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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810876/prenatal-caloric-restriction-alters-lipid-metabolism-but-not-hepatic-fasn-gene-expression-and-methylation-profiles-in-rats
#1
Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Zofia E Madeja, Agata Chmurzynska
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is an increasingly common problem. Insufficient calorie intake and nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy may have an impact not only on the mother, but may also alter metabolism in the infant. In this study, we have applied a calorie-restricted diet during gestation and examined its effect on hepatic Fasn mRNA and DNA methylation profiles in rats and their female progeny. The body composition and blood lipid profiles were also evaluated in both generations...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802034/keeping-the-rhythm-while-changing-the-lyrics-circadian-biology-in-aging
#2
Fumiyuki Hatanaka, Alejandro Ocampo, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
Aging and circadian rhythms have been linked for decades, but their molecular interplay has remained obscure. Sato et al. and Solanas et al. now reveal that, while core clock components remain nearly unaltered, aging is associated with tissue-specific rewiring, which can be prevented by calorie restriction.
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800931/molecular-signatures-of-longevity-insights-from-cross-species-comparative-studies
#3
REVIEW
Siming Ma, Vadim N Gladyshev
Much of the current research on longevity focuses on the aging process within a single species. Several molecular players (e.g. IGF1 and MTOR), pharmacological compounds (e.g. rapamycin and metformin), and dietary approaches (e.g. calorie restriction and methionine restriction) have been shown to be important in regulating and modestly extending lifespan in model organisms. On the other hand, natural lifespan varies much more significantly across species. Within mammals alone, maximum lifespan differs more than 100 fold, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799249/opposing-effects-on-cardiac-function-by-calorie-restriction-in-different-aged-mice
#4
Yunlu Sheng, Shan Lv, Min Huang, Yifan Lv, Jing Yu, Juan Liu, Tingting Tang, Hanmei Qi, Wenjuan Di, Guoxian Ding
Calorie restriction (CR) increases average and maximum lifespan and exhibits an apparent beneficial impact on age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that CR initiated either in middle or old age could improve ischemic tolerance and rejuvenate the aging heart; however, the data are not uniform when initiated in young. The accurate time to initiate CR providing maximum benefits for cardiac remodeling and function during aging remains unclear. Thus, whether a similar degree of CR initiated in mice of different ages could exert a similar effect on myocardial protection was investigated in this study...
August 11, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795605/reducing-sugar-use-in-coffee-while-maintaining-enjoyment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Richie L Lenne, Traci Mann
Consuming coffee without (or with less) sugar may help people lower their daily calorie intake without restrictive dieting. We tested two theory-based interventions to help people do so. One involved gradually reducing sugar over time, and the other was based on mindfulness theory. These interventions were compared to a repeated exposure (to sugar-free coffee) group. Participants in all conditions had significant increases in consumption of sugar-free coffee that lasted 6 months. The mindfulness group had a larger increase than the others...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791787/is-two-days-of-intermittent-energy-restriction-per-week-a-feasible-weight-loss-approach-in-obese-males-a-randomised-pilot-study
#6
Marguerite Conley, Lauren Le Fevre, Cilla Haywood, Joseph Proietto
AIM: The 5:2 diet (two non-consecutive days of 2460 KJ (600 calories) and 5 days of ad libitum eating per week) is becoming increasingly popular. This pilot study aimed to determine whether the 5:2 diet can achieve ≥5% weight loss and greater improvements in weight and biochemical markers than a standard energy-restricted diet (SERD) in obese male war veterans. METHODS: A total of 24 participants were randomised to consume either the 5:2 diet or a SERD (2050 KJ (500 calorie) reduction per day) for 6 months...
August 9, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#7
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783757/improving-food-environments-and-tackling-obesity-a-realist-systematic-review-of-the-policy-success-of-regulatory-interventions-targeting-population-nutrition
#8
Jana Sisnowski, Jackie M Street, Tracy Merlin
BACKGROUND: This systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015025276) employs a realist approach to investigate the effect of "real-world" policies targeting different aspects of the food environment that shape individual and collective nutrition. OBJECTIVES: We were interested in assessing intermediate outcomes along the assumed causal pathway to "policy success", in addition to the final outcome of changed consumption patterns. DATA SOURCES: We performed a search of 16 databases through October 2015, with no initial restriction by language...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783714/aging-and-calorie-restriction-regulate-the-expression-of-mir-125a-5p-and-its-target-genes-stat3-casp2-and-stard13
#9
Kuldeep Makwana, Sonal Arvind Patel, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Jey Sabith Ebron, Girish C Shukla, Roman V Kondratov V Kondratov
Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention known to delay aging. In order, to understand molecular mechanisms of CR, we analyzed the expression of 983 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the liver of female mice after 2 years of 30% CR using micro-array. 16 miRNAs demonstrated significant changes in their expression upon CR in comparison with age-matched control. mmu-miR-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) was significantly upregulated upon CR, and in agreement with this, the expression of mRNAs for its three predicted target genes: Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 was significantly downregulated in the liver of CR animals...
July 31, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777106/treatment-of-eating-disorders-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#10
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent research on the multimodal treatment of eating disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry has yielded a significant increase in randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews. This review aims to present relevant findings published during the last 2 years related to medical and psychological treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). RECENT FINDINGS: For anorexia nervosa, recent reports described the efficacy of different treatment settings, lengths of hospital stay and high vs...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771924/less-is-more-caloric-regulation-of-neurogenesis-and-adult-brain-function
#11
REVIEW
Alwena H Morgan, Zane B Andrews, Jeffrey S Davies
Calorie intake is essential for regulating normal physiological processes and is fundamental to maintaining life. Indeed, both extremes of calorie intake result in increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss the effect of calorie intake on adult brain function, with emphasis on the beneficial effects of mild calorie restriction. Recent findings relating to the regenerative and protective effect of the gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin, suggest that it may underlie the beneficial effects of calorie restriction...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768896/the-effects-of-graded-levels-of-calorie-restriction-xi-evaluation-of-the-main-hypotheses-underpinning-the-life-extension-effects-of-cr-using-the-hepatic-transcriptome
#12
Davina Derous, Sharon E Mitchell, Lu Wang, Cara L Green, Yingchun Wang, Luonan Chen, Jing-Dong J Han, Daniel E L Promislow, David Lusseau, Alex Douglas, John R Speakman
Calorie restriction (CR) may extend longevity by modulating the mechanisms involved in aging. Different hypotheses have been proposed for its main mode of action. We quantified hepatic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (0% to 40% CR) for three months, and evaluated the responses relative to these various hypotheses. Of the four main signaling pathways implied to be linked to the impact of CR on lifespan (insulin/insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-ĸB), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sirtuins (SIRTs)), all the pathways except SIRT were altered in a manner consistent with increased lifespan...
July 31, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765272/-calories-in-calories-out-and-macronutrient-intake-the-hope-hype-and-science-of-calories
#13
Scott Howell, Richard Kones
One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out paradigm." Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764843/current-role-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-on-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Jakeline Rheinheimer, Bianca M de Souza, Natali S Cardoso, Andrea C Bauer, Daisy Crispim
NLRP3 inflammasome activation seems to be a culprit behind the chronic inflammation characteristic of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Nutrient excess generates danger-associated molecules that activate NLRP3 inflammasome-caspase 1, leading to maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, which are proinflammatory cytokines released by immune cells infiltrating the adipose tissue (AT) from obese subjects. Although several studies have reported an association of the NLRP3 inflammasome with obesity and/or IR; contradictory results were also reported by other studies...
September 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761824/the-effect-of-dried-glycyrrhiza-glabra-l-extract-on-obesity-management-with-regard-to-ppar-%C3%AE-2-pro12ala-gene-polymorphism-in-obese-subjects-following-an-energy-restricted-diet
#15
Nazli Namazi, Mohammad Alizadeh, Elham Mirtaheri, Safar Farajnia
Purpose: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem which results from the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract with a calorie restricted diet on anthropometric indices and insulin resistance with nutrigenetic approach. Methods: For this pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 72 eligible subjects were randomly allocated to Licorice or placebo group. They received a low-calorie diet either with a 1...
June 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759281/balanced-caloric-restriction-minimizes-changes-caused-by-aging-on-the-colonic-myenteric-plexus
#16
Renata de Britto Mari, Sandra Regina Stabille, Haroldo Garcia de Faria, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Juliana Plácido Guimarães, Gabriela Pustiglione Marinsek, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza
Aging can promote significant morphofunctional changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Regulation of GIT motility is mainly controlled by the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system. Actions that aim at decreasing the aging effects in the GIT include those related to diet, with caloric restriction (CR). The CR is achieved by controlling the amount of food or by manipulating the components of the diet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different levels of CR on the plasticity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- (NADPH-) reactive myenteric neurons in the colon of Wistar rats during the aging process using ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and morphoquantitative analysis...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751809/intake-of-mulberry-1-deoxynojirimycin-prevents-colorectal-cancer-in-mice
#17
Shuang E, Kazushi Yamamoto, Yu Sakamoto, Yui Mizowaki, Yui Iwagaki, Toshiyuki Kimura, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Teruo Miyazawa, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
The effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin, a caloric restriction mimetic, was examined in ICR mice with azoxymethane dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal cancer. Azoxymethane is a carcinogen (10 mg/kg body weight), and 2% dextran sodium sulfate (w/v) used as a colitis-inducing agent. Mice were separated into 5 groups: a group without colorectal cancer fed a normal diet (CO- group), and groups with colorectal cancer fed a normal diet (CO+ group), a calorie-restricted diet (caloric restriction group), and diets including 0...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748072/the-evaluation-of-saccharose-replacing-by-adding-stevioside-maltodextrin-mixture-on-the-physicochemical-and-sensory-properties-of-naanberenji-an-iranian-confectionary
#18
Amirpouya Ghandehari Yazdi, Mohammad Hojjatoleslamy, Javad Keramat, Mahshid Jahadi, Elahe Amani
Stevia is a natural, non-nutritive sweetener can replace sugar in your diet to control diabetes and aid in weight loss. Naanberenji, an Iranian traditional cookie, is a well-reputed confectionary containing high sucrose and calorie value, for this reason its consumption in healthy diet has been restricted. In this study, the effect of sucrose replacement by stevioside-maltodextrin mixture on physicochemical properties of Naanberenji was evaluated in four replacing levels including 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Results of texture evaluation revealed that hardness increases due to adding stevioside-maltodextrin (p < ...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#19
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
July 25, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739540/the-women-in-steady-exercise-research-wiser-survivor-trial-the-innovative-transdisciplinary-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-exercise-and-weight-loss-interventions-among-breast-cancer-survivors-with-lymphedema
#20
Renate M Winkels, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Michael J Kallan, Lorraine T Dean, Zi Zhang, Margaret Evangelisti, Justin C Brown, David B Sarwer, Andrea B Troxel, Crystal Denlinger, Monica Laudermilk, Anna Fornash, Angela DeMichele, Lewis A Chodosh, Kathryn H Schmitz
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer survivors face dual challenges: long term sequelae of treatment, and risk of recurrent disease. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle complicate both challenges. The WISER Survivor trial assessed the effects of exercise and/or weight-loss on lymphedema, biomarkers of breast cancer recurrence, and quality of life. We report on the innovative transdisciplinary design of this trial and report attrition rates. METHODS: This one year trial randomized breast cancer survivors who had a BMI of ≥25kg/m(2), were sedentary and had breast-cancer-related-lymphedema to 1) exercise (weight training and aerobic exercise) 2) weight-loss 3) exercise and weight-loss 4) or control group...
July 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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