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Mechanical strain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527044/endocytic-vesicle-rupture-is-a-conserved-mechanism-of-cellular-invasion-by-amyloid-proteins
#1
William P Flavin, Luc Bousset, Zachary C Green, Yaping Chu, Stratos Skarpathiotis, Michael J Chaney, Jeffrey H Kordower, Ronald Melki, Edward M Campbell
Numerous pathological amyloid proteins spread from cell to cell during neurodegenerative disease, facilitating the propagation of cellular pathology and disease progression. Understanding the mechanism by which disease-associated amyloid protein assemblies enter target cells and induce cellular dysfunction is, therefore, key to understanding the progressive nature of such neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we utilized an imaging-based assay to monitor the ability of disease-associated amyloid assemblies to rupture intracellular vesicles following endocytosis...
May 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526857/room-temperature-soft-mode-and-ferroelectric-like-polarization-in-srtio3-ultrathin-films-infrared-and-ab-initio-study
#2
Wei-Wei Peng, Robert Tétot, Gang Niu, Emilie Amzallag, Bertrand Vilquin, Jean-Blaise Brubach, Pascale Roy
Due to the remarkable possibilities of epitaxially growing strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO) on silicon, this oxide is widely used as a buffer layer for integrating other perovskite oxides which allows for the development of various functional electronic devices on silicon. Moreover, STO is known to be an incipient ferroelectric in bulk but may become ferroelectric when in the form of strained ultrathin films. Given the importance of the potential applications for electronics if this property is demonstrated, we performed a spectroscopic study of STO on Si(001) templates coupling experimental and ab initio investigations...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526844/identification-of-extracellular-glycerophosphodiesterases-in-pseudomonas-and-their-role-in-soil-organic-phosphorus-remineralisation
#3
Ian D E A Lidbury, Andrew R J Murphy, Tandra D Fraser, Gary D Bending, Alexandra M E Jones, Jonathan D Moore, Andrew Goodall, Mark Tibbett, John P Hammond, David J Scanlan, Elizabeth M H Wellington
In soils, phosphorus (P) exists in numerous organic and inorganic forms. However, plants can only acquire inorganic orthophosphate (Pi), meaning global crop production is frequently limited by P availability. To overcome this problem, rock phosphate fertilisers are heavily applied, often with negative environmental and socio-economic consequences. The organic P fraction of soil contains phospholipids that are rapidly degraded resulting in the release of bioavailable Pi. However, the mechanisms behind this process remain unknown...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526174/twist-buckling-of-veins-under-torsional-loading
#4
Justin R Garcia, Arnav Sanyal, Fatemeh Fatemifar, Mohammad Mottahedi, Hai-Chao Han
Veins are often subjected to torsion and twisted veins can hinder and disrupt normal blood flow but their mechanical behavior under torsion is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the twist deformation and buckling behavior of veins under torsion. Twist buckling tests were performed on porcine internal jugular veins (IJVs) and human great saphenous veins (GSVs) at various axial stretch ratio and lumen pressure conditions to determine their critical buckling torques and critical buckling twist angles...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525774/development-and-validation-of-a-physical-model-to-investigate-the-biomechanics-of-infant-head-impact
#5
M Jones, D Darwall, G Khalid, R Prabhu, A Kemp, O Arthurs, P Theobald
Head injury in childhood is the single most common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of the response of a child's head to injurious loading. This is a significant limitation when making early diagnoses, informing clinical and/or forensic management or injury prevention strategies. With respect to impact vulnerability, current understanding is predominantly based on a few post-mortem-human-surrogate (PMHS) experiments...
April 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525395/the-shell-effect-on-the-room-temperature-photoluminescence-from-zno-mgo-core-shell-nanowires-exciton-phonon-coupling-and-strain
#6
Nadia Vega, Oscar Marin, Ezequiel Tosi, Gustavo Grinblat, Edgar Mosquera, M Moreno, Mónica Tirado, D Comedi
The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires (NWs) grown by a simple two-step vapour transport method was studied for various MgO shell widths (w). Two distinct effects induced by the MgO shell were clearly identified. The first one, related to the ZnO/MgO interface formation, is evidenced by strong enhancements of the zero-phonon and first phonon replica of the excitonic emission, which are accompanied by a total suppression of its second phonon replica. This effect can be explained by the reduction of the band bending within the ZnO NW core that follows the removal of atmospheric adsorbates and associated surface traps during the MgO growth process on one hand, and a reduced exciton-phonon coupling as a result of the mechanical stabilization of the outermost ZnO NW monolayers by the MgO shell on the other hand...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525280/self-healing-self-assembled-%C3%AE-sheet-peptide-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-hybrid-hydrogels
#7
David E Clarke, E Thomas Pashuck, Sergio Bertazzo, Jonathan V M Weaver, Molly M Stevens
Self-assembled biomaterials are an important class of materials that can be injected and formed in situ. However, they often are not able to meet the mechanical properties necessary for many biological applications, losing mechanical properties at low strains. We synthesized hybrid hydrogels consisting of a poly(γ-glutamic acid) polymer network physically cross-linked via grafted self-assembling β-sheet peptides to provide non-covalent cross-linking through β-sheet assembly, reinforced with a polymer backbone to improve strain stability...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524381/antifungal-activity-of-gallic-acid-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Zhi-Jian Li, Meng Liu, Gulina Dawuti, Qin Dou, Yu Ma, Heng-Ge Liu, Silafu Aibai
Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol natural compound found in many medicinal plant species, including pomegranate rind (Punica granatum L.), and has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. Pomegranate rind is used to treat bacterial and fungal pathogens in Uyghur and other systems of traditional medicine, but, surprisingly, the effects of GA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo...
May 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523480/2-methoxylated-fa-display-unusual-antibacterial-activity-towards-clinical-isolates-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-cimrsa-and-escherichia-coli
#9
Néstor M Carballeira, Nashbly Montano, Christian Morales, Joseph Mooney, Xiomara Torres, Dakeishla Díaz, David J Sanabria-Rios
The naturally occurring (6Z)-(±)-2-methoxy-6-hexadecenoic acid (1) and (6Z)-(±)-2-methoxy-6-octadecenoic acid (2) were synthesized in 7-8 steps with 38 and 13% overall yields, respectively, by using an acetylide coupling approach, which made it possible to obtain a 100% cis-stereochemistry for the double bonds. In a similar fashion, the acetylenic analogs (±)-2-methoxy-6-hexadecynoic acid (3) and (±)-2-methoxy-6-octadecynoic acid (4) were also synthesized in 6-7 steps with 48 and 16% overall yields, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523375/a-model-for-one-dimensional-morphoelasticity-and-its-application-to-fibroblast-populated-collagen-lattices
#10
Shakti N Menon, Cameron L Hall, Scott W McCue, D L Sean McElwain
The mechanical behaviour of solid biological tissues has long been described using models based on classical continuum mechanics. However, the classical continuum theories of elasticity and viscoelasticity cannot easily capture the continual remodelling and associated structural changes in biological tissues. Furthermore, models drawn from plasticity theory are difficult to apply and interpret in this context, where there is no equivalent of a yield stress or flow rule. In this work, we describe a novel one-dimensional mathematical model of tissue remodelling based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient...
May 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522998/genetic-polymorphism-in-wine-yeasts-mechanisms-and-methods-for-its-detection
#11
REVIEW
José M Guillamón, Eladio Barrio
The processes of yeast selection for using as wine fermentation starters have revealed a great phenotypic diversity both at interspecific and intraspecific level, which is explained by a corresponding genetic variation among different yeast isolates. Thus, the mechanisms involved in promoting these genetic changes are the main engine generating yeast biodiversity. Currently, an important task to understand biodiversity, population structure and evolutionary history of wine yeasts is the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in yeast adaptation to wine fermentation, and on remodeling the genomic features of wine yeast, unconsciously selected since the advent of winemaking...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522873/recombinant-bcg-expressing-ltak63-adjuvant-induces-superior-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Ivan P Nascimento, Dunia Rodriguez, Carina C Santos, Eduardo P Amaral, Henrique K Rofatto, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis, Eduardo D C Gonçalves, Maria R D'Império-Lima, Mario H Hirata, Celio L Silva, Nathalie Winter, Brigitte Gicquel, Kingston H G Mills, Mariagrazia Pizza, Rino Rappuoli, Luciana C C Leite
In order to develop an improved BCG vaccine against tuberculosis we have taken advantage of the adjuvant properties of a non-toxic derivative of Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT), LTAK63. We have constructed rBCG strains expressing LTAK63 at different expression levels. Mice immunized with BCG expressing low levels of LTAK63 (rBCG-LTAK63lo) showed higher Th1 cytokines and IL-17 in the lungs, and when challenged intratracheally with Mycobacterium tuberculosis displayed a 2.0-3.0 log reduction in CFU as compared to wild type BCG...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522819/elastocaloric-effect-and-superelastic-stability-in-ni-mn-in-co-polycrystalline-heusler-alloys-hysteresis-and-strain-rate-effects
#13
Binfeng Lu, Jian Liu
Controlling material hysteresis and working frequency variability are fundamentally important for refrigeration cycle efficiency and power density in solid-state cooling systems. For elastocaloric cooling, understanding the relationship between the width of the stress hysteresis and elastocaloric behaviour during superelastic cycles under varied strain rates is important. In this work, we report the effects of strain rate effects on the superelastic and elastocaloric responses in Ni45Mn50-xInxCo5 (x = 13...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#14
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities and anti-absence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy; PTE). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522724/draft-genome-sequence-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-clinical-strain-goi1153754-03-14-isolated-from-an-infected-knee-prosthesis
#15
Marta Bottagisio, Alessio Soggiu, Arianna B Lovati, Marco Toscano, Cristian Piras, Carlo L Romanò, Luigi Bonizzi, Paola Roncada, Lorenzo Drago
We announce the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strain GOI1153754-03-14, isolated from an infected orthopedic prosthesis. The reported genomic sequence will provide valuable information concerning the mechanisms of the biofilm formation on metallic implants.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522416/implantation-assays-using-the-integument-of-early-stage-bombyx-larvae-insights-into-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-acquisition-of-competence-for-metamorphosis
#16
Tomohiro Inui, Takaaki Daimon
It is widely accepted that the anti-metamorphic action of insect juvenile hormones (JHs) is required to inhibit larval-pupal metamorphosis. However, recent studies using RNAi or knockout techniques reveal that larval status may be maintained independently of JHs during the early larval stages. To investigate why larvae of very early instars do not have competence to metamorphose and how they acquire this competence through larval development, we revisited the classic experiments of Piepho (ca. 1930s) and performed implantation assays using the integument of very young larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522352/immune-plasma-for-the-treatment-of-severe-influenza-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-randomised-study
#17
John H Beigel, Pablo Tebas, Marie-Carmelle Elie-Turenne, Ednan Bajwa, Todd E Bell, Charles B Cairns, Shmuel Shoham, Jaime G Deville, Eric Feucht, Judith Feinberg, Thomas Luke, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Janine Danko, Dorothy O'Neil, Julia A Metcalf, Karen King, Timothy H Burgess, Evgenia Aga, H Clifford Lane, Michael D Hughes, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522235/a-review-of-terrestrial-aerial-and-aquatic-keratins-the-structure-and-mechanical-properties-of-pangolin-scales-feather-shafts-and-baleen-plates
#18
Bin Wang, Tarah N Sullivan
Keratinous materials, omnipresent as the hard and durable epidermal appendages of animals, are one of the toughest biological materials. They exhibit diverse morphologies and structures that serve a variety of amazing and inspiring mechanical functions. In this work, we provide a review of representative terrestrial, aerial and aquatic keratinous materials, pangolin scales, feather shafts and baleen plates, and correlate their hierarchical structures to respective functions of dermal armor, flight material and undersea filter...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522201/adsorption-of-p-nitrophenols-pnp-on-microalgal-biochar-analysis-of-high-adsorption-capacity-and-mechanism
#19
Heshan Zheng, Wanqian Guo, Shuo Li, Yidi Chen, Qinglian Wu, Xiaochi Feng, Renli Yin, Shih-Hsin Ho, Nanqi Ren, Jo-Shu Chang
Biochars derived from three microalgal strains (namely, Chlorella sp. Cha-01, Chlamydomonas sp. Tai-03 and Coelastrum sp. Pte-15) were evaluated for their capacity to adsorb p-nitrophenols (PNP) using raw microalgal biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the control. The results show that BC-Cha-01 (biochar from Chlorella sp. Cha-01) exhibited a high PNP adsorption capacity of 204.8mgg(-1), which is 250% and 140% higher than that of its raw biomass and PAC, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium are well described with pseudo-second-order equation and Freundlich model, respectively...
May 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521203/3d-full-field-quantification-of-cell-induced-large-deformations-in-fibrillar-biomaterials-by-combining-non-rigid-image-registration-with-label-free-second-harmonic-generation
#20
Alvaro Jorge-Peñas, Hannelore Bové, Kathleen Sanen, Marie-Mo Vaeyens, Christian Steuwe, Maarten Roeffaers, Marcel Ameloot, Hans Van Oosterwyck
To advance our current understanding of cell-matrix mechanics and its importance for biomaterials development, advanced three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are necessary. Cell-induced deformations of the surrounding matrix are commonly derived from the displacement of embedded fiducial markers, as part of traction force microscopy (TFM) procedures. However, these fluorescent markers may alter the mechanical properties of the matrix or can be taken up by the embedded cells, and therefore influence cellular behavior and fate...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
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