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calorie restriction

Fengwei Pan, Liying Zhang, Min Li, Yingxin Hu, Benhua Zeng, Huijuan Yuan, Liping Zhao, Chenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Calorie restriction (CR), which has a potent anti-inflammaging effect, has been demonstrated to induce dramatic changes in the gut microbiota. Whether the modulated gut microbiota contributes to the attenuation of inflammation during CR is unknown, as are the members of the microbial community that may be key mediators of this process. RESULTS: Here, we report that a unique Lactobacillus-predominated microbial community was rapidly attained in mice within 2 weeks of CR, which decreased the levels of circulating microbial antigens and systemic inflammatory markers such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
March 21, 2018: Microbiome
Alberto Zullo, Emanuela Simone, Maddalena Grimaldi, Vincenzina Musto, Francesco Paolo Mancini
Fighting diseases and controlling the signs of ageing are the major goals of biomedicine. Sirtuins, enzymes with mainly deacetylating activity, could be pivotal targets of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to reach such aims. Scientific proofs are accumulating in experimental models, but, to a minor extent, also in humans, that the ancient practice of calorie restriction could prove an effective way to prevent several degenerative diseases and to postpone the detrimental signs of ageing. In the present review, we summarize the evidence about the central role of sirtuins in mediating the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in skeletal and cardiac muscle since these tissues are greatly damaged by diseases and advancing years...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paul P Jung, Zhi Zhang, Nicole Paczia, Christian Jaeger, Tomasz Ignac, Patrick May, Carole L Linster
Aging is a complex trait of broad scientific interest, especially because of its intrinsic link with common human diseases. Pioneering work on aging-related mechanisms has been made in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , mainly through the use of deletion collections isogenic to the S288c reference strain. In this study, using a recently published high-throughput approach, we quantified chronological life span (CLS) within a collection of 58 natural strains across seven different conditions. We observed a broad aging variability suggesting the implication of diverse genetic and environmental factors in chronological aging control...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
Victoria Pons, Joan Riera, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Josep A Tur, Franchek Drobnic, Antoni Pons
Background: Caloric restriction induces mitochondrial biogenesis and improves physical fitness in rodents. We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. Methods: The study was performed with 12 healthy male athletes by carrying out a 33% caloric restriction with respect to their usual diet...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Yijuan Xu, Wenzhe Wang, Minmin Wang, Xuejiao Liu, Mee-Hyun Lee, Mingfu Wang, Hao Zhang, Haitao Li, Wei Chen
Diet-related factors are thought to modify the risk of cancers, while the influence of high salt intake remains largely uncharacterized. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, we examined the effect of salt intake on breast cancer by using a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, both the fitness and the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice were improved by high salt intake. Similarly, high salt intake suppressed the primary tumor growth as well as metastasis to lung in mice...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Yu-Ri Kang, Hwang-Yong Choi, Jung-Yun Lee, Soo In Jang, Hanna Kang, Jung-Bae Oh, Hae-Dong Jang, Young-In Kwon
Onion ( Allium cepa L.) is widely consumed as food or medicinal plant due to its well-defined health benefits. The antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of onion and its extracts have been reported well. However, very limited information on anti-hyperglycemic effect is available in processed onion extracts. In our previous study, we reported that Amadori rearrangement compounds (ARCs) produced by heat-processing in Korean ginseng can reduce carbohydrate absorption by inhibiting intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in both in vitro and in vivo animal models...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mads Rosenkilde, Lisbeth Rygaard, Pernille Nordby, Lars Bo Nielsen, Bente Stallknecht
Exercise training and weight loss both reduce cardiovascular risk, but the independent importance of the two strategies is unclear. We aimed to investigate independent and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on lipoproteins and dyslipidemia in overweight sedentary men. Sixty individuals were randomized to 12 weeks of endurance training (T), energy-reduced diet (D), training and energy increased diet (T-iD), or control (C). Equal energetic deficits (-600 kcal/day) were prescribed by exercise for T and caloric restriction for D...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Sanjay Kalra, Jubbin Jacob, Manash P Baruah
Salutogenesis is an accepted approach for chronic disease management. Calorie restriction and exercise are two evidence based salutogenic interventions in diabetes treatment. Calorie restriction mimetics and exercise mimetics may be used as pharmacological tools to help manage diabetes in a sulutogenic manner. This article discusses the biochemical basis and pharmacology of metformin and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. It describes how a combination of these drugs can be used as a calories restriction and exercise mimetic, to help improve diabetes control...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Franziska Grundmann, Roman-Ulrich Müller, Annika Reppenhorst, Lennart Hülswitt, Martin R Späth, Torsten Kubacki, Maximilian Scherner, Michael Faust, Ingrid Becker, Thorsten Wahlers, Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Benzing, Volker Burst
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. Although short-term calorie restriction (CR) has proven protective in rodent models of acute kidney injury, similar effects have not yet been demonstrated in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: CR_KCH (Effect of a Preoperative Calorie Restriction on Renal Function After Cardiac Surgery) is a randomized controlled trial in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Connie W Bales, Kathryn N Porter Starr, Melissa C Orenduff, Shelley R McDonald, Karen Molnar, Aubrey K Jarman, Ann Onyenwoke, Hillary Mulder, Martha E Payne, Carl F Pieper
Background: Women have higher rates of obesity than men and develop more pronounced functional deficits as a result. Yet, little is known about how obesity reduction affects their functional status, including whether their responses differ when protein intake is enhanced. Objective: The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of delivery of a higher-protein (balanced at each meal) calorie-restricted diet in obese women and determine its efficacy for influencing function and retention of lean mass...
May 1, 2017: Curr Dev Nutr
Zehra Omeroğlu Ulu, Salih Ulu, Soner Dogan, Bilge Guvenc Tuna, Nehir Ozdemir Ozgenturk
Calorie restriction (CR), which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF- α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL), chronic calorie restriction (CCR), and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
Amanda K Galan-Davila, Jiyoon Ryu, Kun Dong, Yang Xiao, Zhe Dai, Deling Zhang, Zhi Li, Amanda M Dick, Kevin D Liu, Amrita Kamat, Min Lu, Qunfeng Dong, Feng Liu, Lily Q Dong
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic activities, which include increasing the sensitivity of cells to insulin. Adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL1) stimulates adiponectin signaling and promotes adiponectin's insulin-sensitizing effects by binding to two adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and the insulin receptor. In the present study, we report on an alternative splicing variant of APPL1 (APPL1sv) that is highly expressed in mouse liver, pancreas, and spleen tissues...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Claudio Vernieri, Federico Nichetti, Alessandra Raimondi, Sara Pusceddu, Marco Platania, Franco Berrino, Filippo de Braud
In recent years, calorie-restricted dietary regimens and compounds such as vitamins, curcumin, green tea extracts and omega-3 fatty acids have attracted attention for their potential anticancer effects. While definitive conclusions cannot be drawn in this field, many patients adopt complementary antitumor therapies aiming to improve efficacy or reduce toxicity of chemotherapy, with uncertain benefits and the risk of additional toxicities or antagonistic interactions with standard therapies. In this manuscript, we review the different levels of available evidence to suggest or discourage specific dietary changes or supplement use in the context of cancer prevention, reduction of tumor recurrences and survival prolongation in advanced cancers...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Mohammad G Saklayen
Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious diseases in most of the world, this new non-communicable disease (NCD) has become the major health hazard of modern world. Though it started in the Western world, with the spread of the Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem...
February 26, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Maryam Yousefi, Angela Nakauka-Ddamba, Corbett T Berry, Ning Li, Jenna Schoenberger, Kamen P Simeonov, Ryan J Cedeno, Zhengquan Yu, Christopher J Lengner
Aging is a complex process associated with a decline in functionality of adult stem cells affecting tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Calorie restriction (CR) is the only experimental manipulation known to extend lifespan and reduce the incidence of age-related disorders across numerous species. These benefits are likely mediated, at least in part, through the preservation of stem cell function. Here, we show that CR enhances the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium through preservation of an injury-resistant reserve intestinal stem cell (ISC) pool...
February 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Young Ju Lee, Ayoung Lee, Hye Jin Yoo, Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Dong Yeob Shin, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Significant associations between visceral fat and alterations in plasma fatty acids have been identified in overweight individuals. However, there are scant data regarding the relationships of the visceral fat area (VFA) with the plasma fatty acid profiles and desaturase activities following weight loss. We investigated the effect of weight loss with mild calorie restriction on the circulating fatty acid profiles and desaturase activities in nondiabetic overweight subjects with high VFA...
February 22, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Kyung Mok Kim, Ki Wung Chung, Hyeong Oh Jeong, Bonggi Lee, Dae Hyun Kim, June Whoun Park, Seong Min Kim, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung
Age-associated renal fibrosis is related with renal function decline during aging. Imbalance between accumulation and degradation of extracellular matrix is key feature of fibrosis. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) results based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data were analyzed to identify key proteins that change during aging and calorie restriction (CR). Among the changed genes, A2M and MMP2, which are known to interact, exhibited the highest between centrality (BC) and degree values when analyzed by protein-protein interaction (PPI)...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
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