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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088635/mucoadhesive-amorphous-solid-dispersions-for-sustained-release-of-poorly-water-soluble-drugs
#1
Justin S LaFountaine, Leena Kumari Prasad, Dave A Miller, James W McGinity, Robert O Williams
The oral delivery of mucoadhesive patches has been shown to enhance the absorption of large molecules such as peptides. We hypothesized that this mechanism could have utility for poorly soluble small molecules by utilizing a mucoadhesive polymer as the matrix for an amorphous solid dispersion. Binary dispersions of itraconazole and carbomer (Carbopol 71G) were prepared utilizing a thermokinetic mixing process (KinetiSol Dispersing) and the physicochemical properties were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction, calorimetry, and liquid chromatography...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088310/performance-limitations-of-networked-control-systems-with-quantization-and-packet-dropouts
#2
Xiao-Wei Jiang, Xian-He Zhang, Zhi-Hong Guan, Li Yu, Huai-Cheng Yan
This paper investigates the problem of optimal tracking performance of networked control systems (NCSs) with quantization and packet-dropouts. The system under consideration is linear time-invariant (LTI), multi-input multi-output (MIMO), where an H2 norm of error signal between the reference input and the system output is used as the tracking performance index. The impacts of packet-dropouts in the communication channel and the quantized input and output are studied. The goal is to obtain the minimal error in tracking a random signal, by searching through all possible stabilizing two-parameter controllers...
January 11, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088150/optimal-orientation-of-an-asymmetric-top-molecule-with-terahertz-pulses
#3
L H Coudert
Terahertz pulses effects are investigated in an asymmetric top C2v molecule using numerical simulations. The average value of the direction cosine ΦZx is computed solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation for several types of pulses. The H2S molecule taken as a test case is first subject to two short terahertz pulses with a duration smaller than 5 ps, an identical maximum value of the electric field of 2 MV/cm, but a different shape. The thermal average ⟨⟨ΦZx⟩⟩ is calculated for several temperatures, and non-periodic time variations are found even for the lowest temperature...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088060/life-cycle-analysis-of-mitigation-methodologies-for-railway-rolling-noise-and-groundbourne-vibration
#4
Mariana Valente Tuler, Sakdirat Kaewunruen
Negative outcomes such as noise and vibration generated by railways have become a challenge for both industry and academia in order to guarantee that the railway system can accomplish its purposes and at the same time provide comfort for users and people living in the neighbourhood along the railway corridor. The research interest on this field has been increasing and the advancement in noise and vibration mitigation methodologies can be observed using various engineering techniques that are constantly put into test to solve such effects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087591/clinical-trials-in-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis-what-we-have-learnt-so-far-and-what-we-still-have-to-learn
#5
Divi Cornec, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Ulrich Specks
The prognosis of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitides (AAV), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and eosinophilic GPA (EGPA), has been fundamentally improved over the last five decades by the use of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants, turning them from consistently fatal diseases into chronic conditions. The long-term course is now largely determined by the frequency of disease flares and by accruing damage caused by disease activity and treatment-related comorbidities...
January 12, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087058/robust-observer-based-passive-control-for-uncertain-singular-time-delay-systems-subject-to-actuator-saturation
#6
Yuechao Ma, Pingjing Yang, Yifang Yan, Qingling Zhang
This paper investigates the problem of robust observer-based passive control for uncertain singular time-delay system subject to actuator saturation. A polytopic approach is used to describe the saturation behavior. First, by constructing Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a less conservative sufficient condition is obtained which guarantees that the closed-loop system is regular, impulse free, stable and robust strictly passive. Then, with this condition, the design method of state feedback controller and the observer are given by solving linear matrix inequalities...
January 10, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081463/analysis-of-the-results-of-recurrent-intracranial-meningiomas-treated-with-re-radiosurgery
#7
Moinay Kim, Do Hee Lee, Hyun Jung Kim Rn, Young Hyun Cho, Jeong Hoon Kim, Do Hoon Kwon
OBJECTS: Meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm, comprising approximately 30% of all primary intracranial tumors (Claus et al., 2005) [1]. Treatment options include observation, microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a very effective treatment for intracranial meningiomas; previous studies showed the tumor control rate at 5-10 years of follow-up as 84.3%-100% in all cases (Feigl et al...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081239/statistical-modeling-applied-to-deformation-relaxation-processes-in-a-composite-biopolymer-network-induced-by-magnetic-field
#8
Javier Tarrío-Saavedra, Cécilia Galindo González, Salvador Naya, Jorge López-Beceiro, Alain Ponton
This study investigated a methodology based on image processing and statistics to characterize and model the deformation upon controlled and uniform magnetic field and the relaxation under zero field of droplets observed in aqueous solutions of sodium alginate incorporating magnetic maghemite nanoparticles stabilized by adsorption of citrate ions. The changes of droplet geometry were statistically analyzed using a new approach based on the data obtained from optical microscopy, image processing, nonlinear regression, evolutionary optimization, analysis of variance and resampling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081126/a-pan-lyssavirus-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-highly-variable-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#9
Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Jinxin Gao, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Crystal M Gigante, Hui Zhao, Xiaoyue Ma, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lillian Orciari, Yu Li
Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080157/detection-of-recurrence-in-early-stage-endometrial-cancer-the-role-of-symptoms-and-routine-follow-up
#10
Mette Moustgaard Jeppesen, Ole Mogensen, Dorte Gilså Hansen, Maria Iachina, Malene Korsholm, Pernille Tine Jensen
BACKGROUND: Considerable controversy remains as to the optimal organization of endometrial cancer follow-up. AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the way recurrence was detected and survival after treatment for endometrial cancer. Further, to identify characteristics associated with a pre-scheduled examination in women with symptomatic recurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All women with early stage endometrial cancer during 2005-2009 were included in a population-based historical cohort derived from the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080037/global-metabolic-engineering-of-glycolytic-pathway-via-multi-copy-integration-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Ryosuke Yamada, Kazuki Wakita, Hiroyasu Ogino
The use of renewable feedstocks for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals by engineering metabolic pathways of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently become an attractive option. Many researchers attempted to increase glucose consumption rate by overexpressing some glycolytic enzymes because most target bio-based chemicals are derived through glycolysis. However these attempts have met with little success. In this study, to create a S. cerevisiae strain with high glucose consumption rate, we used multi-copy integration to develop a global metabolic engineering strategy...
January 12, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079861/endoscopic-vs-surgical-interventions-for-painful-chronic-pancreatitis-what-is-needed-for-future-clinical-trials
#12
REVIEW
John A Windsor, Nageshwar D Reddy
The treatment of painful chronic pancreatitis remains controversial. The available evidence from two randomized controlled trials favor surgical intervention, whereas an endotherapy-first approach is widely practiced. Chronic pancreatitis is complex disease with different genetic and environmental factors, different pain mechanisms and different treatment modalities including medical, endoscopic, and surgical. The widely practiced step-up approach remains unproven. In designing future clinical trials there are some important pre-requisites including a more comprehensive pain assessment tool, the optimization of conservative medical treatment and interventional techniques...
January 12, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078916/in-vivo-protection-studies-of-bis-quaternary-2-hydroxyimino-n-pyridin-3-yl-acetamide-derivatives-hnk-oximes-against-tabun-and-soman-poisoning-in-swiss-albino-mice
#13
P Kumar, D Swami, D P Nagar, K P Singh, J Acharya, H N Karade, R Yadav
The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076634/immediate-versus-delayed-treatment-for-recently-symptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#14
Vladimir Vasconcelos, Nicolle Cassola, Edina Mariko Koga da Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista-Silva
BACKGROUND: The timing of surgery for recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis remains controversial. Early cerebral revascularization may prevent a disabling or fatal ischemic recurrence, but it may also increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation, or of dislodging a thrombus. This review examined the randomized controlled evidence that addressed whether the increased risk of recurrent events outweighed the increased benefit of an earlier intervention. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risks and benefits of performing very early cerebral revascularization (within two days) compared with delayed treatment (after two days) for people with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076562/mycophenolate-mofetil-as-an-immunomodulator-in-refractory-noninfectious-uveitis
#15
Ever Ernesto Caso Rodriguez, Viviane Mayumi Sakata, Daniel Cesar Torres Melo Cavalcanti, Juliana Marques Zaghetto, Edilberto Olivalves, Carlos Eduardo Hirata, Joyce Hisae Yamamoto
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis using the methods advocated by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group and to compare this with other studies of immunosuppression in ocular inflammation. Methods: Retrospective case series. Patients with noninfectious uveitis, followed at a tertiary Uveitis Service in São Paulo, Brazil, from 2007 to 2014 and receiving oral MMF for a minimum of 6 months, were retrospectively reviewed...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076365/gene-expression-profiling-in-slow-type-calf-soleus-muscle-of-30-days-space-flown-mice
#16
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073461/assessing-in-situ-dominance-pattern-of-phytoplankton-classes-by-dominance-analysis-as-a-proxy-for-realized-niches
#17
Susanne Dunker, Karin Nadrowski, Torsten Jakob, Peter Kasprzak, Annette Becker, Uwe Langner, Christfried Kunath, Stan Harpole, Christian Wilhelm
This study looks at two facets of dominant phytoplankton classes during phytoplankton succession. A detailed assessment of this issue is of special interest with regard to realized niches from a theoretical point of view but also for lake management as practical application. A realized niche mirrors the functional adaptability of an organism in a lake-specific constellation of environmental parameters. Therefore, the characterization of realized niches could be a key factor for management of problematic waters...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073253/harnessing-insect-microbe-chemical-communications-to-control-insect-pests-of-agricultural-systems
#18
John J Beck, Rachel L Vannette
Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072924/cryopreservation-of-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-sperm-impact-of-seeding-and-freezing-rates-on-post-thaw-outputs
#19
Sergii Boryshpolets, Denisa Sochorová, Marek Rodina, Otomar Linhart, Borys Dzyuba
In the present study, we examined various freezing protocols, effects of controlled seeding, and changes in cooling rate and determined the endpoint (temperature at which sample could be plugged into liquid nitrogen (LN) without visible effect on survival rate after thawing) to reveal the relative importance of each different stage of cooling on freezing success during cryobanking of carp sperm. Sperm samples from different individual carp males were frozen in 0.5 mL straws by conventional freezing. Cooling rates were determined by monitoring the sample's internal temperature...
January 10, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071947/presacral-abscess-as-a-rare-complication-of-sacral-nerve-stimulator-implantation
#20
A Gumber, S Ayyar, H Varia, S Pettit
A 50-year-old man with intractable anal pain attributed to proctalgia fugax underwent insertion of a sacral nerve stimulator via the right S3 vertebral foramen for pain control with good symptomatic relief. Thirteen months later, he presented with signs of sepsis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large presacral abscess. MRI demonstrated increased enhancement along the pathway of the stimulator electrode, indicating that the abscess was caused by infection introduced at the time of sacral nerve stimulator placement...
January 10, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
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