Read by QxMD icon Read


Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Jonathan G Wynn, Kaye E Reed, Matt Sponheimer, William H Kimbel, Zeresenay Alemseged, Zelalem K Bedaso, Christopher J Campisano
One approach to understanding the context of changes in hominin paleodiets is to examine the paleodiets and paleohabitats of contemporaneous mammalian taxa. Recent carbon isotopic studies suggest that the middle Pliocene was marked by a major shift in hominin diets, characterized by a significant increase in C4 foods in Australopithecus-grade species, including Australopithecus afarensis. To contextualize previous isotopic studies of A. afarensis, we employed stable isotopes to examine paleodiets of the mammalian fauna contemporaneous with A...
October 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Maria Fontanals-Coll, M Eulàlia Subirà, Marta Díaz-Zorita Bonilla, Juan F Gibaja
OBJECTIVES: The study of subsistence strategies among Neolithic communities in north-east Iberia, late-fifth to early-fourth millennia cal BC, enables a more in-depth study of the activities and behavior of the inhabitants of this region, where paleodiets have been little studied. The objectives of this study are, therefore, to determine the diet and subsistence patterns of those communities and to consider whether any relation existed between their subsistence strategies and environmental, geographic, and/or social factors...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Olalla López-Costas, Gundula Müldner
A growing number of paleodiet investigations over recent years have begun to reveal the stark dietary differences that existed between regions of the Roman Empire, as well as significant changes in subsistence strategies after its fall. The present study explores the dietary changes at the Roman to post-Roman (Germanic) transition in the Northwest Iberian Peninsula, in order to improve our understanding of the changes that occurred at end of the Roman Empire in different regions across Europe and to also consider the influence of climate had on them...
September 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Anvar Shukurov, Graeme Sarson, Mykhailo Videiko, Kate Henderson, Robert Shiel, Pavel Dolukhanov, Galina Pashkevich
We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area...
July 2015: Human Biology
Christina Torres-Rouff, Kelly J Knudson, William J Pestle, Emily M Stovel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between the Tiwanaku polity and the individuals buried at the Middle Horizon (∼AD500-1000) cemetery of Larache in northern Chile, a site that has been singled out as a potential elite foreign enclave. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We explore this association through the skeletal remains of 48 individuals interred at the cemetery of Larache using bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and artifactual evidence. Data from cranial modification practices, violent injury, and the mortuary assemblage are used to explore culturally constructed elements of status and identity, radiogenic strontium isotope analyses provide us with a perspective on the geographic origins of these individuals, and stable carbon and nitrogen analyses allow discussion of paleodiet and access to resources...
December 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Christina Stantis, Rebecca L Kinaston, Michael P Richards, Janet M Davidson, Hallie R Buckley
The rise of stratified societies fundamentally influences the interactions between status, movement, and food. Using isotopic analyses, we assess differences in diet and mobility of individuals excavated from two burial mounds located at the `Atele burial site on Tongatapu, the main island of the Kingdom of Tonga (c. 500 - 150 BP). The first burial mound (To-At-1) was classified by some archaeologists as a commoner's mound while the second burial mound (To-At-2) was possibly used for interment of the chiefly class...
2015: PloS One
William J Pestle, Mark Hubbe, Erin K Smith, Joseph M Stevenson
OBJECTIVE: Development of a model for the prediction of δ(13) Cprotein from δ(13) Ccollagen and Δ(13) Cap-co . Model-generated values could, in turn, serve as "consumer" inputs for multisource mixture modeling of paleodiet. METHODS: Linear regression analysis of previously published controlled diet data facilitated the development of a mathematical model for predicting δ(13) Cprotein (and an experimentally generated error term) from isotopic data routinely generated during the analysis of osseous remains (δ(13) Cco and Δ(13) Cap-co )...
August 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Kelly J Knudson, Christina Torres-Rouff, Christopher M Stojanowski
Bioarchaeological approaches are well suited for examining past responses to political and environmental changes. In the Andes, we hypothesized that political and environmental changes around AD 1100 resulted in behavioral changes, visible as shifts in paleodiet and paleomobility, among individuals in the San Pedro de Atacama oases and Loa River Valley. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated carbon and oxygen isotope data from cemeteries dating to the early Middle Horizon (Larache, Quitor-5, Solor-3), late Middle Horizon (Casa Parroquial, Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, Solcor-Plaza, Solcor-3, Tchecar), and Late Intermediate Period (Caspana, Quitor-6 Tardío, Toconce, Yaye-1, Yaye-2, Yaye-3, Yaye-4)...
June 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Florent Rivals, Marie-Anne Julien, Margot Kuitems, Thijs Van Kolfschoten, Jordi Serangeli, Dorothée G Drucker, Hervé Bocherens, Nicholas J Conard
The paleodietary traits of the equid population from Schöningen 13 II-4 were investigated through tooth mesowear and microwear analyses, as well as stable isotopic analyses. The mesowear pattern observed on the upper teeth indicates a low abrasion diet with a significant amount of browse in the diet of the horses. The tooth microwear analysis and the isotopic data confirm that the horses from Schöningen 13 II-4 were mixed feeders, like many populations from other Pleistocene localities in Northern and Eastern Europe...
December 2015: Journal of Human Evolution
Siân E Halcrow, Jeremy Rooney, Nancy Beavan, Keith C Gordon, Nancy Tayles, Andrew Gray
Stable isotope analyses for paleodiet investigations require good preservation of bone protein, the collagen, to obtain reliable stable isotope values. Burial environments cause diagenetic alterations to collagen, especially in the leaching of the organic bone content. The survival of bone protein may be assessed by the weight % collagen, % carbon and % nitrogen yields, but these values are achieved only after destructive chemical processing. A non-destructive method of determining whether bone is suitably preserved would be desirable, as it would be less costly than chemical processing, and would also preserve skeletal collections...
2014: PloS One
William J Pestle, Brooke E Crowley, Matthew T Weirauch
Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth) collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond), the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a) sample preparation, and b) analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration)...
2014: PloS One
Mugino Ozaki Kubo, Eisuke Yamada
In reference to the evolutionary trend of increasing cheek tooth height in herbivorous ungulates, the causes of dental abrasion have long been debated. Interspecific comparisons of extant ungulates have revealed that both phytoliths in grass and external abrasive matter may play important roles. Using analysis of extant sika deer living in various environments and showing continuous latitudinal variation in food habits from northern grazing to southern browsing, we quantitatively evaluated the influence of dietary and environmental properties on three dental variables: mesowear score (MS), molar wear rate, and M3 hypsodonty index...
2014: PloS One
Rebecca Kinaston, Hallie Buckley, Frederique Valentin, Stuart Bedford, Matthew Spriggs, Stuart Hawkins, Estelle Herrscher
Remote Oceania was colonized ca. 3000 BP by populations associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex, marking a major event in the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. Although over 250 Lapita sites have been found throughout the Western Pacific, human remains associated with Lapita period sites are rare. The site of Teouma, on Efate Island, Vanuatu has yielded the largest burial assemblage (n=68 inhumations) of Lapita period humans ever discovered, providing a unique opportunity for assessing human adaptation to the environment in a colonizing population...
2014: PloS One
Karyn C Olsen, Christine D White, Fred J Longstaffe, Kristin von Heyking, George McGlynn, Gisela Grupe, Frank J Rühli
Paleodiet research traditionally interprets differences in collagen isotopic compositions (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) as indicators of dietary distinction even though physiological processes likely play some role in creating variation. This research investigates the degree to which bone collagen δ(13) C and δ(15) N values normally vary within the skeleton and examines the influence of several diseases common to ancient populations on these isotopic compositions. The samples derive from two medieval German cemeteries and one Swiss reference collection and include examples of metabolic disease (rickets/osteomalacia), degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis), trauma (fracture), infection (osteomyelitis), and inflammation (periostitis)...
April 2014: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tao Huang, Liguang Sun, Nanye Long, Yuhong Wang, Wen Huang
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ¹⁵N (ratio of ¹⁵N/¹⁴N) value as a proxy...
2013: Scientific Reports
Laurie J Reitsema
Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology...
July 2013: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Laurie J Reitsema
Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology...
May 9, 2013: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
László Józsa, Zoltán Kiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2013: Orvosi Hetilap
Ivana Caputo, Marilena Lepretti, Carla Scarabino, Carla Esposito, Antonio Proto
Human bones, recovered from excavations, are an important biological archive of information. In particular, the analysis of the collagen fraction is useful for paleodietary reconstruction, via light stable isotopes, and for (14)C dating. Generally, collagen extraction procedures do not prevent loss of integrity of proteins. As a consequence, information about the state-of-remains preservation is unavailable. Here we describe a "soft" nondestructive CH(3)COOH-based method to recover collagen from archaeological bones, and also to obtain material for successive isotopic analyses...
February 1, 2012: Analytical Biochemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"