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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813106/first-record-of-scybalocanthon-nigriceps-harold-1868-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae-in-rio-grande-do-sul-state-southern-brazil
#1
Sheila C Ferreira, Rocco A DI Mare, Pedro G DA Silva
The dung beetle, Scybalocanthon nigriceps (Harold, 1868), is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, for the first time, at the Moreno Fortes Biological Reserve, municipality of Dois Irmãos das Missões, northwest region of the state, expanding the area of occurrence and distribution of this species in the country.
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813100/first-assessment-of-carbon-stock-in-the-belowground-biomass-of-brazilian-mangroves
#2
Daniel M C Santos, Gustavo C D Estrada, Viviane Fernandez, Marciel R M Estevam, Brunna T DE Souza, Mário L G Soares
Studies on belowground roots biomass have increasingly reported the importance of the contribution of this compartment in carbon stock maintenance in mangrove forests. To date, there are no estimates of this contribution in Brazilian mangrove forests, although the country has the second largest area of mangroves worldwide. For this study, trenches dug in fringing forests in Guaratiba State Biological Reserve (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were used to evaluate the contribution of the different classes of roots and the vertical stratification of carbon stock...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813055/multivesicular-droplets-a-cell-model-system-to-study-compartmentalised-biochemical-reactions
#3
N Nuti, P E Verboket, P S Dittrich
Multivesicular vesicles (MVVs) are artificial liposomal structures widely used as a platform to study the compartmentalisation of cells and as a scaffold for artificial cell/protocell models. Current preparation techniques for MVVs, however, offer poor control on the size, lamellarity, and loading of inner lipid vesicles. Here, we introduce a microfluidic device for the production of multivesicular droplets (MVDs): a novel model system combining the ease of use and control of droplet microfluidics with the biological relevance of MVVs...
August 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813043/folic-acid-supramolecular-ionogels
#4
Rahul Ranjan, Kamla Rawat, H B Bohidar
Herein, we report on folic acid (FA, a low molecular weight gelator) thermoreversible supramolecular organo (in 1 : 1 (v/v) water-DMSO binary solvent), and ionogels made in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride, [C2mim][Cl], and 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride, [C8mim][Cl], solutions with 0.1 ≤ [IL] ≤ 5% (w/v). The self-assembled fibrils of folic acid were largely formed due to secondary forces, such as π-π stacking, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions above a gelator concentration of 0...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813011/insights-into-the-effect-of-the-g245s-single-point-mutation-on-the-structure-of-p53-and-the-binding-of-the-protein-to-dna
#6
Marco Gaetano Lepre, Sara Ibrahim Omar, Gianvito Grasso, Umberto Morbiducci, Marco Agostino Deriu, Jack A Tuszynski
The transcription factor p53 is a potent tumor suppressor dubbed as the "guardian of the genome" because of its ability to orchestrate protective biological outputs in response to a variety of oncogenic stresses. Mutation and thus inactivation of p53 can be found in 50% of human tumors. The majority are missense mutations located in the DNA binding region. Among them, G245S is known to be a structural hotspot mutation. To understand the behaviors and differences between the wild-type and mutant, both a dimer of the wild type p53 (wt-p53) and its G245S mutant (G245S-mp53), complexed with DNA, were simulated using molecular dynamics for more than 1 μs...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813004/lactose-binding-induces-opposing-dynamics-changes-in-human-galectins-revealed-by-nmr-based-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange
#7
Chih-Ta Henry Chien, Meng-Ru Ho, Chung-Hung Lin, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8(NTD) and hGal8(CTD), respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812991/the-retinoblastoma-rb-tumor-suppressor-pushing-back-against-genome-instability-on-multiple-fronts
#8
REVIEW
Renier Vélez-Cruz, David G Johnson
The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is known as a master regulator of the cell cycle. RB is mutated or functionally inactivated in the majority of human cancers. This transcriptional regulator exerts its function in cell cycle control through its interaction with the E2F family of transcription factors and with chromatin remodelers and modifiers that contribute to the repression of genes important for cell cycle progression. Over the years, studies have shown that RB participates in multiple processes in addition to cell cycle control...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812987/a-microneedle-functionalized-with-polyethyleneimine-and-nanotubes-for-highly-sensitive-label-free-quantification-of-dna
#9
Darius Saadat-Moghaddam, Jong-Hoon Kim
The accurate measure of DNA concentration is necessary for many DNA-based biological applications. However, the current methods are limited in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, human error, and contamination. Here, we present a microneedle functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for the highly sensitive quantification of DNA. The microneedle was fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) lithography and anisotropic etching, and then functionalized with PEI and SWCNTs through a dip coating process...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812955/igg-cooperativity-is-there-allostery-implications-for-antibody-functions-and-therapeutic-antibody-development
#10
Danlin Yang, Rachel Kroe-Barrett, Sanjaya Singh, Christopher J Roberts, Thomas M Laue
A central dogma in immunology is that an antibody's in vivo functionality is mediated by two independent events: antigen binding by the variable (V) region, followed by effector activation by the constant (C) region. However, this view has recently been challenged by reports suggesting allostery exists between the two regions, triggered by conformational changes or configurational differences. The possibility of allosteric signals propagating through the IgG domains complicates our understanding of the antibody structure-function relationship, and challenges the current subclass selection process in therapeutic antibody design...
August 16, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812915/kardiovize-brno-2030-a-prospective-cardiovascular-health-study-in-central-europe-methods-baseline-findings-and-future-directions
#11
Narine K Movsisyan, Manlio Vinciguerra, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Šárka Kunzová, Martin Homolka, Jana Jaresova, Renata Cífková, Ondřej Sochor
Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, where the incidence is the highest in the world. The Kardiovize Brno 2030 study was designed as a prospective cohort study to investigate the complex relationships of cardiovascular disease and outcomes with a range of biological, psychosocial, environmental, behavioral, and economic factors in an urban population of the Czech Republic. Methods We randomly selected a 1% sample of the city of Brno residents aged 25-64 years stratified by sex and age...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812907/recommended-reading-from-university-hospital-cleveland-fellows
#12
Amy Attaway, Mirna Ayache, Shrey Velani, Joanne McKell
We review three recent and very interesting articles that have come out in the literature that made us reconsider certain aspects of asthma. These studies ask us whether a biologic is emerging that can be used in patients with normal IgE and no evidence of eosinophilia, if late onset asthma is associated with cardiovascular disease, and finally how different types of environmental exposures can influence the development of asthma in farming cultures.
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812892/designer-extracts-as-tools-to-balance-estrogenic-and-chemopreventive-activities-of-botanicals-for-women-s-health
#13
Birgit M Dietz, Shao-Nong Chen, René F Ramos Alvarenga, Huali Dong, Dejan Nikolić, Martin Biendl, Richard B van Breemen, Judy L Bolton, Guido F Pauli
Botanical dietary supplements contain multiple bioactive compounds that target numerous biological pathways. The lack of uniform standardization requirements is one reason that inconsistent clinical effects are reported frequently. The multifaceted biological interactions of active principles can be disentangled by a coupled pharmacological/phytochemical approach using specialized ("knock-out") extracts. This is demonstrated for hops, a botanical for menopausal symptom management. Employing targeted, adsorbent-free countercurrent separation, Humulus lupulus extracts were designed for pre- and postmenopausal women by containing various amounts of the phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and the chemopreventive constituent xanthohumol (XH)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812774/self-adaptive-hydrogels-to-mineralization
#14
Tooba Shoaib, Ariel Carmichael, R E Corman, Yun Shen, Thanh H Nguyen, Randy H Ewoldt, Rosa M Espinosa-Marzal
Mineralized biological tissues, whose behavior can range from rigid to compliant, are an essential component of vertebrates and invertebrates. Little is known about how the behavior of mineralized yet compliant tissues can be tuned by the degree of mineralization. In this work, a synthesis route to tune the structure and mechanical response of agarose gels via ionic crosslinking and mineralization has been developed. A combination of experimental techniques demonstrates that crosslinking via cooperative hydrogen bonding in agarose gels is disturbed by calcium ions, but they promote ionic crosslinking that modifies the agarose network...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812740/higher-order-interactions-capture-unexplained-complexity-in-diverse-communities
#15
Margaret M Mayfield, Daniel B Stouffer
Natural communities are well known to be maintained by many complex processes. Despite this, the practical aspects of studying them often require some simplification, such as the widespread assumption that direct, additive competition captures the important details about how interactions between species impact community diversity. More complex non-additive 'higher-order' interactions are assumed to be negligible or absent. Notably, these assumptions are poorly supported and have major consequences for the accuracy with which patterns of natural diversity are modelled and explained...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812734/human-behaviour-as-a-long-term-ecological-driver-of-non-human-evolution
#16
REVIEW
Alexis P Sullivan, Douglas W Bird, George H Perry
Due to our intensive subsistence and habitat-modification strategies-including broad-spectrum harvesting and predation, widespread landscape burning, settlement construction, and translocation of other species-humans have major roles as ecological actors who influence fundamental trophic interactions. Here we review how the long-term history of human-environment interaction has shaped the evolutionary biology of diverse non-human, non-domesticated species. Clear examples of anthropogenic effects on non-human morphological evolution have been documented in modern studies of substantial changes to body size or other major traits in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in response to selective human harvesting, urbanized habitats, and human-mediated translocation...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812731/cooperation-facilitates-the-colonization-of-harsh-environments
#17
Charlie K Cornwallis, Carlos A Botero, Dustin R Rubenstein, Philip A Downing, Stuart A West, Ashleigh S Griffin
Animals living in harsh environments, where temperatures are hot and rainfall is unpredictable, are more likely to breed in cooperative groups. As a result, harsh environmental conditions have been accepted as a key factor explaining the evolution of cooperation. However, this is based on evidence that has not investigated the order of evolutionary events, so the inferred causality could be incorrect. We resolved this problem using phylogenetic analyses of 4,707 bird species and found that causation was in the opposite direction to that previously assumed...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812729/complex-modular-architecture-around-a-simple-toolkit-of-wing-pattern-genes
#18
Steven M Van Belleghem, Pasi Rastas, Alexie Papanicolaou, Simon H Martin, Carlos F Arias, Megan A Supple, Joseph J Hanly, James Mallet, James J Lewis, Heather M Hines, Mayte Ruiz, Camilo Salazar, Mauricio Linares, Gilson R P Moreira, Chris D Jiggins, Brian A Counterman, W Owen McMillan, Riccardo Papa
Identifying the genomic changes that control morphological variation and understanding how they generate diversity is a major goal of evolutionary biology. In Heliconius butterflies, a small number of genes control the development of diverse wing colour patterns. Here, we used full-genome sequencing of individuals across the Heliconius erato radiation and closely related species to characterize genomic variation associated with wing pattern diversity. We show that variation around colour pattern genes is highly modular, with narrow genomic intervals associated with specific differences in colour and pattern...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812721/predicting-evolution
#19
Michael Lässig, Ville Mustonen, Aleksandra M Walczak
The face of evolutionary biology is changing: from reconstructing and analysing the past to predicting future evolutionary processes. Recent developments include prediction of reproducible patterns in parallel evolution experiments, forecasting the future of individual populations using data from their past, and controlled manipulation of evolutionary dynamics. Here we undertake a synthesis of central concepts for evolutionary predictions, based on examples of microbial and viral systems, cancer cell populations, and immune receptor repertoires...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812712/developmental-biology-formation-of-hybrid-myocardial-zone
#20
Karina Huynh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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