lalancette
Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Prashant Kumar Prasad, Pravin Salunke, Daisy Sahni, Parveen Kalra
Purpose: The existing literature on lateral atlantoaxial joints is predominantly on bony facets and is unable to explain various C1-2 motions observed. Geometric morphometry of facets would help us in understanding the role of cartilages in C1-2 biomechanics/kinematics. Objective: Anthropometric measurements (bone and cartilage) of the atlantoaxial joint and to assess the role of cartilages in joint biomechanics. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 10 cadaveric atlantoaxial lateral joints with the articular cartilage in situ and after removing it, using three-dimensional laser scanner...
October 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
Hui Li, Liying Liu, Zhili Lin, Qiwei Wang, Xiao Wang, Lishuang Feng
A new double closed-loop control system with mean-square exponential stability is firstly proposed to optimize the detection accuracy and dynamic response characteristic of the integrated optical resonance gyroscope (IORG). The influence mechanism of optical nonlinear effects on system detection sensitivity is investigated to optimize the demodulation gain, the maximum sensitivity and the linear work region of a gyro system. Especially, we analyze the effect of optical parameter fluctuation on the parameter uncertainty of system, and investigate the influence principle of laser locking-frequency noise on the closed-loop detection accuracy of angular velocity...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Xiaoting Guo, Changku Sun, Peng Wang, Lu Huang
To determine the relative attitude between the objects on a moving base and the base reference system by a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) gyroscope, the motion information of the base is redundant, which must be removed from the gyroscope. Our strategy is to add an auxiliary gyroscope attached to the reference system. The master gyroscope is to sense the total motion, and the auxiliary gyroscope is to sense the motion of the moving base. By a generalized difference method, relative attitude in a non-inertial frame can be determined by dual gyroscopes...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yanru Zhou, Yuxiang Zhao, Dengwei Zhang, Xiaowu Shu, Shuangliang Che
Based on the theory of the radial magnetic error (RME) in depolarized interference fiber optic gyroscopes (D-IFOGs) under magnetic field, a new optical method is proposed to decrease the RME by adding a suppressing section fiber (SSF) in D-IFOGs. A related theoretical model is established, and the solutions of the parameters of the SSF are obtained with numerical calculations. Then the results of the suppressed RME are simulated. An experimental system is set up to verify the theory and simulation, and the experimental results prove that the RME can be suppressed effectively with a SSF added in the D-IFOG...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
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