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Biocontainment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325489/creating-effective-biocontainment-facilities-and-maintenance-protocols-for-raising-specific-pathogen-free-severe-combined-immunodeficient-scid-pigs
#1
Ellis J Powell, Sara Charley, Adeline N Boettcher, Lisa Varley, Justin Brown, Martine Schroyen, Malavika K Adur, Susan Dekkers, Dean Isaacson, Mary Sauer, Joan Cunnick, N Matthew Ellinwood, Jason W Ross, Jack Cm Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is defined by the lack of an adaptive immune system. Mutations causing SCID are found naturally in humans, mice, horses, dogs, and recently in pigs, with the serendipitous discovery of the Iowa State University SCID pigs. As research models, SCID animals are naturally tolerant of xenotransplantation and offer valuable insight into research areas such as regenerative medicine, cancer therapy, as well as immune cell signaling mechanisms. Large-animal biomedical models, particularly pigs, are increasingly essential to advance the efficacy and safety of novel regenerative therapies on human disease...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301968/engineering-posttranslational-proofreading-to-discriminate-nonstandard-amino-acids
#2
Aditya M Kunjapur, Devon A Stork, Erkin Kuru, Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez, Matthieu Landon, Dieter Söll, George M Church
Incorporation of nonstandard amino acids (nsAAs) leads to chemical diversification of proteins, which is an important tool for the investigation and engineering of biological processes. However, the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases crucial for this process are polyspecific in regard to nsAAs and standard amino acids. Here, we develop a quality control system called "posttranslational proofreading" to more accurately and rapidly evaluate nsAA incorporation. We achieve this proofreading by hijacking a natural pathway of protein degradation known as the N-end rule, which regulates the lifespan of a protein based on its amino-terminal residue...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196195/novel-expression-of-immunogenic-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-like-particles-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#3
Varusha Pillay Veerapen, Albertha R van Zyl, Andrés Wigdorovitz, Edward P Rybicki, Ann E Meyers
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals and is endemic in Africa, parts of South America and southern Asia. The causative agent, FMD virus (FMDV) is a member of the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae. Vaccines currently used against FMDV are chemically inactivated virus strains which are produced under high-level biocontainment facilities, thus raising their cost. The development of recombinant FMDV vaccines has focused predominantly on FMDV virus-like particle (VLP) subunit vaccines for which promising results have been achieved...
November 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176081/biocontaining-purification-restoration-and-meaning-making
#4
Helen Chapple, David Schenck
Biocontaining during the recent Ebola outbreak served to affirm the social significance of biomedicine, even though it had little measurable effect on the pandemic itself. Taking up key insights of Mary Douglas and Victor Turner concerning the essential meaning-making tasks of culture, this article discusses how biocontaining as an activity contributed to the work of social reassurance and meaning-making in U.S. and global society during the crisis. The analysis is based in significant part on fieldwork done at the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU), study of NBU educational materials, and follow-up conversations with personnel staffing that unit...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026112/engineering-species-like-barriers-to-sexual-reproduction
#5
Maciej Maselko, Stephen C Heinsch, Jeremy M Chacón, William R Harcombe, Michael J Smanski
Controlling the exchange of genetic information between sexually reproducing populations has applications in agriculture, eradication of disease vectors, control of invasive species, and the safe study of emerging biotechnology applications. Here we introduce an approach to engineer a genetic barrier to sexual reproduction between otherwise compatible populations. Programmable transcription factors drive lethal gene expression in hybrid offspring following undesired mating events. As a proof of concept, we target the ACT1 promoter of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a dCas9-based transcriptional activator...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983660/synthetic-genome-recoding-new-genetic-codes-for-new-features
#6
REVIEW
James Kuo, Finn Stirling, Yu Heng Lau, Yekaterina Shulgina, Jeffrey C Way, Pamela A Silver
Full genome recoding, or rewriting codon meaning, through chemical synthesis of entire bacterial chromosomes has become feasible in the past several years. Recoding an organism can impart new properties including non-natural amino acid incorporation, virus resistance, and biocontainment. The estimated cost of construction that includes DNA synthesis, assembly by recombination, and troubleshooting, is now comparable to costs of early stage development of drugs or other high-tech products. Here, we discuss several recently published assembly methods and provide some thoughts on the future, including how synthetic efforts might benefit from the analysis of natural recoding processes and organisms that use alternative genetic codes...
October 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980193/expression-of-thiaminase-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-is-lethal-and-has-implications-for-use-as-a-biocontainment-strategy-in-aquaculture-and-invasive-species
#7
Sandra Noble, Vishal Saxena, Marc Ekker, Robert Devlin
As the world increasingly relies on aquaculture operations to meet rising seafood demands, reliable biocontainment measures for farmed fish stocks are desired to minimize ecological impacts arising from interactions of cultured fish with wild populations. One possible biocontainment strategy is to induce a dietary dependence on a vitamin, such as thiamine (vitamin B1), required for survival. Fish expressing thiaminase (an enzyme that degrades thiamine) within a confined aquaculture facility could receive supplemental thiamine to allow survival and normal growth, whereas escapees lacking this dietary rescue would die from thiamine deficiency...
October 5, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976641/synthetic-biology-and-the-gut-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Dou, Matthew R Bennett
The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in maintaining human health. Functions performed by gastrointestinal microbes range from regulating metabolism to modulating immune and nervous system development. Scientists have attempted to exploit this importance through the development of engineered probiotics that are capable of producing and delivering small molecule therapeutics within the gut. However, existing synthetic probiotics are simplistic and fail to replicate the complexity and adaptability of native homeostatic mechanisms...
October 4, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940807/rural-veterinarian-s-perception-and-practices-in-terms-of-biosecurity-across-three-european-countries
#9
V Renault, M F Humblet, V Moons, G Bosquet, B Gauthier, L M Cebrián, J Casal, C Saegerman
The implementation of biosecurity measures in the animal health and production context is quite broad and aims at limiting the risk of introduction and spread of diseases. Veterinarians play a major role in biosecurity as key informants on the subject for cattle holders, key players in terms of disease prevention/control and eradication programs, as well as key risk factor in terms of disease dissemination. Many biosecurity studies have highlighted professional visitors such as veterinary practitioners as representing a high-risk factor in terms of disease introduction in animal facilities but, to date, very few studies have focused on the implementation level of biosecurity measures by veterinarians...
September 21, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805464/advancing-preparedness-for-highly-hazardous-contagious-diseases-admitting-10-simulated-patients-with-mers-cov
#10
Angela Vasa, Philip W Smith, Michelle Schwedhelm, Theodore J Cieslak, John Lowe, Christopher J Kratochvil, Elizabeth L Beam, Kate Boulter, Angela Hewlett
The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016 highlighted the need for the development of a more robust healthcare infrastructure in the United States to provide isolation care for patients infected with a highly hazardous contagious disease. Routine exercises and skills practice are required to effectively and safely prepare care teams to confidently treat this special population of patients. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU) at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha has been conducting exercises since 2005 when the unit was opened...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791615/molecular-approaches-for-manipulating-male-sterility-and-strategies-for-fertility-restoration-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
Pawan Shukla, Naveen Kumar Singh, Ranjana Gautam, Israr Ahmed, Deepanker Yadav, Akanksha Sharma, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja Kirti
Usable pollination control systems have proven to be effective system for the development of hybrid crop varieties, which are important for optimal performance over varied environments and years. They also act as a biocontainment to check horizontal transgene flow. In the last two decades, many genetic manipulations involving genes controlling the production of cytotoxic products, conditional male sterility, altering metabolic processes, post-transcriptional gene silencing, RNA editing and chloroplast engineering methods have been used to develop a proper pollination control system...
October 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783349/orthogonal-ribosome-bio-firewall
#12
Bin Jia, Hao Qi, Bing-Zhi Li, Shuo Pan, Duo Liu, Hong Liu, Yizhi Cai, Ying-Jin Yuan
Biocontainment systems are crucial for preventing genetically modified organisms from escaping into natural ecosystems. Here, we describe the orthogonal ribosome bio-firewall, which consists of an activation circuit and a degradation circuit. The activation circuit is a genetic AND gate based on activation of the encrypted pathway by the orthogonal ribosome in response to specific environmental signals. The degradation circuit is a genetic NOT gate with an output of I-SceI homing endonuclease, which conditionally degrades the orthogonal ribosome genes...
August 7, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779833/high-containment-pathogen-preparation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#13
REVIEW
Brian T Garibaldi, Daniel S Chertow
The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak highlighted the need to build national and worldwide capacity to provide care for patients with highly infectious diseases. Specialized biocontainment units were successful in treating several critically ill patients with Ebola virus disease both in the United States and Europe. Several key principles underlie the care of critically ill patients in a high-containment environment. Environmental factors, staffing, equipment, training, laboratory testing, procedures, and waste management each present unique challenges...
September 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745647/utilization-of-capsules-for-negative-staining-of-viral-samples-within-biocontainment
#14
Candace D Blancett, Mitchell K Monninger, Chrystal A Nguessan, Kathleen A Kuehl, Cynthia A Rossi, Scott P Olschner, Priscilla L Williams, Steven L Goodman, Mei G Sun
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to observe the ultrastructure of viruses and other microbial pathogens with nanometer resolution. Most biological materials do not contain dense elements capable of scattering electrons to create an image; therefore, a negative stain, which places dense heavy metal salts around the sample, is required. In order to visualize viruses in suspension under the TEM they must be applied to small grids coated with a transparent surface only nanometers thick. Due to their small size and fragility, these grids are difficult to handle and easily moved by air currents...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692329/surrogate-strains-of-human-pathogens-for-field-release
#15
Sangjin Park, Chang-Hwan Kim, Seong Tae Jeong, Sang Yup Lee
Surrogate microorganisms, in short surrogates, are an essential part of pathogen research. Compared to surrogates used in controlled laboratory environments, surrogates for field release are restricted by concerns about human and environmental safety. For field research of food-borne pathogens, strains of an attenuated pathogen or strains of genetically close non-pathogenic species have been used as surrogates. Genetic modification is usually performed to attenuate virulence, through for examples deletion of genes of virulence and transcriptional regulators and removal of virulence plasmids, and to facilitate detection and monitoring through observing antibiotic resistance, fluorescence, and bioluminescence...
July 10, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669587/therapeutic-management-of-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever
#16
Fernando de la Calle-Prieto, Alejandro Martín-Quirós, Elena Trigo, Marta Mora-Rillo, Marta Arsuaga, Marta Díaz-Menéndez, José Ramón Arribas
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance...
June 29, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662749/personal-protective-equipment-in-animal-research
#17
Jason S Villano, Janet M Follo, Mark G Chappell, Morris T Collins
The occupational health and safety program is an integral component of a comprehensive animal care and use program. It is important to mitigate the risk of exposures of animal care and research personnel to allergens and physical, chemical, radiologic, and biologic hazards during the conduct of various tasks. This need is especially true in infectious disease and biocontainment research. One aspect of the program is the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE). Commercially available PPE should be carefully evaluated based on their material composition and performance according to manufacturer data...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628619/south-african-ebola-diagnostic-response-in-sierra-leone-a-modular-high-biosafety-field-laboratory
#18
Janusz T Paweska, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Gunther H Meier, Chantel le Roux, Ousman S Conteh, Alan Kemp, Cardia Fourie, Prabha Naidoo, Serisha Naicker, Phumza Ohaebosim, Nadia Storm, Orienka Hellferscee, Lisa K Ming Sun, Busisiwe Mogodi, Nishi Prabdial-Sing, Desiree du Plessis, Deidre Greyling, Shayne Loubser, Mark Goosen, Stewart D McCulloch, Terence P Scott, Alexandra Moerdyk, Wesley Dlamini, Kelfala Konneh, Idrissa L Kamara, Dauda Sowa, Samuel Sorie, Brima Kargbo, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583857/a-novel-highly-sensitive-rapid-and-safe-rift-valley-fever-virus-neutralization-test
#19
Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Janusz T Paweska, Jet Kant, Jeroen Kortekaas
Antibodies specific for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) can be detected by diverse methods, including ezyme-linked immunosortbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The VNT is superior in sensitivity and specificity and is therefore considered the gold standard serological assay. Classical VNTs make use of virulent RVFV and therefore have to be performed in biosafety level 3 laboratories. Here, we report the development of a novel VNT that is based on an avirulent RVFV expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), which can be performed safely outside level 3 biocontainment facilities...
October 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492131/personal-protective-equipment-in-animal-research
#20
Jason S Villano, Janet M Follo, Mark G Chappell, Morris T Collins
The occupational health and safety program is an integral component of a comprehensive animal care and use program. Itisimportant to mitigate the risk of exposures of animal care and research personnel to allergens and physical, chemical, radiologic,and biologic hazards during the conduct of various tasks. This need is especially true in infectious disease and biocontainment research. One aspect of the program is the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE). Commercially available PPE should be carefully evaluated based on their material composition and performance according to manufacturer data...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Medicine
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