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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649750/vasopressin-physiology-assessment-and-osmosentation
#1
Lise Bankir, Daniel G Bichet, Nils G Morgenthaler
Vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in the regulation of water and sodium homeostasis by its antidiuretic action on the kidney, mediated by V2 receptors. AVP secretion is stimulated by a rise in plasma osmolality, a decline in blood volume, or stress. V1a receptors are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells but the role of vasopressin in blood pressure regulation is still a matter of debate. AVP may also play a role in some metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis, through its action on V1a receptors expressed in the liver...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649088/targeting-aggf1-angiogenic-factor-with-g-patch-and-fha-domains-1-for-blocking-neointimal-formation-after-vascular-injury
#2
Yufeng Yao, Zhenkun Hu, Jian Ye, Changqing Hu, Qixue Song, Xingwen Da, Yubin Yu, Hui Li, Chengqi Xu, Qiuyun Chen, Qing Kenneth Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite recent improvements in angioplasty and placement of drug-eluting stents in treatment of atherosclerosis, restenosis and in-stent thrombosis impede treatment efficacy and cause numerous deaths. Research efforts are needed to identify new molecular targets for blocking restenosis. We aim to establish angiogenic factor AGGF1 (angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) as a novel target for blocking neointimal formation and restenosis after vascular injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: AGGF1 shows strong expression in carotid arteries; however, its expression is markedly decreased in arteries after vascular injury...
June 25, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648404/osthole-inhibits-intimal-hyperplasia-by-regulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-signalling-pathways-in-the-rat-carotid-artery-after-balloon-injury
#3
Yi-Qi Li, Jun-Yi Wang, Zhi-Qiang Qian, Ye-Li Li, Wen-Na Li, Yang Gao, Dan-Li Yang
Osthole (7-methoxy-8-isopentenoxy-coumarin), a compound extracted from Cnidiummonnieri (L.) Cusson seeds, has been found to exhibit potent therapeutic effects in cancer due to its ability to inhibit inflammation and cell proliferation. However, its effects on arterial wall hypertrophy-related diseases remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Osthole on intimal hyperplasia in a rat model of carotid artery balloon injury. We established the balloon-induced carotid artery injury rat model in male Sprague-Dawley rats, after which we administered Osthole (20mg/kg/day or 40mg/kg/day) or volume-matched normal saline orally by gavage for 14 consecutive days...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648041/-effects-of-hypoxia-on-the-phenotype-transformation-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts-to-myofibroblasts-and-the-mechanism
#4
B Zhao, F Han, W Zhang, X J Wang, J Zhang, F F Yang, J H Shi, L L Su, D H Hu
Objective: To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism. Methods: The third passage of healthy adult human dermal fibroblasts in logarithmic phase were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum for the following five experiments. (1) In experiments 1, 2, and 3, cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia group according to the random number table, with 10 dishes in each group. Cells of normoxia group were cultured in incubator containing 21% oxygen, while those of hypoxia group with 1% oxygen...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648030/-effect-and-mechanism-of-intermittent-alkaline-stimulation-on-high-phosphorus-induced-calcification-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-of-rats
#5
Y L Bai, J S Xu, T Tian, J X Zhang, L W Cui, H R Zhang, S L Zhang
Objective: To explore the effect and possible mechanisms of intermittent alkaline on rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcification induced by high phosphorus. Methods: VSMCs were isolated from rat thoracic aorta and cultured in vitro. The fourth generation VSMCs were randomly divided into control group, high phosphorus+ pH7.4, high phosphorus+ pH7.5, high phosphorus+ pH7.6 and high phosphorus+ pH7.7 group with random number table. The control group was cultured in DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum. Other groups were cultured in DMEM with 10 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate and alkalized by 7...
June 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647196/smooth-muscle-cells-of-human-veins-show-an-increased-response-to-injury-at-valve-sites
#6
Shinsuke Kikuchi, Lihua Chen, Kevin Xiong, Yukihiro Saito, Nobuyoshi Azuma, Gale Tang, Michael Sobel, Thomas N Wight, Richard D Kenagy
OBJECTIVE: Venous valves are essential but are prone to injury, thrombosis, and fibrosis. We compared the behavior and gene expression of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the valve sinus vs nonvalve sites to elucidate biologic differences associated with vein valves. METHODS: Tissue explants of fresh human saphenous veins were prepared, and the migration of SMCs from explants of valve sinus vs nonvalve sinus areas was measured. Proliferation and death of SMCs were determined by staining for Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647181/rosmarinic-acid-attenuates-hepatic-fibrogenesis-via-suppression-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-proliferation-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#7
Naglaa M El-Lakkany, Walaa H El-Maadawy, Sayed H Seif El-Din, Olfat A Hammam, Salwa H Mohamed, Shahira M Ezzat, Marwa M Safar, Samira Saleh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic role of rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural polyphenolic compound, on HSCs activation/proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The impact of RA on stellate cell line (HSC-T6) proliferation, activation and apoptosis was assessed along with its safety on primary hepatocytes. In vivo, rats were divided into: (i) normal; (ii) thioacetamide (TAA)-intoxicated rats for 12 weeks; (iii) TAA + silymarin or (iv) TAA + RA...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646909/the-morphological-regeneration-and-functional-restoration-of-bladder-defects-by-a-novel-scaffold-and-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-a-rat-augmentation-model
#8
Qiong Wang, Dong-Dong Xiao, Hao Yan, Yang Zhao, Shi Fu, Juan Zhou, Zhong Wang, Zhe Zhou, Ming Zhang, Mu-Jun Lu
BACKGROUND: Due to the multilineage differentiation ability and paracrine role of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for bladder defect repair, various scaffolds have been applied in combination with ASCs to promote bladder regeneration and restore bladder function. However, the low survival rate of ASCs and the difficulty of promoting bladder functional recovery are still unsolved. To explore these problems, we investigated the feasibility of a novel scaffold seeded with ASCs in a rat model of bladder augmentation...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646716/histopathologic-differences-partially-distinguish-syndromic-aortic-diseases
#9
Kevin M Waters, Lisa M Rooper, Andrew Guajardo, Marc K Halushka
A variety of syndromic diseases such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and bicuspid aortic valve with aneurysm along with risk factors of smoking and hypertension result in ascending aortic aneurysms and dissections. Historically, a complicated variety of terms have been used to describe a range of histopathologies that are present in resected specimens. As a result, no consistent patterns of histopathology have been reported. We used the recent Society for Cardiovascular Pathology/Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology consensus statement on nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for noninflammatory aortic disease to blindly evaluate 148 surgically resected specimens...
June 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645933/reoxygenation-reverses-hypoxic-pulmonary-arterial-remodeling-by-inducing-smooth-muscle-cell-apoptosis-via-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#10
Jian Chen, Yan-Xia Wang, Ming-Qing Dong, Bo Zhang, Ying Luo, Wen Niu, Zhi-Chao Li
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial remodeling, a main characteristic of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, can gradually reverse once oxygen has been restored. Previous studies documented that apoptosis increased markedly during the reversal of remodeled pulmonary arteries, but the types of cells and mechanisms related to the apoptosis have remained elusive. This study aimed to determine whether pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC)-specific apoptosis was involved in the reoxygenation-induced reversal of hypoxic pulmonary arterial remodeling and elucidate the underlying mechanism...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645930/genomic-and-non-genomic-effects-of-androgens-in-the-cardiovascular-system-clinical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Angela K Lucas Herald, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Augusto C Montezano, S Faisal Ahmed, Rhian M Touyz
The principle steroidal androgens are testosterone and its metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is converted from testosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase. Through the classic pathway with androgens crossing the plasma membrane and binding to the androgen receptor (AR) or via mechanisms independent of the ligand-dependent transactivation function of nuclear receptors, testosterone induces genomic and non-genomic effects respectively. AR is widely distributed in several tissues, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645655/5-lipoxygenase-in-monocytes-emerges-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-intimal-hyperplasia-in-a-murine-wire-injured-femoral-artery
#12
Seung Eun Baek, Min A Jang, Seung Jin Lee, So Youn Park, Sun Sik Bae, Chi Dae Kim
Given the importance of leukotrienes in vascular inflammation induced by local tissue injury, this study investigated the role for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in monocytes in the development of intimal hyperplasia. As a mechanistic study, the importance of monocyte 5-LO in monocyte-macrophage differentiation with subsequent infiltration in neointima was evaluated. In a mouse model of wire-injured femoral artery, intimal hyperplasia started as early as 2 wks after injury, and luminal area and blood flow were reduced due to increased neointima formation...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645608/the-role-of-losartan-in-preventing-vascular-remodeling-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-by-inhibition-of-the-h2o2-vpo1-hocl-mmps-pathway
#13
Liangqing Ge, Guogang Zhang, Baiyang You, Guangjie Cheng, Luyao Chen, Ruizheng Shi
Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) has been proved to be associated with vascular endothelial cell apoptosis by producing reactive oxygen species. However, the contribution of VPO1 to the development of vascular remodeling (VR) remains to be fully characterized. We explored the role of VPO1 in VR in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and the underlying mechanism of losartan in inhibiting VR. Compared to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, the SHR showed remodeling of their vascular walls. The level of VPO1 and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration were increased in the SHRs...
June 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645189/the-potential-role-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-on-glomerulosclerosis-in-rats-and-podocytes-injury-is-associated-with-the-induction-of-mmp2-and-mmp9
#14
Xiuping Chen, Yuanhan Qin, Tianbiao Zhou, Ling Jiang, Fengying Lei, He Qin, Lei Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou
Retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) plays a crucial role in kidney disease. However, the underlying mechanisms in glomerulosclerosis (GS) is still not clear. The roles of RARα in an adriamycin (ADR)-induced GS rat model and in ADR-induced podocyte injury in vitro were investigated. RARα was over-expressed in GS rats, and serum, urine and kidney samples were collected to detect the induction of the expression of the receptor. RARα expression was inhibited and/or over-expressed in cultured podocytes following injury, as demonstrated by morphometric assays, cell toxicity, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymatic activity...
June 22, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644870/effects-of-nicotine-on-corneal-wound-healing-following-acute-alkali-burn
#15
Jong Won Kim, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Epidemiological studies have indicated that smoking is a pivotal risk factor for the progression of several chronic diseases. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, has powerful pathophysiological properties in the body. Although the effects of cigarette smoking on corneal re-epithelialization have been studied, the effects of nicotine on corneal wound healing-related neovascularization and fibrosis have not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of nicotine on corneal wound healing following acute insult induced by an alkali burn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644743/sarcocystis-jamaicensis-n-sp-from-red-tailed-hawks-buteo-jamaicensis-definitive-host-and-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-knockout-mice-as-experimental-intermediate-host
#16
Shiv Verma, Alexa Rosypal Von Dohlen, J Mowery, D Scott, B Rosenthal, J P Dubey, David Lindsay
Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 x 9.9 m sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW) (Mus musculus) and also to KO mice...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644441/micrornas-143-and-145-induce-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-modulate-the-expression-of-junction-proteins
#17
Lidia Avalle, Danny Incarnato, Aurora Savino, Marta Gai, Francesca Marino, Sara Pensa, Isaia Barbieri, Michael B Stadler, Paolo Provero, Salvatore Oliviero, Valeria Poli
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is one of the major inducers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial program that has a critical role in promoting carcinoma's metastasis formation. MicroRNAs-143 and -145, which are both TGF-β direct transcriptional targets, are essential for the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) during embryogenesis, a TGF-β-dependent process reminiscent of EMT. Their role in adult tissues is however less well defined and even ambiguous, as their expression was correlated both positively and negatively with tumor progression...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644077/leiomyosarcoma-of-the-wing-in-a-vieilott-s-fireback-pheasant-lophura-rufa
#18
Martín A Zordan, Michael M Garner, Rebecca Smedley, Dana Neelis, Carlos R Sánchez
A 15-year-old, female Vieilott's fireback pheasant (Lophura rufa) presented with a 2-day history of a drooping right wing. Examination revealed severe soft tissue swelling in the area extending from the right shoulder to the humeral-radio-ulnar joint with associated bruising and feather loss. Results of a complete blood cell count revealed marked heterophilia and lymphocytosis, and results of serum biochemical analysis showed severe increases in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, hypoproteinemia, and hypoalbuminemia...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644055/regulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-4-channel-by-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-inositol-triphosphate-receptors-role-in-human-detrusor-smooth-muscle-function
#19
Aaron Provence, Eric S Rovner, Georgi V Petkov
We recently reported key physiological roles for Ca(2+)-activated transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channels in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). However, the Ca(2+)-signaling mechanisms governing TRPM4 channel activity in human DSM cells are unexplored. As the TRPM4 channels are activated by Ca(2+), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum represents a potential Ca(2+) source for TRPM4 channel activation. We used clinically-characterized human DSM tissues to investigate the molecular and functional interactions of the IP3Rs and TRPM4 channels...
June 23, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643793/genomic-rearrangements-in-sporadic-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-an-evolving-genetic-story
#20
Stephen J Murphy, Simone B Terra, Faye R Harris, Aqsa Nasir, Jesse S Voss, James B Smadbeck, Sarah H Johnson, Vishnu Serla, Jay H Ryu, Eunhee S Yi, Benjamin R Kipp, George Vasmatzis, Eva M Carmona
Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a progressive pulmonary cystic disease resulting from the infiltration of smooth muscle-like lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells into the lung. The migratory/metastasizing properties of the lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell together with the presence of somatic mutations, primarily in the tuberous sclerosis complex gene (TSC2), lead many to consider this a low-grade malignancy. As malignant tumors characteristically accumulate somatic structural variations, which have not been well studied in sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis, we utilized mate pair sequencing to define structural variations within laser capture microdissected enriched lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell populations from five sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis patients...
June 23, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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