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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721125/evaluating-the-potential-roles-of-the-gray-and-extension-loci-in-the-coat-coloration-of-thoroughbred-racing-horses
#1
Takahiro Sakamoto, Jeffrey A Fawcett, Hideki Innan
Horses have substantial variation in coat color, and the genetic loci responsible for the coat color variations have been well investigated. It has been believed that some color variations should follow a single-locus Mendelian law. Examples include the Gray locus that causes the gray phenotype and the Extension locus that specifies the chestnut phenotype. We reevaluated the roles of the Gray and Extension loci by using a large number of mating records of Thoroughbred racing horses. We showed that the data indeed fits the Mendelian law extremely well for the two loci...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527823/antiviral-escin-derivatives-from-the-seeds-of-aesculus-turbinata-blume-japanese-horse-chestnut
#2
Ji Won Kim, Thi-Kim-Quy Ha, Hyomoon Cho, Eunhee Kim, Sang Hee Shim, Jun-Li Yang, Won Keun Oh
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe diarrhea and high fatality of piglets, influencing the swine industry. Japanese horse chestnut (seed of Aesculus turbinata) contains many saponin mixtures, called escins, and has been used for a long time as a traditional medicinal plant. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on escins have revealed that acylations at C-21 and C-22 with angeloyl or tigloyl groups were important for their cytotoxic effects. However, the strong cytotoxicity of escins makes them hard to utilize for other diseases and to develop as nutraceuticals...
May 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418070/a-signature-of-tree-health-shifts-in-the-microbiome-and-the-ecological-drivers-of-horse-chestnut-bleeding-canker-disease
#3
Britt Koskella, Sean Meaden, William J Crowther, Roosa Leimu, C Jessica E Metcalf
Host susceptibility to pathogens can be shaped by genetic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. The ability to predict the spread of disease therefore requires an integrated understanding of these factors, including effects of pests on pathogen growth and competition between pathogens and commensal microbiota for host resources. We examined interactions between the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, the bacterial causal agent of bleeding canker disease Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi, and the bark-associated microbiota of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317733/antioxidant-activities-and-structural-characterization-of-flavonol-o-glycosides-from-seeds-of-japanese-horse-chestnut-aesculus-turbinata-blume
#4
Hideto Kimura, Satoshi Ogawa, Tomoe Ishihara, Mahoko Maruoka, Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Mitsuo Jisaka, Kazushige Yokota
We attempted to evaluate the contents and distribution of antioxidants in the whole seeds, seed shells, and peeled seeds of the Japanese horse chestnut. The seed shells exhibited the highest antioxidant activities due to the presence of highly polymeric proanthocyanidins as we have reported recently. On the other hand, the peeled seeds predominantly contained flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol at a high level of 66.7% of total polyphenols, also contributing to the predominant antioxidant activities...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112272/endothelia-targeting-protection-by-escin-in-decompression-sickness-rats
#5
Kun Zhang, Zhongxin Jiang, Xiaowei Ning, Xuhua Yu, Jiajun Xu, Peter Buzzacott, Weigang Xu
Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of decompression sickness (DCS) and contributes substantively to subsequent inflammatory responses. Escin, the main active compound in horse chestnut seed extract, is well known for its endothelial protection and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection of escin against DCS in rats. Escin was administered orally to adult male rats for 7 d (1.8 mg/kg/day) before a simulated air dive. After decompression, signs of DCS were monitored, and blood and pulmonary tissue were sampled for the detection of endothelia related indices...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065925/small-genomes-and-large-seeds-chromosome-numbers-genome-size-and-seed-mass-in-diploid-aesculus-species-sapindaceae
#6
Anna Krahulcová, Pavel Trávnícek, František Krahulec, Marcel Rejmánek
Background and Aims: Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Methods: Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924839/spotted-phenotypes-in-horses-lost-attractiveness-in-the-middle-ages
#7
Saskia Wutke, Norbert Benecke, Edson Sandoval-Castellanos, Hans-Jürgen Döhle, Susanne Friederich, Javier Gonzalez, Jón Hallsteinn Hallsson, Michael Hofreiter, Lembi Lõugas, Ola Magnell, Arturo Morales-Muniz, Ludovic Orlando, Albína Hulda Pálsdóttir, Monika Reissmann, Matej Ruttkay, Alexandra Trinks, Arne Ludwig
Horses have been valued for their diversity of coat colour since prehistoric times; this is especially the case since their domestication in the Caspian steppe in ~3,500 BC. Although we can assume that human preferences were not constant, we have only anecdotal information about how domestic horses were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727329/molecular-mechanism-for-cellular-response-to-%C3%AE-escin-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#8
Dominik Domanski, Oliwia Zegrocka-Stendel, Anna Perzanowska, Malgorzata Dutkiewicz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Iwona Grabowska, Dorota Maciejko, Anna Fogtman, Michal Dadlez, Katarzyna Koziak
β-escin is a mixture of triterpene saponins isolated from the horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory and venotonic properties of β-escin have been the most extensively clinically investigated effects of this plant-based drug and randomized controlled trials have proved the efficacy of β-escin for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. However, despite the clinical recognition of the drug its pharmacological mechanism of action still remains largely elusive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699277/potential-tree-species-for-use-in-urban-areas-in-temperate-and-oceanic-climates
#9
Miklas Scholz, Vincent C Uzomah, Furat A M Al-Faraj
This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology...
September 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515267/efficacy-of-horse-chestnut-leaf-extract-alh-l1005-as-a-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-in-ligature-induced-periodontitis-in-canine-model
#10
Se Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Shin Ae Park, Won Tae Kim, Young Woo Park, Jae Sang Ahn, Manbok Jeong, Min-Young Kim, Kangmoon Seo
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main proteinases associated with periodontal tissue destruction and remodeling. Therefore, inhibition of host-derived MMPs has a key role in the prevention and reduction of periodontitis progression. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) extracts have been used as treatments for inflammatory disease, traditionally. This study assessed the clinical effect as a MMP inhibitor of horse chestnut leaf extract ALH-L1005 on periodontitis. ALH-L1005 was obtained from horse chestnut leaf and its MMP inhibitory activities estimated...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476720/association-between-population-structure-and-allele-frequencies-of-the-glycogen-synthase-1-mutation-in-the-austrian-noriker-draft-horse
#11
T Druml, G Grilz-Seger, M Neuditschko, G Brem
The aim of this study was to determine the allele frequency of the glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) mutation associated with polysaccharide storage myopathy type 1 in the Austrian Noriker horse. Furthermore, we examined the influence of population substructures on the allele distribution. The study was based upon a comprehensive population sample (208 breeding stallions and 309 mares) and a complete cohort of unselected offspring from the year 2014 (1553 foals). The mean proportion of GYS1 carrier animals in the foal cohort was 33%, ranging from 15% to 50% according to population substructures based on coat colours...
February 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366690/orbital-decompression-surgery-and-horse-chestnut-seed-extract-improved-superior-orbital-vein-blood-flow-in-patients-with-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy
#12
Yu-Jie Wu, Xin Wei, Man-Yi Xiao, Wei Xiong
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of orbital decomposition (OD) surgery in combination with horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), as compared to OD alone, in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). METHODS: Sixty-two orbits from 62 TAO patients were randomly assigned to OD or OD+HCSE at 1:1 ratio (31 received OD alone, 31 received OD+HCSE). Forty-two orbits from 21 healthy subjects were used as controls. Complete ophthalmic examination and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were performed before surgery and 3mo post-surgery on all 62 orbits from the TAO patients...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294416/selective-behaviour-of-honeybees-in-acquiring-european-propolis-plant-precursors
#13
Valery A Isidorov, Sławomir Bakier, Ewa Pirożnikow, Monika Zambrzycka, Izabela Swiecicka
Honey bees harvest resins from various plant species and use them in the hive as propolis. While there have been a number of studies concerning the chemical composition of this antimicrobial product, little is known about selective behavior and bee preference when different potential plant sources of resin are available. The main objective of this paper was to investigate some aspects of behavioral patterns of honeybees in the context of resin acquisition. Samples of propolis originating from temperate zones of Europe and the supposed botanical precursors of the product were analyzed...
June 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259638/physiological-aspects-of-seed-recalcitrance-a-case-study-on-the-tree-aesculus-hippocastanum
#14
REVIEW
Natalie Obroucheva, Irina Sinkevich, Snejana Lityagina
Recalcitrant seeds are typical of some tropical and subtropical trees. Their post-shedding life activity proceeds in humid air and wet litter. They are desiccation sensitive and, for this reason, have a short life span and need some special procedures for cryopreservation. This review is devoted to the post-shedding life strategy of recalcitrant seeds, which includes the maintenance of high hydration status, metabolic readiness and ability to rapidly germinate before desiccation-induced damage exerts a lethal effect...
September 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194311/distribution-of-coat-color-associated-alleles-in-the-domestic-horse-population-and-przewalski-s-horse
#15
Monika Reissmann, Lutfi Musa, Sonia Zakizadeh, Arne Ludwig
Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145446/comparative-genomics-reveals-genes-significantly-associated-with-woody-hosts-in-the-plant-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Reuben W Nowell, Bridget E Laue, Paul M Sharp, Sarah Green
The diversification of lineages within Pseudomonas syringae has involved a number of adaptive shifts from herbaceous hosts onto various species of tree, resulting in the emergence of highly destructive diseases such as bacterial canker of kiwi and bleeding canker of horse chestnut. This diversification has involved a high level of gene gain and loss, and these processes are likely to play major roles in the adaptation of individual lineages onto their host plants. In order to better understand the evolution of P...
December 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141926/acute-effusive-pericarditis-due-to-horse-chestnut-consumption
#17
Efe Edem, Behlül Kahyaoğlu, Mehmet Akif Çakar
BACKGROUND: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient's medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1...
May 4, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907249/in-vivo-cardiotoxicity-induced-by-sodium-aescinate-in-zebrafish-larvae
#18
Jinfeng Liang, Wangdong Jin, Hongwen Li, Hongcui Liu, Yanfeng Huang, Xiaowen Shan, Chunqi Li, Letian Shan, Thomas Efferth
Sodium aescinate (SA) is a widely-applied triterpene saponin product derived from horse chestnut seeds, possessing vasoactive and organ-protective activities with oral or injection administration in the clinic. To date, no toxicity or adverse events in SA have been reported, by using routine models (in vivo or in vitro), which are insufficient to predict all aspects of its pharmacological and toxicological actions. In this study, taking advantage of transparent zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio), we evaluated cardiovascular toxicity of SA at doses of 1/10 MNLC, 1/3 MNLC, MNLC and LC10 by yolk sac microinjection...
February 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884605/the-mc1r-and-asip-coat-color-loci-may-impact-behavior-in-the-horse
#19
Lauren N Jacobs, Elizabeth A Staiger, Julia D Albright, Samantha A Brooks
Shared signaling pathways utilized by melanocytes and neurons result in pleiotropic traits of coat color and behavior in many mammalian species. For example, in humans polymorphisms at MC1R cause red hair, increased heat sensitivity, and lower pain tolerance. In deer mice, rats, and foxes, ASIP polymorphisms causing black coat color lead to more docile demeanors and reduced activity. Horse (Equus caballus) base coat color is primarily determined by polymorphisms at the Melanocortin-1 Receptor (MC1R) and Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) loci, creating a black, bay, or chestnut coat...
May 2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819933/determination-of-four-major-saponins-in-skin-and-endosperm-of-seeds-of-horse-chestnut-aesculus-hippocastanum-l-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-positive-confirmation-by-thin-layer-chromatography
#20
Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh, Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam, Ahmad Naddaf, Uliana Vladimirovna Karpiuk, Viktoria Sergeevna Kislichenko
PURPOSE: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). METHODS: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours...
November 2015: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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