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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080990/food-system-consequences-of-a-fungal-disease-epidemic-in-a-major-crop
#1
H Charles J Godfray, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson
Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067891/an-interactive-web-based-intervention-on-nutritional-status-physical-activity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patient-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial-the-red-ruby-study
#2
L Jahangiry, A Montazeri, M Najafi, M Yaseri, M A Farhangi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity and unhealthy nutritional behaviors are recognized as the key factors in the cause and management of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effectiveness of interactive web-based interventions on dietary intakes, physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with MetS is currently unknown. METHODS: The two-arm randomized-controlled trial was conducted for patients with MetS from June through December 2012 in Tehran, Iran...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064165/nutritional-control-of-chronological-aging-and-heterochromatin-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
David F McCleary, Jasper Rine
Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms as diverse as yeast and mammals through incompletely understood mechanism(s). The role of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases, known as Sirtuins, in this process, particularly in the yeast S. cerevisiae is controversial. We measured chronological lifespan of wild-type and sir2Δ strains over a higher glucose range than typically used for studying yeast calorie restriction. sir2Δ extended lifespan in high-glucose complete minimal medium, and had little effect in low glucose medium, revealing a partial role for Sir2 in the calorie restriction response under these conditions...
January 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054426/relation-between-cognitive-and-hedonic-responses-to-a-meal
#4
B Ciccantelli, T Pribic, C Malagelada, A Accarino, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of a meal induces cognitive and hedonic sensations and our aim was to determine the relation between both dimensions. METHODS: In three groups of healthy non-obese men (n=10 per group) three types of meals with equivalent levels of palatability were tested: a liquid meal, a solid-liquid low-calorie meal, and a solid-liquid high-calorie meal. The cognitive and hedonic responses were measured on 10-cm scales before and during the 30-minute postprandial period...
January 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053823/global-metabolic-profiling-of-plasma-shows-that-three-year-mild-caloric-restriction-lessens-an-age-related-increase-in-sphingomyelin-and-reduces-l-leucine-and-l-phenylalanine-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#5
Minjoo Kim, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
The effect of weight loss from long-term, mild-calorie diets (MCD) on plasma metabolites is unknown. This study was to examine whether MCD-induced weight reduction caused changes in the extended plasma metabolites. Overweight and obese subjects aged 40-59 years consumed a MCD (approximately 100 kcal/day deficit, n=47) or a weight-maintenance diet (control, n=47) in a randomized, controlled design with a three-year clinical intervention period and plasma samples were analyzed by using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053702/outcomes-of-an-inpatient-refeeding-protocol-in-youth-with-anorexia-nervosa-rady-children-s-hospital-san-diego-university-of-california-san-diego
#6
Tamara R Maginot, Maya M Kumar, Jacqueline Shiels, Walter Kaye, Kyung E Rhee
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for nutritional rehabilitation in hospitalized restrictive eating disorder patients recommend a cautious approach to refeeding. Several studies suggest that higher calorie diets may be safe and effective, but have traditionally excluded severely malnourished patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety of a higher calorie nutritional rehabilitation protocol (NRP) in a broad sample of inpatients with restrictive eating disorders, including those who were severely malnourished...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049736/glp-1-analogue-induced-weight-loss-does-not-improve-obesity-induced-at-dysfunction
#7
Emilie Pastel, Laura J McCulloch, Rebecca Ward, Shivam Joshi, Kim M Gooding, Angela C Shore, Katarina Kos
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues aid weight loss which improves obesity-associated adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. GLP-1 treatment may however also directly influence AT which expresses GLP-1 receptors. This study aimed to assess the impact of GLP-1 analogue treatment on subcutaneous AT inflammatory and fibrotic responses, compared to weight loss by calorie reduction (control). Among the 39 participants with type 2 diabetes recruited, 30 age-matched participants were randomised to 4 months treatment with Liraglutide (n=22) or calorie restriction-based on dietetic counselling (n=8)...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043857/identifying-eating-behavior-phenotypes-and-their-correlates-a-novel-direction-toward-improving-weight-management-interventions
#8
Bouhlal Sofia, M McBride Colleen, S Trivedi Niraj, Agurs-Collins Tanya, Persky Susan
Common reports of over-response to food cues, difficulties with calorie restriction, and difficulty adhering to dietary guidelines suggest that eating behaviors could be interrelated in ways that influence weight management efforts. The feasibility of identifying robust eating phenotypes (showing face, content, and criterion validity) was explored based on well-validated individual eating behavior assessments. Adults (n = 260; mean age 34 years) completed online questionnaires with measurements of nine eating behaviors including: appetite for palatable foods, binge eating, bitter taste sensitivity, disinhibition, food neophobia, pickiness and satiety responsiveness...
December 30, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043081/hemodialysis-ultrafiltration-rate-targets-should-be-scaled-to-body-surface-area-rather-than-to-body-weight
#9
EDITORIAL
John T Daugirdas, Daniel Schneditz
The association between higher ultrafiltration rates and poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients has received increased attention, to the point that various regulatory entities are considering adding ultrafiltration rate as a quality measure to be monitored and controlled. Most of the discussion to date has focused on ultrafiltration rate scaled to body weight, or more correctly, body mass (ml/hour per kg). One outcome study suggests that ultrafiltration rate might best be not scaled at all to body size, as modestly higher ultrafiltration rate in very small-size patients may be associated with some survival benefit, probably via increased dietary intake...
January 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041931/prior-dietary-practices-and-connections-to-a-human-gut-microbial-metacommunity-alter-responses-to-diet-interventions
#10
Nicholas W Griffin, Philip P Ahern, Jiye Cheng, Andrew C Heath, Olga Ilkayeva, Christopher B Newgard, Luigi Fontana, Jeffrey I Gordon
Ensuring that gut microbiota respond consistently to prescribed dietary interventions, irrespective of prior dietary practices (DPs), is critical for effective nutritional therapy. To address this, we identified DP-associated gut bacterial taxa in individuals either practicing chronic calorie restriction with adequate nutrition (CRON) or without dietary restrictions (AMER). When transplanted into gnotobiotic mice, AMER and CRON microbiota responded predictably to CRON and AMER diets but with variable response strengths...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035340/targeting-glucose-metabolism-for-healthy-aging
#11
REVIEW
Rachel A Brewer, Victoria K Gibbs, Daniel L Smith
Advancing age is the greatest single risk factor for numerous chronic diseases. Thus, the ability to target the aging process can facilitate improved healthspan and potentially lifespan. Lack of adequate glucoregulatory control remains a recurrent theme accompanying aging and chronic disease, while numerous longevity interventions result in maintenance of glucoregulatory control. In this review, we propose targeting glucose metabolism to enhance regulatory control as a means to ameliorate the aging process...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032397/dna-base-excision-repair-and-nucleotide-excision-repair-synergistically-contribute-to-survival-of-stationary-phase-cells-of-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#12
Takanori Senoo, Shinji Kawano, Shogo Ikeda
Defects of genome maintenance may causally contribute to aging. In general, base excision repair (BER) is involved in the repair of subtle base lesions and AP sites, and bulky helix-distorting lesions are restored by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we measured the chronological lifespan (CLS) of BER- and NER-deficient mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and observed the aging process of cells. The CLS of the nth1 (gene for DNA glycosylase/AP lyase) mutant and the rad16 (a homolog of human XPF) mutant were slightly shorter than that of the wild-type (WT) strain...
December 29, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031781/intermittent-energy-restriction-in-type-2-diabetes-a-short-discussion-of-medication-management
#13
Sharayah Carter, Peter M Clifton, Jennifer B Keogh
AIM: To discuss type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication changes required during the popular 5:2 intermittent energy restriction (IER) diet. METHODS: A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Cochrane library for original research articles investigating the use of very low calorie diets (VLCD) in people with T2DM. The search terms used included "VLCD" or "very low energy diet" or "very low energy restriction" or "IER" or "intermittent fasting" or "calorie restriction" or "diabetes mellitus type 2" and "type 2 diabetes"...
December 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029078/nutrition-and-exercise-in-sarcopenia
#14
Stephen D Anton, Azumi Hida, Robert Mankowski, Andrew Layne, Lawrence Solberg, Arch G Mainous, Thomas W Buford
Sarcopenia is a debilitating condition that involves loss of muscle mass and function, which affects virtually everyone as they age, and can lead to frailty and ultimately disability. In growing recognition of the importance of both muscle strength and muscle mass relative to body size in contributing to functional decline, recent definitions have now incorporated grip strength and a correction for body mass as part of the key criteria that define sarcopenia. With this new definition, a much larger population of older adults are now at risk of sarcopenia...
December 27, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028356/sirtuins-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
REVIEW
Fatiha Nassir, Jamal A Ibdah
Mammalian sirtuins are seven members belonging to the silent information regulator 2 family, a group of Class III histone/protein deacetylases. Sirtuins (SIRT 1-7) have different subcellular localization and function and they regulate cellular protein function through various posttranslational modifications. SIRT1 and 3, the most studied sirtuins, use the product of cellular metabolism nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor to post-translationally deacetylate cellular proteins and consequently link the metabolic status of the cell to protein function...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028317/oral-leptin-supplementation-throughout-lactation-in-rats-prevents-later-metabolic-alterations-caused-by-gestational-calorie-restriction
#16
N Szostaczuk, T Priego, M Palou, A Palou, C Picó
OBJECTIVES: Calorie-restriction during gestation in rats has been seen to produce lasting detrimental effects in the offspring, affecting energy balance control and other related metabolic functions. Our aim was to assess whether leptin supplementation throughout lactation may prevent the dysmetabolic phenotype in adulthood associated with gestational calorie restriction. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were followed: the offspring of ad libitum fed dams (controls); the offspring of 20% calorie-restricted dams during gestation (CR); and CR rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation (CR-Leptin)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024145/calorie-restriction-prevents-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-and-impaired-lipid-metabolism-in-gestational-diabetes-offspring
#17
Tao Li, Keyang Chen, Gang Liu, Li-Ping Huang, Long Chen, Qiu-Wei Wang, Chuan-Lai Hu, Li-Juan Hou
BackgroundGestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has long-lasting influence on offspring, which is associated with increased risks of insulin resistance, obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most common and available nutritional interventions to prevent obesity and diabetes. We are trying to explore the effect of CR on GDM offspring.MethodsThe streptozotocin was used to stimulate C57BL/6J mice to develop GDM, a number of metabolic characteristics and related protein expression were determined in GDM offspring that were fed ad-libitum or treated with calorie restriction...
December 26, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003374/effects-of-calorie-restriction-in-obese-older-adults-the-crossroads-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Jamy D Ard, Barbara Gower, Gary Hunter, Christine S Ritchie, David L Roth, Amy Goss, Brooks C Wingo, Eric V Bodner, Cynthia J Brown, David Bryan, David R Buys, Marilyn C Haas, Akilah Dulin Keita, Lee Anne Flagg, Courtney P Williams, Julie L Locher
BACKGROUND: We lack a comprehensive assessment of the risks and benefits of calorie restriction in older adults at high risk for cardiometabolic disease. Calorie restriction may reduce visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but also have negative effects on lean mass and quality of life. METHODS: We conducted a 52-week, randomized controlled trial involving 164 older adults with obesity taking at least one medication for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes. Interventions included an exercise intervention alone (Exercise), or with diet modification and body weight maintenance (Maintenance), or with diet modification and energy restriction (Weight Loss)...
December 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999852/effect-of-a-high-protein-energy-restricted-diet-combined-with-resistance-training-on-metabolic-profile-in-older-individuals-with-metabolic-impairments
#19
T Amamou, E Normandin, J Pouliot, I J Dionne, M Brochu, E Riesco
Adequate protein intake and resistance training are effective strategies to maintain muscle mass, but the effect of their combination on metabolic profile during weight loss remains to be determined in older adults. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of a 16-week high-protein caloric restriction combined with resistance training on chronic disease risk factors in obese older individuals with metabolic impairments. A total of 26 overweight adults aged between 60 and 75 years (BMI 32...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999367/phenotypic-stability-of-energy-balance-responses-to-experimental-total-sleep-deprivation-and-sleep-restriction-in-healthy-adults
#20
Laura E Dennis, Andrea M Spaeth, Namni Goel
Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21-50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00-08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions...
December 19, 2016: Nutrients
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