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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906523/developmental-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Robert Lickliter
Biologists and psychologists are re-thinking the long-standing premise of genes as the primary cause of development, a view widely embraced in 20th-century biology. This shift in thinking is based in large part on: (1) the growing appreciation of the complex, distributed regulatory dynamics of gene expression; and (2) the growing appreciation of the probabilistic, contingent, and situated nature of development. We now appreciate that what actually unfolds during individual development represents only one of many possibilities...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906521/modeling-the-human-scarred-heart-in-vitro-toward-new-tissue-engineered-models
#2
Janine C Deddens, Amir Hossein Sadeghi, Jesper Hjortnaes, Linda W van Laake, Marc Buijsrogge, Pieter A Doevendans, Ali Khademhosseini, Joost P G Sluijter
Cardiac remodeling is critical for effective tissue healing, however, excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components contribute to scarring and failing of the heart. Despite the fact that novel therapies have emerged, there are still no lifelong solutions for this problem. An urgent need exists to improve the understanding of adverse cardiac remodeling in order to develop new therapeutic interventions that will prevent, reverse, or regenerate the fibrotic changes in the failing heart...
December 1, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#3
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906516/what-is-the-flynn-effect-and-how-does-it-change-our-understanding-of-iq
#4
REVIEW
David Shenk
In 1981, psychologist James Flynn noticed that IQ scores had risen streadily over nearly a century a staggering difference of 18 points over two generations. After a careful analysis, he concluded the cause to be culture. Society had become more intelligent-come to grips with bigger, more abstract ideas over time-and had made people smarter. This observation, combined with solid evidence that IQ scores are also not fixed within an individual, neatly dispels the idea of intelligence being an innate and fixed entity...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906509/principles-of-brain-development
#5
REVIEW
Joan Stiles
Throughout much of the 20th century, the major models of brain development were strongly deterministic. It was thought that brain development proceeds via a prescribed blueprint that is somehow innately specified in the organism. Contemporary models present a distinctly different view of both inheritance and brain development. First, we do not inherit blueprints or plans, we inherit genes and the cellular machinery for expressing them. Genes carry essential information for creating proteins, but do not determine biological processes or developmental outcomes; the first cells contain the elements necessary for creating proteins based on the information coded in the nucleotide sequences of genes...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906488/total-synthesis-of-leupyrrins-a1-and-b1-highly-potent-antifungal-agents-from-the-myxobacterium-sorangium-cellulosum
#6
Sebastian Thiede, Paul R Wosniok, Daniel Herkommer, Thomas Debnar, Maoqun Tian, Tongtong Wang, Michael Schrempp, Dirk Menche
Full details on the design, elaboration and application of efficient strategies for the high-yielding total syntheses of leupyrrins A1 and B1, unique antifungal agents from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum are reported. A sequential zirconocene-mediated diyne-cyclization and regioselective opening of the zirconacyclopentadiene intermediate enabled a concise entry into the unique dihydrofuran fragment, while another domino reaction was developed for the butyrolactone involving a one-pot lactol opening, stereoselective aldehyde addition and in situ-lactonization...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906449/differential-mutation-frequencies-in-metastatic-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinomas-versus-primary-tumors
#7
Ayse Selen Yilmaz, Hatice Gulcin Ozer, Jessica L Gillespie, Dawn C Allain, Madison N Bernhardt, Karina Colossi Furlan, Leticia T F Castro, Sara B Peters, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Stephen Y Kang, O Hans Iwenofu, Thomas Olencki, Theodoros N Teknos, Amanda Ewart Toland
BACKGROUND: Exome and targeted sequencing studies have identified potential driver mutations for a variety of tumor types. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most highly mutated cancers but typically is associated with low rates of metastasis and high survival rates. Nevertheless, metastatic cSCC is a significant health threat; up to 8800 individuals die each year of this disease. METHODS: Because it is difficult to predict which cSCCs are more likely to metastasize, and because to the best of the authors' knowledge there are no targeted therapies specifically designated for patients with metastatic cSCC, exome and/or targeted sequencing of 18 metastatic and 10 primary cSCCs was performed to identify mutations that were more frequent in metastatic tumors and might be targeted for therapeutic benefit...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906396/gadolinium-oxysulfide-coated-gold-nanorods-with-improved-stability-and-dual-modal-magnetic-resonance-photoacoustic-imaging-contrast-enhancement-for-cancer-theranostics
#8
Tao Guo, Yan Lin, Zhi Li, Shan Chen, Guoming Huang, Huirong Lin, Jun Wang, Gang Liu, Huang-Hao Yang
Gold nanorods (GNRs) are emerging as a promising nanoplatform for cancer theranostics because of their unique optical properties. However, they still suffer from many limitations, such as high cytotoxicity, low thermodynamic and biological stability, and a tedious process for integrating other imaging modalities, for further practical biomedical applications. In this work, a strategy by one-step coating of Gd2O2S around GNRs is reported to address these limitations of GNRs. After the coating of the Gd2O2S shell, the as-fabricated Gd2O2S coated GNRs (GNRs@Gd2O2S) show enhanced biocompatibility and photostability, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonance...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906389/emulation-of-synaptic-metaplasticity-in-memristors
#9
Xiaojian Zhu, Chao Du, YeonJoo Jeong, Wei D Lu
Recent studies have shown that nanoionic-based memristors can offer rich internal dynamics during ion movement that enables these solid-state devices to emulate various synaptic functions in biological systems naturally. The experimental observations can be explained within the 2nd-order memristor theoretical framework, which states that the device conductance (weight) can be determined by multiple internal state variables that can be modulated at different time scales and lead to different activity-dependent synaptic behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906345/grating-coupling-based-excitation-of-bloch-surface-waves-for-lab-on-fiber-optrodes
#10
Michele Scaravilli, Giuseppe Castaldi, Andrea Cusano, Vincenzo Galdi
In this paper, we investigate the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, after exploring an idealized, proof-of-principle grating-coupling-based scheme for on-tip excitation of BSWs, we focus on an alternative configuration that is more robust with respect to fabrication-related non-idealities. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present a specific design aimed at enhancing the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonance with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906343/single-distance-phase-retrieval-algorithm-for-bragg-magnifier-microscope
#11
Stanislav Hrivňak, Jozef Uličný, Ladislav Mikeš, Angelica Cecilia, Elias Hamann, Tilo Baumbach, Libor Švéda, Zdenko Zápražný, Dušan Korytár, Eva Gimenez-Navarro, Ulrich H Wagner, Christoph Rau, Hartmut Greven, Patrik Vagovič
We present an improved, single-distance phase retrieval algorithm applicable for holographic X-ray imaging of biological objects for an in-line germanium Bragg Magnifier Microscope (BMM). The proposed algorithm takes advantage of a modified shrink-wrap algorithm for phase objects, robust unwrapping algorithm as well as other reasonable constraints applied to the wavefield at the object and the detector plane. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed on phantom objects and the results are shown and discussed...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906190/robust-high-throughput-kinetic-analysis-of-apoptosis-with-real-time-high-content-live-cell-imaging
#12
Jesse D Gelles, Jerry Edward Chipuk
Quantitative and kinetic analyses of apoptotic cell death are integral components of exploring cell biology, measuring cellular stress responses, and performing high-throughput genomic/RNAi/drug screens. Here, we present a detailed method that integrates robust kinetic real-time high-content imaging with Annexin V labelling to provide a highly sensitive, accurate, simple and zero-handling approach to quantify extrinsic and intrinsic inducers of apoptosis. The sensitivity of this non-toxic method outperforms previous high-throughput methodologies using viability dyes or caspase-activation reporters...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906169/automated-identification-of-mouse-visual-areas-with-intrinsic-signal-imaging
#13
Ashley L Juavinett, Ian Nauhaus, Marina E Garrett, Jun Zhuang, Edward M Callaway
Intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISI) is a rapid and noninvasive method for observing brain activity in vivo over a large area of the cortex. Here we describe our protocol for mapping retinotopy to identify mouse visual cortical areas using ISI. First, surgery is performed to attach a head frame to the mouse skull (∼1 h). The next day, intrinsic activity across the visual cortex is recorded during the presentation of a full-field drifting bar in the horizontal and vertical directions (∼2 h). Horizontal and vertical retinotopic maps are generated by analyzing the response of each pixel during the period of the stimulus...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906135/seed-germination-and-biochemical-profile-of-silybum-marianum-exposed-to-monometallic-and-bimetallic-alloy-nanoparticles
#14
Muhammad Salman Khan, Mehreen Zaka, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Latifur- Rahman, Afzal Shah
In recent years nanotechnology has become increasingly important in almost every field. The new and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of material at nanoscale have far reaching implications in the fields of science and technology. Nanoparticles' effect on various plant species must be investigated to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. The current study strives to evaluate the effects of nine types of metal nanoparticles including monometallic and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles [Ag, Au, Cu, AgCu (1:3), AgCu (3:1), AuCu (1:3), AuCu (3:1), AgAu (1:3), AgAu (3:1)] on seed germination, root and shoot growth and biochemical profile of Silybum marianum plant...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906096/biological-and-functional-evaluation-of-a-novel-pyrolytic-carbon-implant-for-the-treatment-of-focal-osteochondral-defects-in-the-medial-femoral-condyle-assessment-in-a-canine-model
#15
Samantha L Salkeld, Laura P Patron, Joan C Lien, Stephen D Cook, Deryk G Jones
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral defects continue to be a clinical treatment challenge, and when left untreated, may cause pain and functional impairment. Pyrolytic carbon is a unique isotropic biomaterial used in heart valve and small joint replacements due to its excellent wear properties and biocompatibility with bone and articular cartilage. Therefore, a proposed solution is to utilize a focal pyrolytic carbon hemiarthroplasty implant as an alternative resurfacing treatment strategy for isolated cartilage lesions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906068/novel-use-of-cranial-epidural-space-in-rabbits-as-an-animal-model-to-investigate-bone-volume-augmentation-potential-of-different-bone-graft-substitutes
#16
Ivan Valdivia-Gandur, Wilfried Engelke, Víctor Beltrán, Eduardo Borie, Ramón Fuentes, María Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes
BACKGROUND: The success of bone augmentation to a major degree depends on the biomechanics and biological conditions of the surrounding tissues. Therefore, an animal model is needed providing anatomical sites with similar mechanical pressures for comparing its influence on different biomaterials for bone regeneration. The present report describes the new bone formation associated to biomaterial in a bursa created in the epidural space, between dura mater and cranial calvaria, under the constant pressure of cerebrospinal fluid...
December 1, 2016: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906059/a-mitochondrial-hsp70-hspa9b-is-linked-to-miltefosine-resistance-and-stress-response-in-leishmania-donovani
#17
P Vacchina, B Norris-Mullins, E S Carlson, M A Morales
BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting millions worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis with high rates of mortality if left untreated. Current treatments include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B. However, high toxicity and emergence of resistance hinder the success of these options. Miltefosine (HePC) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906051/the-lysine-methyltransferase-ehmt2-g9a-is-dispensable-for-skeletal-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#18
Regan-Heng Zhang, Robert N Judson, David Y Liu, Jürgen Kast, Fabio M V Rossi
BACKGROUND: Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (G9a/Ehmt2) is the main enzyme responsible for the apposition of H3K9 di-methylation on histones. Due to its dual role as an epigenetic regulator and in the regulation of non-histone proteins through direct methylation, G9a has been implicated in a number of biological processes relevant to cell fate control. Recent reports employing in vitro cell lines indicate that Ehmt2 methylates MyoD to repress its transcriptional activity and therefore its ability to induce differentiation of activated myogenic cells...
May 27, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906042/what-is-the-impact-of-biologic-therapies-on-common-co-morbidities-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Jenny Humphreys, Kimme Hyrich, Deborah Symmons
Biologic therapies have revolutionised disease control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Theoretically, they have the potential to influence co-morbid disease associated with RA through better control of systemic inflammation. Conversely, co-morbidity may occur as an adverse effect of the drugs. The latest evidence from observational data shows an increased risk of infection in the first 6 months of treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapies and potentially other biologic therapies...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906031/contrasting-biological-potency-of-particulate-matter-collected-at-sites-impacted-by-distinct-industrial-sources
#20
Errol M Thomson, Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Christine MacKinnon-Roy, Ngoc Q Vuong, Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Valbona Celo, Jean-Pierre Charland, Prem Kumarathasan, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Industrial sources contribute a significant proportion of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions, producing particles of varying composition that may differentially impact health. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected near industrial sites in relation to particle size and composition. METHODS: Size-fractionated particles (ultrafine, PM0.1-2.5, PM2.5-10, PM>10) were collected in the vicinity of steel, copper, aluminium, and petrochemical industrial sites...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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