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Mechanical strain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724262/phytohormones-and-induction-of-plant-stress-tolerance-and-defense-genes-by-seed-and-foliar-inoculation-with-azospirillum-brasilense-cells-and-metabolites-promote-maize-growth
#1
Josiane Fukami, Francisco Javier Ollero, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
Azospirillum spp. are plant-growth-promoting bacteria used worldwide as inoculants for a variety of crops. Among the beneficial mechanisms associated with Azospirillum inoculation, emphasis has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation process and to the synthesis of phytohormones. In Brazil, the application of inoculants containing A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 to cereals is exponentially growing and in this study we investigated the effects of maize inoculation with these two strains applied on seeds or by leaf spray at the V2...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722687/a-comprehensive-study-of-piezomagnetic-response-in-crps-sub-4-sub-monolayer-mechanical-electronic-properties-and-magnetic-ordering-under-strains
#2
Minwoong Joe, Hosik Lee, Mustafa Menderes Alyoruk, Jinhwan Lee, Sung Youb Kim, Changgu Lee, Jun Hee Lee
We performed first-principles calculations to investigate the magnetic, mechanical and electronic properties of the tetrachalcogenide CrPS4. Although bulk CrPS4 has been shown to exhibit a low-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state where ferromagnetic (FM) Cr-chains are coupled antiferromagnetically, our calculations indicated that the monolayer can be transformed to an FM material by applying a uniaxial tensile strain of ≥4% along the FM Cr-chain direction. The AFM-to-FM transition is explained to be driven by an increase of the exchange interaction induced by a decrease in the distance between the FM Cr-chains...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722403/wrinkled-few-layer-graphene-as-highly-efficient-load-bearer
#3
Charalampos Androulidakis, Emmanuel Nicholaos Koukaras, Jaroslava Rahova, Krishna Sampathkumar, John Parthenios, Konstantinos Papagelis, Otakar Frank, Costas Galiotis
Multilayered graphitic materials are not suitable as load-bearers due to their inherent weak interlayer bonding (for example, graphite is a solid lubricant in certain applications). This situation is largely improved when two-dimensional (2-D) materials such as a monolayer (SLG) graphene are employed. The downside in these cases is the presence of thermally or mechanically induced wrinkles which are ubiquitous in 2-D materials. Here we set out to examine the effect of extensive large wavelength/ amplitude wrinkling on the stress transfer capabilities of exfoliated simply-supported graphene flakes...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722281/collagen-organization-regulates-stretch-initiated-pain-related-neuronal-signals-in-vitro-implications-for-structure-function-relationships-in-innervated-ligaments
#4
Sijia Zhang, Sagar Singh, Beth A Winkelstein
Injury to the spinal facet capsule, an innervated ligament with heterogeneous collagen organization, produces pain. Although mechanical facet joint trauma activates embedded afferents, it is unclear if, and how, the varied extracellular microstructure of its ligament affects sensory transduction for pain from mechanical inputs. To investigate the effects of macroscopic deformations on afferents in collagen matrices with different organizations, an in vitro neuron-collagen construct (NCC) model was used. NCCs with either randomly organized or parallel aligned collagen fibers were used to mimic the varied microstructure in the facet capsular ligament...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722131/kept-in-the-loop-longitudinal-strain-volume-relationships-for-the-assessment-of-left-ventricular-mechanical-performance
#5
Stephen P Wright, Robert Lakin, Denise J Wooding, Leah Groves
In health, the aortic valve facilitates unidirectional forward flow from the left ventricle (LV) to the systemic circulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721692/left-ventricular-mechanics-are-affected-in-children-with-celiac-disease-a-study-based-on-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#6
Murat Deveci, Ayşen Uncuoğlu Aydoğan, Gürkan Altun, Özlem Kayabey, Okan Tuğral, Kadir Babaoğlu
BACKGROUND: An association between cardiomyopathy and celiac disease has been reported, but not frequently. We examined the effects on cardiac mechanics in children with celiac disease (CD) by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE). METHODS: Eighty-one children with CD were compared with a control group comprising 51 healthy children by echocardiographic examination. Children with CD who had been on gluten-free diet for more than 6 months were divided into two different groups: group 1 was positive for serum antitissue transglutaminase antibody (n=48), and group 2 was negative for serum antitissue transglutaminase antibody (n=33)...
July 18, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721396/biodiesel-byproduct-bioconversion-to-rhamnolipids-upstream-aspects
#7
Ana Maria Salazar-Bryam, Roberta Barros Lovaglio, Jonas Contiero
This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720801/mapping-and-characterization-of-g-quadruplexes-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-gene-promoter-regions
#8
Rosalba Perrone, Enrico Lavezzo, Erika Riello, Riccardo Manganelli, Giorgio Palù, Stefano Toppo, Roberta Provvedi, Sara N Richter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide in 2015. The recent emergence of strains resistant to all current drugs urges the development of compounds with new mechanisms of action. G-quadruplexes are nucleic acids secondary structures that may form in G-rich regions to epigenetically regulate cellular functions. Here we implemented a computational tool to scan the presence of putative G-quadruplex forming sequences in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and analyse their association to transcription start sites...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#9
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720729/inhibition-of-inflammasome-dependent-interleukin-1%C3%AE-production-by-streptococcal-nad-glycohydrolase-evidence-for-extracellular-activity
#10
Dóra Hancz, Elsa Westerlund, Benedicte Bastiat-Sempe, Onkar Sharma, Christine Valfridsson, Lena Meyer, John F Love, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Michael R Wessels, Jenny J Persson
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common human pathogen and the etiologic agent of a large number of diseases ranging from mild, self-limiting infections to invasive life-threatening conditions. Two prominent virulence factors of this bacterium are the genetically and functionally linked pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) and its cotoxin NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase). Overexpression of these toxins has been linked to increased bacterial virulence and is correlated with invasive GAS disease. NADase can be translocated into host cells by a SLO-dependent mechanism, and cytosolic NADase has been assigned multiple properties such as protection of intracellularly located GAS bacteria and induction of host cell death through energy depletion...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720407/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-spinal-cord-under-the-compressive-loading
#11
Alireza Karimi, Ahmad Shojaei, Pedram Tehrani
The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720046/strain-as-a-function-of-time-in-extrinsic-wrist-ligaments-tensioned-through-external-fixation
#12
Joseph P Rectenwald, K Ashley Bentley, Peter M Murray, Subrata Saha
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to determine the time-dependent dissipation of extrinsic wrist ligament tension following the application external fixation with axial distraction of the wrist in a cadaveric model. METHODS: Six paired fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens underwent mechanical testing simulating external fixation with 1 arm of each pair osteotomized to simulate a distal radius fracture. The change in tension was then recorded over 24 hours. RESULTS: The rate of stress relaxation decreased with time...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719882/antileishmanial-activity-and-tubulin-polymerization-inhibition-of-podophyllotoxin-derivatives-on-leishmania-infantum
#13
José Miguel Escudero-Martínez, Yolanda Pérez-Pertejo, Rosa M Reguera, María Ángeles Castro, María Victoria Rojo, Carolina Santiago, Andrés Abad, Pablo Anselmo García, José Luis López-Pérez, Arturo San Feliciano, Rafael Balaña-Fouce
Leishmania microtubules play an important role not only in cell division, but also in keeping the shape of the parasite and motility of its free-living stages. Microtubules result from the self-assembly of alpha and beta tubulins, two phylogenetically conserved and very abundant eukaryotic proteins in kinetoplastids. The colchicine binding domain has inspired the discovery and development of several drugs currently in clinical use against parasites. However, this domain is less conserved in kinetoplastids and may be selectively targeted by new compounds...
June 28, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719741/macroscopic-strain-induced-transition-from-quasi-infinite-gold-nanoparticle-chains-to-defined-plasmonic-oligomers
#14
Anja Maria Steiner, Martin Mayer, Maximilian Seuss, Svetoslav Nikolov, Kenneth D Harris, Alexander Alexeev, Christian Kuttner, Tobias A F Koenig, Andreas Fery
We investigate the formation of chains of few plasmonic nanoparticles - so called plasmonic oligomers - by strain induced fragmentation of linear particle assemblies. Detailed investigations of the fragmentation process are conducted by in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Based on these experimental results and mechanical simulations computed by the lattice spring model (LSM), we propose a formation mechanism which explains the observed decrease of chain polydispersity upon increasing strain and provides experimental guidelines for tailoring chain length distribution...
July 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719607/stress-induced-mutagenesis-stress-diversity-facilitates-the-persistence-of-mutator-genes
#15
Marta Lukačišinová, Sebastian Novak, Tiago Paixão
Mutator strains are expected to evolve when the availability and effect of beneficial mutations are high enough to counteract the disadvantage from deleterious mutations that will inevitably accumulate. As the population becomes more adapted to its environment, both availability and effect of beneficial mutations necessarily decrease and mutation rates are predicted to decrease. It has been shown that certain molecular mechanisms can lead to increased mutation rates when the organism finds itself in a stressful environment...
July 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#16
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719215/origin-of-the-s-excited-state-feature-of-carotenoids-in-light-harvesting-complex-1-from-purple-photosynthetic-bacteria
#17
Dariusz M Niedzwiedzki, David Swainsbury, Elizabeth C Martin, Christopher Neil Hunter, Robert E Blankenship
This spectroscopic study investigates the origin of the transient feature of the S* excited-state of carotenoids bound in LH1 complexes from purple bacteria. The studies were performed on two RC-LH1 complexes from Rba. sphaeroides strains that bound carotenoids with different carbon-carbon double bond conjugation N, neurosporene (N = 9) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13). The S* transient spectral feature, originally associated with an elusive and optically silent excited state of spirilloxanthin in the LH1 complex may be successfully explained and mimicked without involving any unknown electronic state...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718482/molecular-insight-into-the-mullins-effect-irreversible-disentanglement-of-polymer-chains-revealed-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#18
Chi Ma, Tuo Ji, Christopher G Robertson, R Rajeshbabu, Jiahua Zhu, Yalin Dong
The debate regarding the possible molecular origins of the Mullins effect has been ongoing since its discovery. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the Mullins effect. For the first time, the key characteristics associated with the Mullins effect, including (a) the majority of stress softening occurring in the first stretch, (b) continuous softening with stress increase, (c) a permanent set, and (d) recovery with heat treatment, are captured by molecular modeling...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718293/functional-design-of-dielectric-metal-dielectric-based-thin-film-encapsulation-with-heat-transfer-and-flexibility-for-flexible-displays
#19
Jeong Hyun Kwon, Seungyeop Choi, Yongmin Jeon, Hyuncheol Kim, Ki Soo Chang, Kyung Cheol Choi
In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, considered as essential requirements for OLED encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al2O3, Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10-6 g/m2/day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm corresponding to 0...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718097/regulatory-genes-and-their-roles-for-improvement-of-antibiotic-biosynthesis-in-streptomyces
#20
REVIEW
Fengjuan Lu, Yanyan Hou, Heming Zhang, Yiwen Chu, Haiyang Xia, Yongqiang Tian
The numerous secondary metabolites in Streptomyces spp. are crucial for various applications. For example, cephamycin C is used as an antibiotic, and avermectin is used as an insecticide. Specifically, antibiotic yield is closely related to many factors, such as the external environment, nutrition (including nitrogen and carbon sources), biosynthetic efficiency and the regulatory mechanisms in producing strains. There are various types of regulatory genes that work in different ways, such as pleiotropic (or global) regulatory genes, cluster-situated regulators, which are also called pathway-specific regulatory genes, and many other regulators...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
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