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Mechanical strain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352756/influence-of-defect-locations-and-nitrogen-doping-configurations-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-armchair-graphene-nanoribbons
#1
Ahmet Emin Senturk, Ahmet Sinan Oktem, Alp Er S Konukman
The effect of defect locations on the mechanical properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) and the various configurations of nitrogen (N) doping on the mechanical properties of AGNRs were examined using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The variation of the Young's modulus (YM) and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of pyridinic-N, graphitic-N, and pyrrolic-N by increasing the concentration of N doping was investigated. The results of MD simulations show that the defect location has a significant effect on the UTS and failure strain (FS) of AGNRs in both vertical and horizontal directions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352371/innate-and-adaptive-t-cells-in-influenza-disease
#2
REVIEW
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352213/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-induces-the-development-of-chlorotic-symptoms-through-interacting-with-the-chloroplast-ferredoxin-i-protein
#3
Yanhong Qiu, Yongjiang Zhang, Chaonan Wang, Rong Lei, Yupin Wu, Xinshi Li, Shuifang Zhu
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infection could induce mosaic symptoms on a wide-range of host plants. However, there is still limited information regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the development of the symptoms. In this study, the coat protein (CP) was confirmed as the symptom determinant by exchanging the CP between a chlorosis inducing CMV-M strain and a green-mosaic inducing CMV-Q strain. A yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation revealed that the chloroplast ferredoxin I (Fd I) protein interacted with the CP of CMV-M both in vitro and in vivo, but not with the CP of CMV-Q...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352152/selection-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-qrt-pcr-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-microsporum-canis-growing-under-different-adhesion-inducing-conditions
#4
Anita Ciesielska, Paweł Stączek
Dermatophytes are the group of filamentous fungi infecting keratinized structures such as skin, hair, and nails. Knowledge about genes and molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogenicity, as well as other biological properties of Microsporum canis is still relatively poor. The qRT-PCR is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, and choosing a set of suitable reference genes to normalize the expression data is a crucial step of this technique. We investigated the suitability of nine candidate reference genes: β-act, β-tub, adp-rf, ef1-α, sdha, rpl2, mbp1, psm1, and rGTPa for gene expression analysis in the dermatophyte M...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352088/an-archaeal-fluoride-responsive-riboswitch-provides-an-inducible-expression-system-for-hyperthermophiles
#5
Michael Clayton Speed, Brett W Burkhart, Jonathan W Picking, Thomas J Santangelo
Robust genetic systems for the hyperthermophilic Thermococcales have facilitated overexpression of native genes, allowed for the addition of sequences encoding secretion signals, epitope, and affinity tags to coding regions, and permitted the introduction of sequences encoding new proteins in these fast growing fermentative heterotrophs. Tightly controlled and easily manipulated systems permitting regulated gene expression are however limited for these hosts. Here we describe an alternative method for regulatory control reliant on a cis-encoded functional riboswitch in the model archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis Despite the hyperthermophilic growth temperatures, the proposed structure of the riboswitch conforms to a fluoride-responsive riboswitch encoded in many bacteria, and similarly functions to regulate a component conserved fluoride export pathway...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352082/clostridial-strain-specific-characteristics-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#6
Sophia Schönherr-Hellec, Geraldine L Klein, Johanne Delannoy, Laurent Ferraris, Jean Christophe Rozé, Marie José Butel, Julio Aires
We aimed at identifying potential clostridial factors linking these bacteria with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We compared the phenotypic traits, stress responses, cellular cytotoxicity and inflammatory capabilities of the largest collection of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium neonatale strains isolated from fecal samples of NEC and control preterm neonates (PN). When strains characteristics were used as explanatory variables, a statistical discriminant analysis allowed the separation of NEC and control strains into separate groups...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351633/evolutionary-genetics-of-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-genes-cifa-and-cifb-in-prophage-wo-of-wolbachia
#7
Amelia R I Lindsey, Danny W Rice, Sarah R Bordenstein, Andrew W Brooks, Seth R Bordenstein, Irene L G Newton
The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia manipulates arthropod reproduction to facilitate its maternal spread through host populations. The most common manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): Wolbachia-infected males produce modified sperm that cause embryonic mortality, unless rescued by embryos harboring the same Wolbachia. The genes underlying CI, cifA and cifB, were recently identified in the eukaryotic association module of Wolbachia's prophage WO. Here, we use transcriptomic and genomic approaches to address three important evolutionary facets of the cif genes...
January 17, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351606/analysis-of-metal-tolerance-in-rhizobium-leguminosarum-strains-isolated-from-an-ultramafic-soil
#8
Laura Rubio-Sanz, Belén Brito, Jose Palacios
Natural habitats containing high amounts of heavy metals provide a valuable source of bacteria adapted to deal with metal toxicity. A functional analysis of the population of legume endosymbiotic bacteria in an ultramafic soil was undertaken by studying a collection of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae (Rlv) isolates obtained using pea as trap plant. One of the isolates, Rlv UPM1137, was selected on the basis of its higher tolerance to nickel and cobalt and presence of inducible mechanisms for such tolerance...
January 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351422/body-mass-specific-na-k-atpase-activity-in-the-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-implications-for-species-dependent-urine-concentrating-mechanisms
#9
Mun Aw, Tamara M Armstrong, C Michele Nawata, Sarah N Bodine, Jeeeun J Oh, Guojun Wei, Kristen K Evans, Mohammad Shahidullah, Timo Rieg, Thomas L Pannabecker
In general, mammalian whole body mass-specific metabolic rate correlates positively with maximal urine concentration (Umax) irrespective of whether or not the species have adapted to arid or mesic habitat. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the thick ascending limb (TAL) of a rodent with markedly higher whole body mass-specific metabolism than rat exhibits a substantially higher TAL metabolic rate as estimated by Na+, K+-ATPase activity and Na+, K+-ATPase α1 gene and protein expression. The kangaroo rat inner stripe of the outer medulla exhibits significantly higher mean Na+, K+-ATPase activity (~70%) compared to 2 rat strains (Sprague-Dawley and Munich-Wistar), extending prior studies showing rat activity exceeds rabbit...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351192/seed-endophyte-microbiome-of-crotalaria-pumila-unpeeled-identification-of-plant-beneficial-methylobacteria
#10
Ariadna S Sánchez-López, Isabel Pintelon, Vincent Stevens, Valeria Imperato, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Carmen González-Chávez, Rogelio Carrillo-González, Jonathan Van Hamme, Jaco Vangronsveld, Sofie Thijs
Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350955/rate-dependence-of-elementary-rearrangements-and-spatiotemporal-correlations-in-the-3d-flow-of-soft-solids
#11
Vishwas V Vasisht, Sudeep K Dutta, Emanuela Del Gado, Daniel L Blair
We use a combination of confocal microscopy, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate jammed emulsions under shear, by analyzing the 3D droplets rearrangements in the shear frame. Our quantitative analysis of local dynamics reveals elementary nonaffine rearrangements that underlie the onset of the flow at small strains. We find that the mechanism of unjamming and the upturn in the material flow curve are associated to a qualitative change in spatiotemporal correlations of such rearrangements with the applied shear rate...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350941/immotile-active-matter-activity-from-death-and-reproduction
#12
Arben Kalziqi, David Yanni, Jacob Thomas, Siu Lung Ng, Skanda Vivek, Brian K Hammer, Peter J Yunker
Unlike equilibrium atomic solids, biofilms-soft solids composed of bacterial cells-do not experience significant thermal fluctuations at the constituent level. However, living cells stochastically reproduce and die, provoking a mechanical response. We investigate the mechanical consequences of cellular death and reproduction by measuring surface-height fluctuations of biofilms containing two mutually antagonistic strains of Vibrio cholerae that kill one another on contact via the type VI secretion system. While studies of active matter typically focus on activity via constituent mobility, here, activity is mediated by reproduction and death events in otherwise immobilized cells...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350407/recent-progress-in-the-antiviral-activity-and-mechanism-study-of-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-and-their-derivatives
#13
REVIEW
Sulong Xiao, Zhenyu Tian, Yufei Wang, Longlong Si, Lihe Zhang, Demin Zhou
Viral infections cause many serious human diseases with high mortality rates. New drug-resistant strains are continually emerging due to the high viral mutation rate, which makes it necessary to develop new antiviral agents. Compounds of plant origin are particularly interesting. The pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs) are a diverse class of natural products from plants composed of three terpene units. They exhibit antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. Oleanolic, betulinic, and ursolic acids are representative PTs widely present in nature with a broad antiviral spectrum...
January 19, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350233/stacking-faults-in-zr-fe-cr-2-laves-structured-secondary-phase-particle-in-zircaloy-4-alloy
#14
Chengze Liu, Geping Li, Fusen Yuan, Fuzhou Han, Yingdong Zhang, Hengfei Gu
Stacking faults (SFs) in secondary phase particles (SPPs), which generally crystallize in the Laves phase in Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) alloy, have been frequently observed by researchers. However, few investigations on the nano-scale structure of SFs have been carried out. In the present study, an SF containing C14 structured SPP, which located at grain boundaries (GBs) in the α-Zr matrix, was chosen to be investigated, for its particular substructure as well as location, aiming to reveal the nature of the SFs in the SPPs in Zr-4 alloy...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350015/-application-of-finite-element-method-in-spinal-biomechanics
#15
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Jun Zhang, Shu-Chun Sun, Fei Wang
The finite element model is one of the most important methods in study of modern spinal biomechanics, according to the needs to simulate the various states of the spine, calculate the stress force and strain distribution of the different groups in the state, and explore its principle of mechanics, mechanism of injury, and treatment effectiveness. In addition, in the study of the pathological state of the spine, the finite element is mainly used in the understanding the mechanism of lesion location, evaluating the effects of different therapeutic tool, assisting and completing the selection and improvement of therapeutic tool, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the rehabilitation of spinal lesions...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349853/piezotronic-tuning-of-potential-barriers-in-zno-bicrystals
#16
Peter Keil, Maximilian Trapp, Nikola Novak, Till Frömling, Hans-Joachim Kleebe, Jürgen Rödel
Coupling of magnetic, ferroelectric, or piezoelectric properties with charge transport at oxide interfaces provides the option to revolutionize classical electronics. Here, the modulation of electrostatic potential barriers at tailored ZnO bicrystal interfaces by stress-induced piezoelectric polarization is reported. Specimen design by epitaxial solid-state transformation allows for both optimal polarization vector alignment and tailoring of defect states at a semiconductor-semiconductor interface. Both quantities are probed by transmission electron microscopy...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349824/reduced-left-ventricular-filling-following-blood-volume-extraction-does-not-result-in-compensatory-augmentation-of-cardiac-mechanics
#17
Rachel Lord, David MacLeod, Keith George, David Oxborough, Rob Shave, Mike Stembridge
An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate (HR), whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without HR changes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (4 female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end-extraction following the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml)...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349549/biodegradation-of-mordant-orange-1-using-newly-isolated-strain-trichoderma-harzianum-ry44-and-its-metabolite-appraisal
#18
Tony Hadibarata, Achmad Syafiuddin, Fahad A Al-Dhabaan, Mohamed Soliman Elshikh, Rubiyatno
Herein, we systematically reported the capability of T. harzianum RY44 for decolorization of Mordant orange-1. The fungi strains were isolated from the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia tropical rain forest. For initial screening, the decolorization was conducted using 50 strains of the fungi for 20 days incubation time and the best performance was selected. Then, the decolorization capability and fungal biomass were evaluated using different dye concentrations, namely, 0, 50, 75 and 100 ppm. Effects of the carbon sources (fructose, glucose, and galactose), nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and yeast extract), surfactant (tween 80), aromatic compounds (benzoic acid, catechol and salicylic acid), and pH on the decolorization efficiency were examined...
January 18, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349494/light-scattering-on-pha-granules-protects-bacterial-cells-against-the-harmful-effects-of-uv-radiation
#19
Eva Slaninova, Petr Sedlacek, Filip Mravec, Lucie Mullerova, Ota Samek, Martin Koller, Ondrej Hesko, Dan Kucera, Ivana Marova, Stanislav Obruca
Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant...
January 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349015/patellar-tendon-repair-with-ipsilateral-semitendinosus-autograft-augmentation
#20
Jarret M Woodmass, Joshua D Johnson, Isabella T Wu, Aaron J Krych, Michael J Stuart
Patellar tendon ruptures are rare but potentially devastating injuries. Acute repair after patellar tendon rupture affords the best opportunity for tension-free restoration of the extensor mechanism. Biological augmentation of primary repair is believed to decrease strain across the repair site and reduce the risk of rerupture. We present a technique for primary patellar tendon repair with bidirectional fixation using transosseous tunnels, suture anchor fixation, and ipsilateral hamstring autograft augmentation in a distal patellar pole socket...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
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