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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141366/-in-vitro-early-detection-of-amyloid-plaques-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-pittsburgh-compound-b-modified-magnetic-nanoparticles
#1
J Q Zeng, J Q Wu, M H Li, P J Wang
Objective: To construct magnetic nanoparticles targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, the pathological biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to study their binding capability in vitro. Methods: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles Mn(0.6)Zn(0.4)Fe(2)O(4) (MZF) were coated with amphiphilic star-block copolymeric micelles and modified with Aβ-specific probe Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to construct a novel magnetic nanoparticle MZF-PiB, which specifically targeted amyloid plaques. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the morphological features of MZF-PiB...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141353/-progress-in-research-of-thyroid-carcinoma-related-gene-mutation-and-epigenetics
#2
W H Zheng, W W Gong, F Lu, M Yu
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine malignant tumors, and its molecular pathogenesis is also a process of multiple genes involved in many steps of carcinogenesis. With the development of molecular biology technology, a variety of related gene mutations and epigenetic phenomena have been found in thyroid cancer tissues. It is helpful to understand the latest progress in the research of the gene mutation and epigenetics of thyroid cancer for its early diagnosis, prevention and the development of targeted drugs...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141227/in-situ-fixation-redefines-quiescence-and-early-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#3
Léo Machado, Joana Esteves de Lima, Odile Fabre, Caroline Proux, Rachel Legendre, Anikó Szegedi, Hugo Varet, Lars Roed Ingerslev, Romain Barrès, Frédéric Relaix, Philippos Mourikis
State of the art techniques have been developed to isolate and analyze cells from various tissues, aiming to capture their in vivo state. However, the majority of cell isolation protocols involve lengthy mechanical and enzymatic dissociation steps followed by flow cytometry, exposing cells to stress and disrupting their physiological niche. Focusing on adult skeletal muscle stem cells, we have developed a protocol that circumvents the impact of isolation procedures and captures cells in their native quiescent state...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141225/a-comprehensive-patient-derived-xenograft-collection-representing-the-heterogeneity-of-melanoma
#4
Clemens Krepler, Katrin Sproesser, Patricia Brafford, Marilda Beqiri, Bradley Garman, Min Xiao, Batool Shannan, Andrea Watters, Michela Perego, Gao Zhang, Adina Vultur, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Ioannis N Anastopoulos, Bradley Wubbenhorst, Melissa A Wilson, Wei Xu, Giorgos Karakousis, Michael Feldman, Xiaowei Xu, Ravi Amaravadi, Tara C Gangadhar, David E Elder, Lauren E Haydu, Jennifer A Wargo, Michael A Davies, Yiling Lu, Gordon B Mills, Dennie T Frederick, Michal Barzily-Rokni, Keith T Flaherty, Dave S Hoon, Michael Guarino, Joseph J Bennett, Randall W Ryan, Nicholas J Petrelli, Carol L Shields, Mizue Terai, Takami Sato, Andrew E Aplin, Alexander Roesch, David Darr, Steve Angus, Rakesh Kumar, Ensar Halilovic, Giordano Caponigro, Sebastien Jeay, Jens Wuerthner, Annette Walter, Matthias Ocker, Matthew B Boxer, Lynn Schuchter, Katherine L Nathanson, Meenhard Herlyn
Therapy of advanced melanoma is changing dramatically. Following mutational and biological subclassification of this heterogeneous cancer, several targeted and immune therapies were approved and increased survival significantly. To facilitate further advancements through pre-clinical in vivo modeling, we have established 459 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and live tissue samples from 384 patients representing the full spectrum of clinical, therapeutic, mutational, and biological heterogeneity of melanoma...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141224/genetic-and-genomic-characterization-of-462-melanoma-patient-derived-xenografts-tumor-biopsies-and-cell-lines
#5
Bradley Garman, Ioannis N Anastopoulos, Clemens Krepler, Patricia Brafford, Katrin Sproesser, Yuchao Jiang, Bradley Wubbenhorst, Ravi Amaravadi, Joseph Bennett, Marilda Beqiri, David Elder, Keith T Flaherty, Dennie T Frederick, Tara C Gangadhar, Michael Guarino, David Hoon, Giorgos Karakousis, Qin Liu, Nandita Mitra, Nicholas J Petrelli, Lynn Schuchter, Batool Shannan, Carol L Shields, Jennifer Wargo, Brandon Wenz, Melissa A Wilson, Min Xiao, Wei Xu, Xaiowei Xu, Xiangfan Yin, Nancy R Zhang, Michael A Davies, Meenhard Herlyn, Katherine L Nathanson
Tumor-sequencing studies have revealed the widespread genetic diversity of melanoma. Sequencing of 108 genes previously implicated in melanomagenesis was performed on 462 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), cell lines, and tumors to identify mutational and copy number aberrations. Samples came from 371 unique individuals: 263 were naive to treatment, and 108 were previously treated with targeted therapy (34), immunotherapy (54), or both (20). Models of all previously reported major melanoma subtypes (BRAF, NRAS, NF1, KIT, and WT/WT/WT) were identified...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141205/investigation-of-alimentary-canal-ultrastructure-following-knockdown-of-the-dicer-2-gene-in-planthoppers-reveals-the-potential-pathogenicity-of-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-to-its-insect-vector
#6
Yuyan Liu, Qianzhuo Mao, Hanhong Lan, Haitao Wang, Taiyun Wei, Qian Chen
An increasing number of studies are suggesting that plant viruses, including southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), can adversely affect biological characteristics of insect vectors by unknown mechanisms. To study the adverse effect of SRBSDV at cellular level on the insect vector, we promoted viral infection by the disruption of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. The transmission electron microscopy was utilized to describe the ultrastructural changes that occurred in insects when the core component of the siRNA pathway, Dicer-2, was knocked down...
November 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141199/disruption-of-mitochondrial-function-as-mechanism-for-anti-cancer-activity-of-a-novel-mitochondriotropic-menadione-derivative
#7
José Teixeira, Ricardo Amorim, Katia Santos, Pedro Soares, Sandipan Datta, Gino A Cortopassi, Teresa L Serafim, Vilma A Sardão, Jorge Garrido, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Menadione, also known as vitamin K3, is a 2-methyl-1,4 naphthoquinone with a potent cytotoxic activity mainly resulting from its quinone redox-cycling with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although increased ROS generation is considered a relevant mechanism in cancer cell death, it may not be sufficiently effective to kill cancer cells due to phenotypic adaptations. Therefore, combining ROS-generating agents with other molecules targeting important cancer cell phenotypes can be an effective therapeutic strategy...
November 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141149/surface-modification-of-cisplatin-complexed-gold-nanoparticles-and-its-influence-on-colloidal-stability-drug-loading-and-release
#8
Jiaojie Tan, Tae Joon Cho, De-Hao Tsai, Jingyu Liu, John M Pettibone, Rian You, Vincent A Hackley, Michael R Zachariah
Cisplatin-complexed gold nanoparticles (PtII-AuNP) provide a promising strategy for chemo-radiation based anticancer drugs. Effective design of such platforms necessitates reliable assessment of surface engineering on a quantitative basis, and its influence on drug payload, stability and release. In this paper, polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized PtII-AuNP was synthesized as a model anti-tumor drug platform, where PtII is attached via a carboxyl terminated dendron ligand. Surface modification by PEG and its influence on drug loading, colloidal stability and drug release were assessed...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141143/michael-michael-addition-reactions-promoted-by-secondary-amine-thiourea-stereocontrolled-construction-of-barbiturate-fused-tetrahydropyrano-scaffolds-and-pyranocoumarins
#9
Jing Zhang, Guohui Yin, Yuchao Du, Ziqi Yang, Yang Li, Ligong Chen
Bifunctional secondary amine-thiourea organocatalysts were successfully applied in the stereocontrolled synthesis of barbiturate fused tetrahydropyrano scaffold. As compared with the generally used tertiary amine-thiourea organocatalysts, they exhibited Bifunctional secondary amine-thiourea organocatalysts were successfully applied in the stereocontrolled synthesis of barbiturate-fused tetrahydropyrano scaffolds. Compared with typically used tertiary amine-thiourea organocatalysts, the developed catalysts exhibited excellent catalytic performance in the domino Michael-Michael reaction between N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid and Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates of nitroalkenes to yield pharmaceutically important heterocycles in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141107/metal-transformation-as-a-strategy-for-bacterial-detoxification-of-heavy-metals
#10
Ashraf M M Essa, Mohamed A Al Abboud, Sayeed I Khatib
Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141069/a-novel-multi-targeting-approach-to-treating-hair-loss-using-standardized-nutraceuticals
#11
Patricia K Farris, Nicole Rogers, Amy McMichael, Sophia Kogan
<p>Hair loss is a complicated problem that causes significant concern for those who are affected. Patients seeking medical treatment have limited options that include topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. While these treatments are backed by long term clinical use and research outcomes, many patients find topical minoxidil difficult to incorporate into their daily routine and some are concerned with the side effects associated with finasteride. In the office setting, patients may be treated with more invasive procedures such as platelet-rich plasma injections (PRP) and hair transplantation, treatments that often must be repeated and can lead to a costly investment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141058/disparity-in-cutaneous-pigmentary-response-to-led-vs-halogen-incandescent-visible-light-results-from-a-single-center-investigational-clinical-trial-determining-a-minimal-pigmentary-visible-light-dose
#12
Teo Soleymani, David E Cohen, Lorcan M Folan, Uchenna R Okereke, Nada Elbuluk, Nicholas A Soter
<p>Background: While most of the attention regarding skin pigmentation has focused on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, the cutaneous effects of visible light (400 to 700nm) are rarely reported. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cutaneous pigmentary response to pure visible light irradiation, examine the difference in response to different sources of visible light irradiation, and determine a minimal pigmentary dose of visible light irradiation in melanocompetent subjects with Fitzpatrick skin type III - VI...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141037/edna-for-detection-of-five-highly-invasive-molluscs-a-case-study-in-urban-rivers-from-the-iberian-peninsula
#13
Laura Clusa, Laura Miralles, Ana Basanta, Carmelo Escot, Eva García-Vázquez
Biological invasions are an important threat to biodiversity especially in aquatic ecosystems, and their frequency is generally higher near urban areas. Potentially invasive non-indigenous molluscs were deliberately introduced into European waters for food (Corbicula fluminea) and biocontrol (Melanoides tuberculata), and unintentionally introduced by ballast water (Mytilopsis leucophaeata, Corbicula fluminea), stock contamination (Sinanodonta woodiana), accidental escapes from aquaculture (Sinanodonta woodiana), aquarium trade releases (Melanoides tuberculata) and even attached to aquatic birds (Corbicula fluminea)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141035/influence-of-boron-supplementation-on-performance-immunity-and-antioxidant-status-of-lambs-fed-diets-with-or-without-adequate-level-of-calcium
#14
T Vijay Bhasker, N K S Gowda, D T Pal, S Karthik Bhat, P Krishnamoorthy, S Mondal, A K Pattanaik, A K Verma
Little is known about biological significance of effects of dietary Boron (B) and Calcium (Ca) interaction on health and production of farm animals. This is a preliminary investigation to evaluate the effects of B supplementation in lambs fed diets with (normal) or without adequate (low) levels of Ca. Twenty-four crossbred ram lambs were randomly distributed into four groups with six animals each in a 2x2 factorial design namely, normal-Ca diet (NCa) and low-Ca diet (LCa) fed without or with 40 ppm B (NCaB-40 and LCaB-40)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141031/developmental-patterning-of-sub-epidermal-cells-in-the-outer-integument-of-arabidopsis-seeds
#15
Elisa Fiume, Olivier Coen, Wenjia Xu, Loïc Lepiniec, Enrico Magnani
The seed, the reproductive unit of angiosperms, is generally protected by the seed coat. The seed coat is made of one or two integuments, each comprising two epidermal cells layers and, in some cases, extra sub-epidermal cell layers. The thickness of the seed-coat affects several aspects of seed biology such as dormancy, germination and mortality. In Arabidopsis, the inner integument displays one or two sub-epidermal cell layers that originate from periclinal cell divisions of the innermost epidermal cell layer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141026/in-depth-phenotypic-characterization-of-multicellular-tumor-spheroids-effects-of-5-fluorouracil
#16
Angélique Virgone-Carlotta, Manon Lemasson, Hichem C Mertani, Jean-Jacques Diaz, Sylvain Monnier, Thomas Dehoux, Hélène Delanoë-Ayari, Charlotte Rivière, Jean-Paul Rieu
MultiCellular Tumor Spheroids (MCTS), which mimic the 3-Dimensional (3D) organization of a tumor, are considered as better models than conventional cultures in 2-Dimensions (2D) to study cancer cell biology and to evaluate the response to chemotherapeutic drugs. A real time and quantitative follow-up of MCTS with simple and robust readouts to evaluate drug efficacy is still missing. Here, we evaluate the chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) response on the growth and integrity of MCTS two days after treatment of MCTS and for three colorectal carcinoma cell lines with different cohesive properties (HT29, HCT116 and SW480)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141020/genomic-analysis-of-atypical-fibroxanthoma
#17
Kevin Lai, Catherine A Harwood, Karin J Purdie, Charlotte M Proby, Irene M Leigh, Namita Ravi, Thaddeus W Mully, Lionel Brooks, Priscilla M Sandoval, Michael D Rosenblum, Sarah T Arron
Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), is a rare type of skin cancer affecting older individuals with sun damaged skin. Since there is limited genomic information about AFX, our study seeks to improve the understanding of AFX through whole-exome and RNA sequencing of 8 matched tumor-normal samples. AFX is a highly mutated malignancy with recurrent mutations in a number of genes, including COL11A1, ERBB4, CSMD3, and FAT1. The majority of mutations identified were UV signature (C>T in dipyrimidines). We observed deletion of chromosomal segments on chr9p and chr13q, including tumor suppressor genes such as KANK1 and CDKN2A, but no gene fusions were found...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141018/evaluation-of-the-proliferation-marker-ki-67-in-a-large-prostatectomy-cohort
#18
Elin Richardsen, Sigve Andersen, Samer Al-Saad, Mehrdad Rakaee, Yngve Nordby, Mona Irene Pedersen, Nora Ness, Thea Grindstad, Ingeborg Movik, Tom Dønnem, Roy Bremnes, Lill-Tove Busund
The tumor proliferation index marker Ki-67 is strongly associated with tumor cell proliferation, growth and progression, and is widely used in routine clinicopathological investigation. Prostate cancer is a complex multifaceted and biologically heterogeneous disease, and overtreatment of localized, low volume indolent tumors, is evident. Here, we aimed to assess Ki-67 expression and related outcomes of 535 patients treated with radical prostatectomy. The percentage of tumor epithelial cells expressing Ki-67 was determined by immunohistochemical assay, both digital image analysis and visual scoring by light microscope were used for quantification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141015/nematocytes-discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-anculeate-hemocyte-in-drosophila-falleni-and-drosophila-phalerata
#19
Julianna Bozler, Balint Z Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco
Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species' survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141007/escitalopram-and-nht-normalized-stress-induced-anhedonia-and-molecular-neuroadaptations-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression
#20
Or Burstein, Motty Franko, Eyal Gale, Assaf Handelsman, Segev Barak, Shai Motsan, Alon Shamir, Roni Toledano, Omri Simhon, Yafit Hirshler, Gang Chen, Ravid Doron
Anhedonia is defined as a diminished ability to obtain pleasure from otherwise positive stimuli. Anxiety and mood disorders have been previously associated with dysregulation of the reward system, with anhedonia as a core element of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced anhedonia could be prevented by treatments with escitalopram or novel herbal treatment (NHT) in an animal model of depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) was administered for 4 weeks on ICR outbred mice...
2017: PloS One
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