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Lung epithelial cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549169/regulatory-dynamics-of-11p13-suggest-a-role-for-ehf-in-modifying-cf-lung-disease-severity
#1
Lindsay R Stolzenburg, Rui Yang, Jenny L Kerschner, Sara Fossum, Matthew Xu, Andrew Hoffmann, Kay-Marie Lamar, Sujana Ghosh, Sarah Wachtel, Shih-Hsing Leir, Ann Harris
Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), but are not good predictors of lung phenotype. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) previously identified additional genomic sites associated with CF lung disease severity. One of these, at chromosome 11p13, is an intergenic region between Ets homologous factor (EHF) and Apaf-1 interacting protein (APIP). Our goal was to determine the functional significance of this region, which being intergenic is probably regulatory...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547381/purinergic-signalling-links-mechanical-breath-profile-and-alveolar-mechanics-with-the-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response-causing-ventilation-induced-lung-injury
#2
REVIEW
Djo Hasan, Paul Blankman, Gary F Nieman
Severe pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high ATP levels despite the conversion to adenosine. Above a certain level, extracellular ATP molecules act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and activate the pro-inflammatory response of the innate immunity through purinergic receptors on the surface of the immune cells...
May 26, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546511/the-nanci-nkx2-1-gene-duplex-buffers-nkx2-1-expression-to-maintain-lung-development-and-homeostasis
#3
Michael J Herriges, David J Tischfield, Zheng Cui, Michael P Morley, Yumiao Han, Apoorva Babu, Su Li, MinMin Lu, Isis Cendan, Benjamin A Garcia, Stewart A Anderson, Edward E Morrisey
A subset of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is spatially correlated with transcription factors (TFs) across the genome, but how these lncRNA-TF gene duplexes regulate tissue development and homeostasis is unclear. We identified a feedback loop within the NANCI (Nkx2.1-associated noncoding intergenic RNA)-Nkx2.1 gene duplex that is essential for buffering Nkx2.1 expression, lung epithelial cell identity, and tissue homeostasis. Within this locus, Nkx2.1 directly inhibits NANCI, while NANCI acts in cis to promote Nkx2...
May 25, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546273/mir-146a-5p-plays-an-essential-role-in-the-aberrant-epithelial-fibroblast-cross-talk-in-copd
#4
Emmanuel T Osei, Laura Florez-Sampedro, Hataitip Tasena, Alen Faiz, Jacobien A Noordhoek, Wim Timens, Dirkje S Postma, Tillie L Hackett, Irene H Heijink, Corry-Anke Brandsma
We previously reported that epithelial-derived interleukin (IL)-1α drives fibroblast-derived inflammation in the lung epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. Since miR-146a-5p has been shown to negatively regulate IL-1 signalling, we investigated the role of miR-146a-5p in the regulation of IL-1α-driven inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) cells were co-cultured with control and COPD-derived primary human lung fibroblasts (PHLFs), and miR-146a-5p expression was assessed with and without IL-1α neutralising antibody...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544958/impact-of-triblock-copolymers-on-the-biophysical-function-of-naturally-derived-lung-surfactant
#5
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Christian A Ruge, Adam Bohr
The current study aimed at investigating the general applicability of triblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene glycol) (Pluronic(®)) as excipients for lung delivery. After thorough physicochemical characterization of the diverse polymers, their cytotoxicity was evaluated using alveolar epithelial cells. Next, a naturally-derived lung surfactant was challenged with the distinct triblock copolymers with respect to changes in microstructure, adsorption to the air/liquid interface and dynamic surface tension behavior under bubble pulsation...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543983/mutation-of-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-36-stk36-causes-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-with-a-central-pair-defect
#6
Christine Edelbusch, Sandra Cindrić, Gerard W Dougherty, Niki T Loges, Heike Olbrich, Joseph Rivlin, Julia Wallmeier, Petra Pennekamp, Israel Amirav, Heymut Omran
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic condition of impaired ciliary beating, characterized by chronic infections of the upper and lower airways and progressive lung failure. Defects of the outer dynein arms are the most common cause of PCD. In about half of the affected individuals, PCD occurs with situs inversus (Kartagener syndrome). A minor PCD subgroup including defects of the radial spokes (RS) and central pair (CP) is hallmarked by the absence of laterality defects, subtle beating abnormalities and unequivocally apparent ultrastructural defects of the ciliary axoneme, making their diagnosis challenging...
May 23, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542929/the-immune-response-to-prevotella-bacteria-in-chronic-inflammatory-disease
#7
REVIEW
Jeppe Madura Larsen
The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542563/evaluation-of-somatostatin-and-nucleolin-receptors-for-therapeutic-delivery-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-stem-cells-applying-the-somatostatin-analog-dotatate-and-the-nucleolin-targeting-aptamer-as1411
#8
Sif Holmboe, Pernille Lund Hansen, Helge Thisgaard, Ines Block, Carolin Müller, Niels Langkjær, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen, Birgitte Brinkmann Olsen, Jan Mollenhauer
Cancer stem cells represent the putative tumor-driving subpopulation thought to account for drug resistance, relapse, and metastatic spread of epithelial and other cancer types. Accordingly, cell surface markers for therapeutic delivery to cancer stem cells are subject of intense research. Somatostatin receptor 2 and nucleolin are known to be overexpressed by various cancer types, which have elicited comprehensive efforts to explore their therapeutic utilization. Here, we evaluated somatostatin receptor 2 targeting and nucleolin targeting for therapeutic delivery to cancer stem cells from lung cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542443/effects-of-pressure-support-and-pressure-controlled-ventilation-on-lung-damage-in-a-model-of-mild-extrapulmonary-acute-lung-injury-with-intra-abdominal-hypertension
#9
Cintia L Santos, Raquel S Santos, Lillian Moraes, Cynthia S Samary, Nathane S Felix, Johnatas D Silva, Marcelo M Morales, Robert Huhle, Marcelo G Abreu, Alberto Schanaider, Pedro L Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) may co-occur with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Lung-protective controlled mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been recommended in ARDS. However, mechanical ventilation with spontaneous breathing activity may be beneficial to lung function and reduce lung damage in mild ARDS. We hypothesized that preserving spontaneous breathing activity during pressure support ventilation (PSV) would improve respiratory function and minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) compared to pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) in mild extrapulmonary acute lung injury (ALI) with IAH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542402/evidence-for-pleural-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-murine-compensatory-lung-growth
#10
Alexandra B Ysasi, Willi L Wagner, Cristian D Valenzuela, Arne Kienzle, Andrew B Servais, Robert D Bennett, Akira Tsuda, Maximilian Ackermann, Steven J Mentzer
In many mammals, including rodents and humans, removal of one lung results in the compensatory growth of the remaining lung; however, the mechanism of compensatory lung growth is unknown. Here, we investigated the changes in morphology and phenotype of pleural cells after pneumonectomy. Between days 1 and 3 after pneumonectomy, cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), a cytoplasmic marker of myofibroblasts, were significantly increased in the pleura compared to surgical controls (p < .01). Scanning electron microscopy of the pleural surface 3 days post-pneumonectomy demonstrated regions of the pleura with morphologic features consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); namely, cells with disrupted intercellular junctions and an acquired mesenchymal (rounded and fusiform) morphotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542361/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-blockade-enables-dexamethasone-to-inhibit-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-lung-neutrophils
#11
Jesus Banuelos, Yun Cao, Soon Cheon Shin, Bruce S Bochner, Pedro Avila, Shihong Li, Xin Jiang, Mark W Lingen, Robert P Schleimer, Nick Z Lu
Glucocorticoids promote neutrophilic inflammation, the mechanisms of which are poorly characterized. Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute murine lung injury model, we determined the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mouse lung neutrophil numbers in the absence and presence of dexamethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. G-CSF was blocked using a neutralizing antibody. Airway neutrophil numbers, cytokine levels, and lung injury parameters were measured. Glucocorticoid treatment maintained LPS-induced airway G-CSF while suppressing TNF and IL-6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542301/electronic-cigarette-aerosols-suppress-cellular-antioxidant-defenses-and-induce-significant-oxidative-dna-damage
#12
Vengatesh Ganapathy, Jimmy Manyanga, Lacy Brame, Dehra McGuire, Balaji Sadhasivam, Evan Floyd, David A Rubenstein, Ilangovan Ramachandran, Theodore Wagener, Lurdes Queimado
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (EC) aerosols contain unique compounds in addition to toxicants and carcinogens traditionally found in tobacco smoke. Studies are warranted to understand the public health risks of ECs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity and the mechanisms induced by EC aerosol extracts on human oral and lung epithelial cells. METHODS: Cells were exposed to EC aerosol or mainstream smoke extracts and DNA damage was measured using the primer anchored DNA damage detection assay (q-PADDA) and 8-oxo-dG ELISA assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542132/inhibition-of-sdf-1-receptors-cxcr4-and-cxcr7-attenuates-acute-pulmonary-inflammation-via-the-adenosine-a2b-receptor-on-blood-cells
#13
Franziska Magdalena Konrad, Nadine Meichssner, Annette Bury, Kristian-Christos Ngamsri, Jörg Reutershan
Acute pulmonary inflammation is characterized by migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the different compartments of the lung. Recent studies showed evidence that the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 influence migration of immune cells and their activity was linked to adenosine concentrations. We investigated the particular role of CXCR4- and CXCR7-inhibition and the potential link to the adenosine A2B-receptor, which plays an important anti-inflammatory role in the lung...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540808/exposure-to-febrile-range-hyperthermia-potentiates-wnt-signalling-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-gene-expression-in-lung-epithelium
#14
Ratnakar Potla, Mohan E Tulapurkar, Irina G Luzina, Sergei P Atamas, Ishwar S Singh, Jeffrey D Hasday
BACKGROUND: As environmental and body temperatures vary, lung epithelial cells experience temperatures significantly different from normal core temperature. Our previous studies in human lung epithelium showed that: (i) heat shock accelerates wound healing and activates profibrotic gene expression through heat shock factor-1 (HSF1); (ii) HSF1 is activated at febrile temperatures (38-41 °C) and (iii) hypothermia (32 °C) activates and hyperthermia (39.5 °C) reduces expression of a subset of miRNAs that target protein kinase-Cα (PKCα) and enhance proliferation...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540630/surgery-for-malignant-lesions-of-the-chest-which-extensively-involved-the-mediastinum-lung-and-heart
#15
REVIEW
Yugo Tanaka, Daisuke Hokka, Hiroyuki Ogawa, Nahoko Shimizu, Takeshi Inoue, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yutaka Okita, Yoshimasa Maniwa
OBJECTIVE: Radical resection for thoracic malignancies that invade the great vessels or heart structure is an uncommon, high-risk operation. To help surgeons determine therapeutic strategy, we reviewed the patient characteristics and outcomes of combined thoracic and cardiovascular surgery for thoracic malignancies. METHODS: Surgical resections of lung cancer, mediastinal tumor and pulmonary artery sarcoma invading great vessels or heart structures were reviewed from the literature...
May 24, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539224/inhaled-enac-antisense-oligonucleotide-ameliorates-cystic-fibrosis-like-lung-disease-in-mice
#16
Jeff R Crosby, Chenguang Zhao, Chong Jiang, Dong Bai, Melanie Katz, Sarah Greenlee, Hiroshi Kawabe, Michael McCaleb, Daniela Rotin, Shuling Guo, Brett P Monia
BACKGROUND: Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, Scnn1) hyperactivity in the lung leads to airway surface dehydration and mucus accumulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and in mice with CF-like lung disease. METHODS: We identified several potent ENaC specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and tested them by inhalation in mouse models of CF-like lung disease. RESULTS: The inhaled ASOs distributed into lung airway epithelial cells and decreased ENaC expression by inducing RNase H1-dependent degradation of the targeted Scnn1a mRNA...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538234/overview-of-lung-development-in-the-newborn-human
#17
David Warburton
In human neonates rapid adaptation from an aqueous intrauterine environment to permanent air breathing is the rate-limiting step for extrauterine life, failure of which justifies the existence of neonatal intensive care units. The lung develops at about 4-6 weeks' gestation in humans as a ventral outpouching of the primitive foregut into the surrounding ventral mesenchyme, termed the laryngotracheal groove. At its posterior end lie progenitor cells that form a pair of bronchial tubes, from which arise all the distal epithelial structures of the lung...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537678/lncrna-bcar4-promotes-proliferation-invasion-and-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-by-affecting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#18
N Li, W-J Gao, N-S Liu
OBJECTIVE: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in various cellular biological processes. It is also involved in the occurrence and development of the tumor. BCAR4 is reported to be highly expressed in breast cancer and promotes cell proliferation. However, the biological effects of BCAR4 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed for detecting BCAR4 expression in 76 pairs of NSCLC tissues and corresponding cancer-adjacent tissues and 6 NSCLC cell lines...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535594/industrial-pm2-5-cause-pulmonary-adverse-effect-through-rhoa-rock-pathway
#19
Junyan Yan, Chia-Hsiang Lai, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, Chongjun Chen, Wen-Cheng Wang, Pin-I Huang, Chia-Hua Lin
According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM2...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535533/malat1-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-downregulation-of-mir-145
#20
Yin Xiang, Yachen Zhang, Yong Tang, Qianhui Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays significant roles under various pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. EndMT of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contributes to neointimal hyperplasia following cell therapy Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that promotes metastasis and cancer. MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) is a tumor suppressor that has been reported to inhibit SMAD3-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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