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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161769/influence-of-biceps-brachii-tendon-mechanical-properties-on-elbow-flexor-force-steadiness-in-young-and-old-males
#1
Rowan R Smart, Stéphane Baudry, Andrey Fedorov, Samantha L Kuzyk, Jennifer M Jakobi
Elbow flexor force steadiness (FS) depends on strength and decreases with age. Achilles tendon mechanics effect standing balance and isometric plantarflexion FS. This study investigated the influence of distal biceps brachii (BB) tendon mechanics and elbow flexor strength on age-related decline in FS. Nine young (23±2 years) and 9 old (77±5 years) males performed submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks at low (2.5, 5, 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and high (20, 40, 60, 80%MVC) forces in a neutral forearm position...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161495/essential-oils-and-their-components-as-an-alternative-in-the-control-of-mosquito-vectors-of-disease
#2
Sergio Andrade Ochoa, Luvia E Sánchez-Torres, Guadalupe Virginia Nevárez-Moorillón, Alejandro D Camacho, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres
More than half of the human population is exposed to mosquito-borne infections. Climate change and the emergence of strains resistant to traditionally used insecticides have motivated the search of new agents for mosquito population control. Essential oils have been effective repellents and larvicidal agents.The aim of this work was to review research studies conducted in recent years on the larvicidal activity of essential oils and their components against Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, as well as the latest reports about their possible mechanism of action...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161470/resequencing-of-a-mutant-bearing-an-iron-starvation-recovery-phenotype-defines-slr1658-as-a-new-player-in-the-regulatory-network-of-a-model-cyanobacterium
#3
Hagit Zer, Ketty Margulis, Jens Georg, Yoram Shotland, Gergana Kostova, Laure Sultan, Wolfgang R Hess, Nir Keren
Photosynthetic microorganisms encounter an erratic nutrient environment characterized by periods of iron limitation and sufficiency. Surviving in such an environment requires mechanisms for handling these transitions. Our study identified a regulatory system involved in the process of recovery from iron limitation in cyanobacteria. We set out to study the role of bacterioferritin co-migratory proteins during transitions in iron bioavailability in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using knockout strains coupled with physiological and biochemical measurements...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161169/investigation-of-apoptosis-in-cultured-cells-infected-with-equine-herpesvirus-1
#4
M R Scrochi, C N Zanuzzi, N Fuentealba, F Nishida, M E Bravi, M E Pacheco, G H Sguazza, E J Gimeno, E L Portiansky, C I Muglia, C M Galosi, C G Barbeito
Many viruses alter different stages of apoptosis of infected cells as a strategy for successful infection. Few studies have addressed mechanisms of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) strain-induced cell death. We investigated the effect of an abortigenic strain (AR8 strain) on heterologous Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells and homologous equine dermis (ED) cells cell lines. We compared morphologic and biochemical features of early and late apoptosis at different postinfection times. We investigated translocation of phosphatidylserine to the cell surface, nuclear fragmentation and changes in the cytoskeleton using flow cytometry and annexin V/propidium iodide staining, DNA laddering, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick-end labeling assay and immunofluorescence staining of cytokeratin 18 cleavage...
November 21, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161121/research-design-and-analysis-of-a-low-stiffness-porous-hip-stem
#5
Ibrahim Eldesouky, Hassan El-Hofy, Ola Harrysson
Two major problems are associated with total hip replacement: 1) stress shielding and 2) the adverse tissue reaction to certain elements of the implant material. In this regard, a porous implant provides lower stiffness and vacancies for bone ingrowth, making it more suitable for the human bone compared with a solid stem. Moreover, second-generation titanium biomedical alloys, such as TNZT (Ti35Nb7Zr5Ta) and TMZF (Ti12Mo6Zr2Fe), have been introduced to prevent the adverse tissue reactions related to aluminum and vanadium elements of the popular Ti6Al4V alloy...
November 2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160926/electro-mechanical-response-of-a-3d-nerve-bundle-model-to-mechanical-loads-leading-to-axonal-injury
#6
I Cinelli, M Destrade, M Duffy, P McHugh
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injuries and damage are major causes of death and disability. We propose a 3D fully coupled electro-mechanical model of a nerve bundle to investigate the electrophysiological impairments due to trauma at the cellular level. METHODS: The coupling is based on a thermal analogy of the neural electrical activity by using the finite element software Abaqus CAE 6.13-3. The model includes a real-time coupling, modulated threshold for spiking activation and independent alteration of the electrical properties for each 3-layer fibre within a nerve bundle as a function of strain...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160864/clonal-expansion-behind-a-marine-diatom-bloom
#7
Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Domenico D'Alelio, Maria Immacolata Ferrante, Mariano Santoro, Laura Vitale, Gabriele Procaccini, Marina Montresor
Genetic diversity is what selection acts on, thus shaping the adaptive potential of populations. We studied micro-evolutionary patterns of the key planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata at a long-term sampling site over 2 consecutive years by genotyping isolates with 22 microsatellite markers. We show that both sex and vegetative growth interplay in shaping intraspecific diversity. We document a brief but massive demographic and clonal expansion driven by strains of the same mating type. The analysis of an extended data set (6 years) indicates that the genetic fingerprint of P...
November 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160808/interplay-between-colistin-resistance-virulence-and-fitness-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
REVIEW
Gabriela Jorge Da Silva, Sara Domingues
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen often resistant to multiple antibiotics classes. Colistin, an "old" antibiotic, is now considered a last-line treatment option for extremely resistant isolates. In the meantime, resistance to colistin has been reported in clinical A. baumannii strains. Colistin is a cationic peptide that disrupts the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin resistance is primarily due to post-translational modification or loss of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules inserted into the outer leaflet of the OM...
November 21, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160686/human-hair-keratin-for-biocompatible-flexible-and-transient-electronic-devices
#9
Jieun Ko, Luong Thi Hieun Nguyen, Abhijith Surendran, Bee Yi Tan, Kee Woei Ng, Wei Lin Leong
Biomaterials have been attracting attention as a useful building block for biocompatible and bioresorbable electronics due to its non-toxic property and solution processabillity. In this work, we report the integration of biocompatible keratin from human hair as dielectric layer for organic thin-film transistors (TFTs), with high performance, flexibility and transient property. The keratin dielectric layer exhibited a high capacitance value above 1.27 μF/cm2 at 20 Hz due to the formation of electrical double layer...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160203/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-hospitals-during-a-4-year-period-in-china
#10
Yun-Bo Chen, Si-Lan Gu, Ping Shen, Tao Lv, Yun-Hui Fang, Ling-Ling Tang, Lan-Juan Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform molecular characterization for and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Clostridium difficile collected from hospitals during a 4-year period (2009-2013) in China. METHODS: Strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from patients with diarrhoea, and this was followed by typing using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and testing for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by using the E-test. The mechanisms of resistance to moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were investigated by PCR...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160065/transformation-of-the-anticancer-drug-doxorubicin-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#11
Austin Yan, Elizabeth Culp, Julie Perry, Jennifer Lau, Lesley MacNeil, Michael G Surette, Gerard D Wright
Bacteria living in the human gut are implicated in the etiology of several diseases. Moreover, dozens of drugs are metabolized by elements of the gut microbiome, which may have further implications for human health. Here we screened a collection of primary gut isolates for their ability to inactivate the widely used antineoplastic drug doxorubicin and identified a strain of Raoultella planticola as a potent inactivator under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrate that R. planticola deglycosylates doxorubicin to metabolites 7-deoxydoxorubicinol and 7-deoxydoxorubicinolone via a reductive deglycosylation mechanism...
November 21, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159916/purification-and-characterization-of-ribosomal-proteins-l27-and-l30-having-antimicrobial-activity-produced-by-the-lactobacillus-salivarius-sgl03
#12
Paolo Pidutti, Federica Federici, Jessica Brandi, Laura Manna, Eleonora Rizzi, Umberto Marini, Daniela Cecconi
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of proteins secreted by a new strain of Lactobacillus salivarius. METHODS AND RESULTS: The secretome of L. salivarius SGL03 strain was analyzed by gel-assisted fractionation and MS/MS to identify low-molecular-mass proteins. This strategy allowed us to identify ten secreted proteins. Then a combination of heterologous expression and agar well diffusion was used to characterize them as to their antimicrobial activity, mechanisms of action, and stability...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159585/kfoa-the-udp-glucose-4-epimerase-of-escherichia-coli-strain-o5-k4-h4-shows-preference-for-acetylated-substrates
#13
Hao-Miao Zhu, Bin Sun, Yi-Jun Li, Dan-Hua Meng, Shuang Zheng, Ting-Ting Wang, Feng-Shan Wang, Ju-Zheng Sheng
Capsule of Escherichia coli O5:K4:H4 is formed of a chondroitin-repeat disaccharide unit of glucuronic acid (GlcA)-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). This polysaccharide, commonly referred to as K4CP, is a potentially important source of precursors for chemoenzymatic or bioengineering synthesis of chondroitin sulfate. KfoA, encoded by a gene from region 2 of the K4 capsular gene cluster, shows high homology to the UDP-glucose-4-epimerase (GalE) from E. coli. KfoA is reputed to be responsible for uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) supply for K4CP biosynthesis in vivo, but it has not been biochemically characterized...
November 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159508/comparative-genomics-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-atcc-11443-and-the-mutant-strain-sct-10-10-60-with-enhanced-l-lactic-acid-production-capacity
#14
Liang Sun, Zhilong Lu, Jianxiu Li, Feifei Sun, Ribo Huang
Mechanisms for high L-lactic acid production remain unclear in many bacteria. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SCT-10-10-60 was previously obtained from L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443 via mutagenesis and showed improved L-lactic acid production. In this study, the genomes of strains SCT-10-10-60 and ATCC 11443 were sequenced. Both genomes are a circular chromosome, 2.99 Mb in length with a GC content of approximately 46.8%. Eight split genes were identified in strain SCT-10-10-60, including two LytR family transcriptional regulators, two Rex redox-sensing transcriptional repressors, and four ABC transporters...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159452/saprotrophic-soil-fungi-to-improve-phosphorus-solubilisation-and-release-in-vitro-abilities-of-several-species
#15
Andrea Ceci, Flavia Pinzari, Fabiana Russo, Oriana Maggi, Anna Maria Persiani
Modern agriculture is dependent on phosphate rock (PR), which is a nonrenewable resource. Improvement of phosphorus (P) availability for crops in agricultural soils represents a key strategy to slow down the depletion of PR. The aim of this study was to identify potential P biofertilisers among saprotrophic fungal species. We tested 30 fungal strains belonging to 28 taxa (4 Zygomycota and 24 Ascomycota) and with different life strategies. The study showed that many saprotrophic fungi have the ability to mobilise P from insoluble forms according to a variety of mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159439/isolation-of-lead-resistant-arthrobactor-strain-gq-9-and-its-biosorption-mechanism
#16
Tianqi Wang, Jun Yao, Zhimin Yuan, Yue Zhao, Fei Wang, Huilun Chen
In this study, lead-resistant bacterium Arthrobacter sp. GQ-9 with a resistant capability to cadmium, zinc, and copper was isolated from a heavy metal polluted soil. Microcalorimetry analysis was applied to assess the strain's microbial activity under Pb(II) stress and suggested that GQ-9's microbial activities under Pb(II) stress were stronger than a non-resistant strain. Biosorption batch experiments revealed that the optimal condition for adsorption of Pb(II) by GQ-9 was pH 5.5, a biomass dosage of 1.2 g L(-1), and an initial Pb(II) concentration of 100 mg L(-1) with a maximum biosorption capacity of 17...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158537/medicinal-plant-leaf-extract-and-pure-flavonoid-mediated-green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-enhanced-antibacterial-property
#17
Siddhant Jain, Mohan Singh Mehata
The rewards of using plants and plant metabolites over other biological methods for nanoparticle synthesis have fascinated researchers to investigate mechanisms of metal ions uptake and bio-reduction by plants. Here, green chemistry were employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extracts of Ocimum Sanctum (Tulsi) and its derivative quercetin (flavonoid present in Tulsi) separately as precursors to investigate the role of biomolecules present in Tulsi in the formation of AgNPs from cationic silver under different physicochemical conditions such as pH, temperature, reaction time and reactants concentration...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158513/microscale-cavitation-as-a-mechanism-for-nucleating-earthquakes-at-the-base-of-the-seismogenic-zone
#18
Berend A Verberne, Jianye Chen, André R Niemeijer, Johannes H P de Bresser, Gillian M Pennock, Martyn R Drury, Christopher J Spiers
Major earthquakes frequently nucleate near the base of the seismogenic zone, close to the brittle-ductile transition. Fault zone rupture at greater depths is inhibited by ductile flow of rock. However, the microphysical mechanisms responsible for the transition from ductile flow to seismogenic brittle/frictional behaviour at shallower depths remain unclear. Here we show that the flow-to-friction transition in experimentally simulated calcite faults is characterized by a transition from dislocation and diffusion creep to dilatant deformation, involving incompletely accommodated grain boundary sliding...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158279/kkl-35-exhibits-potent-antibiotic-activity-against-legionella-species-independently-of-trans-translation-inhibition
#19
Romain Brunel, Ghislaine Descours, Isabelle Durieux, Patricia Doublet, Sophie Jarraud, Xavier Charpentier
Trans-translation is a ribosome rescue system that is ubiquitous in bacteria. Small molecules defining a new family of oxadiazole compounds that inhibit trans-translation have been found to have broad-spectrum antibiotic activity. We sought to determine the activity of KKL-35, a potent member of the oxadiazole family, against the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila and other related species that can also cause Legionnaires disease (LD). Consistent with the essential nature of trans-translation in L. pneumophila, KKL-35 inhibits growth of all tested strains at sub-micromolar concentrations...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158273/revisiting-activation-of-and-the-mechanism-of-resistance-to-the-compound-iqg-607-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Bruno L Abbadi, Anne D Villela, Valnês S Rodrigues-Junior, Fernanda T Subtil, Pedro F Dalberto, Ana P S Pinheiro, Diógenes S Santos, Pablo Machado, Luiz A Basso, Cristiano V Bizarro
IQG-607 is a metal complex previously reported as a promising anti-TB drug against isoniazid (INH)-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis Unexpectedly, we found that INH-resistant clinical isolates were resistant to IQG-607. Spontaneous mutants resistant to IQG-607 were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and all sequenced colonies carried alterations in the katG gene. The katG(S315T) mutation was sufficient to confer resistance to IQG-607 in both MIC assays and inside macrophages. Moreover, overexpressing the InhA(S94A) protein caused IQG-607's resistance...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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