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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724854/improvement-of-pulmonary-function-after-comprehensive-obesity-rehabilitation-program-in-obese-patients
#1
Tamao Takahashi, Satoru Ebihara, Masahiro Kohzuki
Obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular, osteoarthritis, metabolic and pulmonary disorders, and exercise is an efficient method for treating obesity. However, obese patients often complain of dyspnea on exertion, which makes it difficult to continue exercise program. Obesity is also known to have an adverse effect on pulmonary function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive obesity rehabilitation (COR) program on pulmonary function in Japanese patients with morbid obesity...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713583/effects-of-supervised-and-unsupervised-physical-activity-programmes-for-weight-loss
#2
S A Creasy, R J Rogers, K K Davis, B B Gibbs, E E Kershaw, J M Jakicic
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is important for weight management. However, it remains unclear what type of physical activity prescription/programme is optimal for increasing physical activity during a standard behavioural weight loss intervention. This study examined changes in physical activity after a 12-week supervised programme prescribed in minutes per week (SUP-PA), an unsupervised programme prescribed in minutes per week (UNSUP-PA) and an unsupervised programme prescribed in steps per day (STEP)...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704966/the-role-of-ghrelin-and-ghrelin-signaling-in-aging
#3
REVIEW
Marie Amitani, Haruka Amitani, Kai-Chun Cheng, Timothy Sean Kairupan, Nanami Sameshima, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Kimiko Mizuma, Natasya Trivena Rokot, Yasuhito Nerome, Tetsuhiro Owaki, Akihiro Asakawa, Akio Inui
With our aging society, more people hope for a long and healthy life. In recent years, researchers have focused on healthy longevity factors. In particular, calorie restriction delays aging, reduces mortality, and extends life. Ghrelin, which is secreted during fasting, is well known as an orexigenic peptide. Because ghrelin is increased by caloric restriction, ghrelin may play an important role in the mechanism of longevity mediated by calorie restriction. In this review, we will discuss the role of orexigenic peptides with a particular focus on ghrelin...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701319/low-carbohydrate-diet-induces-metabolic-depression-a-possible-mechanism-to-conserve-glycogen
#4
Hugh Stirling Winwood-Smith, Craig E Franklin, Craig R White
Long-term studies have found low carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than calorie restricted diets in the short-term, but equally or only marginally more effective in the long-term. Low carbohydrate diets have been linked to reduced glycogen stores and increased feelings of fatigue. We propose that reduced physical activity in response to lowered glycogen explains the diminishing weight loss advantage of low carbohydrate compared to low calorie diets over longer time scales. We explored this possibility by feeding adult Drosophila melanogaster either a standard or low carbohydrate diet for nine days and measured changes in metabolic rate, glycogen stores, activity, and body mass...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698572/the-effect-of-calorie-restriction-on-mouse-skeletal-muscle-is-sex-strain-and-time-dependent
#5
Luisa Boldrin, Jacob A Ross, Charlotte Whitmore, Bruno Doreste, Charlotte Beaver, Ayad Eddaoudi, Daniel J Pearce, Jennifer E Morgan
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function occurs with increasing age. Calorie restriction (CR) increases the lifespan of C57Bl/6 mice, but not in the shorter-lived DBA/2 strain. There is some evidence that calorie restriction reduces or delays many of the age-related defects that occur in rodent skeletal muscle. We therefore investigated the effect of short (2.5 month) and longer term (8.5 and 18.5 months) CR on skeletal muscle in male and female C57Bl/6 and DBA/2 mice. We found that short-term CR increased the satellite cell number and collagen VI content of muscle, but resulted in a delayed regenerative response to injury...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686680/resveratrol-ameliorates-diet-induced-dysregulation-of-lipid-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#6
Gai Ran, Li Ying, Lin Li, Qiaoqiao Yan, Weijie Yi, Chenjiang Ying, Hongmei Wu, Xiaolei Ye
Defective lipid metabolism is associated with increased risk of various chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has been shown the potential of ameliorating disregulations of lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feed intake and RSV on lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The adult males were randomly allocated to 6 groups: control (Con, 8 mg cysts/fish/day), control with 20 μmol/L RSV (Con+RSV), calorie restriction (CR, 5 mg cysts/fish/day), calorie restriction with RSV (CR+RSV), overfeed (OF, 60 mg cysts/fish/day), and overfeed with RSV (OF+RSV) groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685028/bariatric-surgery-and-obesity-influence-on-the-incretins
#7
REVIEW
B Laferrère
The gut hormone incretins have an important physiological role in meal-related insulin release and post-prandial glucose control. In addition to weight loss, the incretin hormones have a role in glucose control after bariatric surgery. The release of incretins, and specifically of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, in response to the ingestion of nutrients, is greatly enhanced after gastric bypass (RYGBP). The rapid transit of food from the gastric pouch to the distal ileum is responsible for the greater GLP-1 release after RYGBP...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682862/evidence-of-direct-cardiac-damage-following-high-intensity-exercise-in-chronic-energy-restriction-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Marianne F Baird, Fergal Grace, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Scott M Graham, Audrey Fleming, Julien S Baker
RATIONALE: Following prolonged endurance events such as marathons, elevated levels of cardiospecific biomarkers are commonly reported. Although transiently raised levels are generally not considered to indicate clinical myocardial damage, comprehension of this phenomenon remains incomplete. The popularity of high-intensity interval training highlights a paucity of research measuring cardiac biomarker response to this type of exercise. This a posteriori case report discusses the elevation of cardiac troponins (cTn) associated with short interval, high-intensity exercise...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679529/timing-of-caloric-intake-during-weight-loss-differentially-affects-striatal-dopamine-transporter-and-thalamic-serotonin-transporter-binding
#9
Ruth I Versteeg, Anouk Schrantee, Sofie M Adriaanse, Unga A Unmehopa, Jan Booij, Liesbeth Reneman, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Mireille J Serlie
Recent studies have shown that meal timing throughout the day contributes to maintaining or regaining weight after hypocaloric diets. Although brain serotonin and dopamine are well known to be involved in regulating feeding, it is unknown whether meal timing during energy restriction affects these neurotransmitter systems. We studied the effect of a 4 wk hypocaloric diet with either 50% of daily calories consumed at breakfast (BF group) or at dinner (D group) on hypothalamic and thalamic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding and on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding...
July 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678523/nutritional-biomarkers-current-view-and-future-perspectives
#10
Shubhra Pande, Valentina A Kratasyuk, Nadezhda N Medvedeva, Oxana A Kolenchukova, Alla B Salmina
There is a poor relationship between nutrient intake and existing nutritional biomarkers due to variety of factors affecting their sensitivity and specificity. To explore the impact of nutrients at molecular level and devising a sensitive biomarker, proteomics is a central technology with sirtuins as one of the most promising nutritional biomarker. Sirtuins (seven mammalian sirtuins reported so far), have been reported to perform protein deacetylases and ADP-ribosyltransferases activity. It is distributed in different cellular compartments thereby controlling several metabolic processes...
July 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675833/evaluation-of-compliance-with-the-spanish-code-of-self-regulation-of-food-and-drinks-advertising-directed-at-children-under-the-age-of-12-years-in-spain-2012
#11
K León-Flández, A Rico-Gómez, M Á Moya-Geromin, M Romero-Fernández, M J Bosqued-Estefania, J Damián, L López-Jurado, M Á Royo-Bordonada
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate compliance levels with the Spanish Code of self-regulation of food and drinks advertising directed at children under the age of 12 years (Publicidad, Actividad, Obesidad, Salud [PAOS] Code) in 2012; and compare these against the figures for 2008. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Television advertisements of food and drinks (AFD) were recorded over 7 days in 2012 (8am-midnight) of five Spanish channels popular to children...
July 1, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673912/boldness-traits-not-dominance-predict-exploratory-flight-range-and-homing-behaviour-in-homing-pigeons
#12
Steven J Portugal, Rhianna L Ricketts, Jackie Chappell, Craig R White, Emily L Shepard, Dora Biro
Group living has been proposed to yield benefits that enhance fitness above the level that would be achieved through living as solitary individuals. Dominance hierarchies occur commonly in these social assemblages, and result, by definition, in resources not being evenly distributed between group members. Determinants of rank within a dominance hierarchy can be associated with morphological characteristics, previous experience of the individual, or personality traits such as exploration tendencies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether greater exploration and positive responses to novel objects in homing pigeons (Columba livia) measured under laboratory conditions were associated with (i) greater initial exploration of the local area around the home loft during spontaneous exploration flights (SEF), (ii) faster and more efficient homing flights when released from further afield, and (iii) whether the traits of greater exploration and more positive responses to novel objects were more likely to be exhibited by the more dominant individuals within the group...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665260/weight-changes-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-calorie-restricted-obese-mice-fed-high-fat-diets-containing-corn-or-flaxseed-oil-physiological-role-of-sugar-replacement-with-polyphenol-rich-grape
#13
Hastimansooreh Ansar, Negar Zamaninour, Abolghassem Djazayery, Hamideh Pishva, Mohammadreza Vafa, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Aydin Dilmaghanian, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Farzad Shidfar
OBJECTIVE: Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. METHODS: Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659501/diet-and-exercise-in-the-management-of-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#14
REVIEW
Devon A Dobrosielski, Christopher Papandreou, Susheel P Patil, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is accepted that OSA and obesity commonly coexist. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends dietary-induced weight loss and exercise as lifestyle treatment options for OSA. However, most clinical trials upon which this recommendation is based have focused on establishing the effectiveness of calorie-restricted, often low-fat diets for improving OSA severity, whereas less attention has been given to the means through which weight loss is achieved (e...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651373/sex-dependent-differences-in-liver-and-gut-metabolomic-profiles-with-acarbose-and-calorie-restriction-in-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Victoria K Gibbs, Rachel A Brewer, Nathan D Miyasaki, Amit Patki, Daniel L Smith
Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used in treating type 2 diabetes, impairs complex carbohydrate digestion and absorption and extends lifespan in mice (without a requisite reduction in food intake). To assess sex-differential effects coincident with calorie restriction versus a non-restricted longevity enhancing intervention, we evaluated the metabolite profiles (by LC/MS) from livers and cecal contents of C57BL/6J mice (n=4/sex/group,) which were maintained for 10 months under one of three diet treatments: ad libitum control diet (CON), ad libitum control diet containing 0...
June 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637176/dissociation-of-striatal-dopamine-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-from-aging-related-motor-decline-evidence-from-calorie-restriction-intervention
#16
Michael F Salvatore, Jennifer Terrebonne, Mark A Cantu, Tamara R McInnis, Katy Venable, Parker Kelley, Ella A Kasanga, Brian Latimer, Catherine L Owens, Brandon S Pruett, Yongmei Yu, Robert Luedtke, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien, Donald K Ingram
The escalating increase in retirees living beyond their 8th decade brings increased prevalence of aging-related impairments, including locomotor impairment (Parkinsonism) which may affect ~50% of those reaching age 80, but has no confirmed neurobiological mechanism. Lifestyle strategies that attenuate motor decline, and its allied mechanisms, must be identified. Aging studies report little to moderate loss of striatal dopamine (DA) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in nigrostriatal terminals, in contrast to ~70-80% loss associated with bradykinesia onset in Parkinson's disease...
June 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630003/effects-of-mild-calorie-restriction-on-lipid-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue
#17
Chan Yoon Park, Soyoung Park, Min Soo Kim, Hye-Kyeong Kim, Sung Nim Han
Calorie restriction (CR) has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and to decrease inflammatory diseases. However, most existing CR models use 30-50% calorie reduction, which is hard to achieve in humans. We investigated the effects of mild CR on lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control diet (10% kcal fat, Control) or high fat diet (60% kcal fat, HFD) ad libitum or reduced amount of control diet to achieve 15% CR for 16 wks. Body weights, white adipose tissue weights, liver triacylglycerol levels, and serum fetuin-A levels were lower in CR than in the Control...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627208/irisin-is-weakly-associated-with-usual-physical-activity-in-young-overweight-women
#18
Beatriz Tenorio, Teresa Jiménez, Gladys Barrera, Sandra Hirsch, Maria Pia De la Maza, Rodrigo Troncoso, María Belén Farias, Juan Manuel Rodríguez, Daniel Bunout
PURPOSE: To determine if irisin plasma levels are associated with regular physical activity, body composition and metabolic parameters in women subjected to calorie restriction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied 42 women aged 34 ± 13 years with a body mass index of 27.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2, who were subjected to a calorie restriction for three months. At baseline and at the end of the study, weight, waist and hip circumference, laboratory parameters, body composition by DEXA, resting and activity energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and 72 hours actigraphy were measured...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626157/protein-restriction-does-not-affect-body-temperature-pattern-in-female-mice
#19
Goro A Kato, Hiroki Shichijo, Toshihiro Takahashi, Akio Shinohara, Tetsuo Morita, Chihiro Koshimoto
Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#20
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
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