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Mechanical strain

S C Cifuentes, E Frutos, R Benavente, V Lorenzo, J L González-Carrasco
This work deals with the mechanical characterization by depth-sensing indentation (DSI) of PLLA and PLDA composites reinforced with micro-particles of Mg (up to 15wt%), which is a challenging task since the indented volume must provide information of the bulk composite, i.e. contain enough reinforcement particles. The composites were fabricated by combining hot extrusion and compression moulding. Physico-chemical characterization by TGA and DSC indicates that Mg anticipates the thermal degradation of the polymers but does not compromise their stability during processing...
September 21, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Moussa Biaye, Ewa Zbydniewska, Thierry Mélin, Dominique Deresmes, Guillaume Copie, Fabrizio Cleri, Neralagatta Sangeetha, Nicolas Decorde, Benoit Viallet, Jérémie Grisolia, Laurence Ressier, Heinrich Diesinger
Nanoparticle assemblies with thiol-terminated alkyl chains are studied by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) regarding their use as strain gauges for touch-sensitive panels. Current-force spectroscopy is used as a characterization tool complementary to the macroscopic setup since it allows a bias to be applied to a limited number of junctions, overcoming the Coulomb blockade energy and focusing on the contact electromechanics and the transport mechanism across the ligand. First, transition voltage spectroscopy is applied with varying force to target the underlying tunneling mechanism by observing whether the transition between the ohmic and exponential current-voltage behavior is force-dependent...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
A P Delitala, G M Pes, A Errigo, M Maioli, G Delitala, M P Dore
OBJECTIVE: H. pylori infection is reportedly associated with autoimmune diseases such as chronic thyroiditis and autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the association between H. pylori infection and its virulent strain CagA with antibodies against thyroperoxidase (TPO Ab) and thyrotropin (TSH) in a cohort of latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 234 LADA patients (53.8% women). Antibodies against H...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Sara Cogliati, Enrique Calvo, Marta Loureiro, Adela M Guaras, Rocio Nieto-Arellano, Carolina Garcia-Poyatos, Iakes Ezkurdia, Nadia Mercader, Jesús Vázquez, José Antonio Enriquez
Respiratory chain complexes can super-assemble into quaternary structures called supercomplexes that optimize cellular metabolism(1). The interaction between complexes III (CIII) and IV (CIV) is modulated by supercomplex assembly factor 1 (SCAF1, also known as COX7A2l)(2). The discovery of SCAF1 represented strong genetic evidence that supercomplexes exist in vivo(2, 3). SCAF1 is present as a long isoform (113 amino acids) or a short isoform (111 amino acids) in different mouse strains(2, 4). Only the long isoform can induce the superassembly of CIII and CIV(2-6), but it is not clear whether SCAF1 is required for the formation of the respirasome (a supercomplex of CI, CIII2 and CIV)(1,2,4-6)...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Bharathkumar Inturi, Gurubasavaraj V Pujar, Madhusudhan N Purohit
Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA) has been validated as a promising target for antitubercular agents. Isoniazid (INH), the most prescribed drug to treat tuberculosis (TB), inhibits a NADH-dependent InhA that provides precursors of mycolic acids, which are components of the mycobacterial cell wall. It is a pro-drug that needs activation to form the inhibitory INH-NAD adduct by KatG coding for catalase-peroxidase. The INH resistance of M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in KatG, which may lead to multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)...
October 24, 2016: Archiv der Pharmazie
Liis Andresen, Vallo Varik, Yuzuru Tozawa, Steffi Jimmy, Stina Lindberg, Tanel Tenson, Vasili Hauryliuk
The stringent response is a central adaptation mechanism that allows bacteria to adjust their growth and metabolism according to environmental conditions. The functionality of the stringent response is crucial for bacterial virulence, survival during host invasion as well as antibiotic resistance and tolerance. Therefore, specific inhibitors of the stringent response hold great promise as molecular tools for disarming and pacifying bacterial pathogens. By taking advantage of the valine amino acid auxotrophy of the Bacillus subtilis stringent response-deficient strain, we have set up a High Throughput Screening assay for the identification of stringent response inhibitors...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Arnaud Hemmerle, Matthias Schröter, Lucas Goehring
By mixing glass beads with a curable polymer we create a well-defined cohesive granular medium, held together by solidified, and hence elastic, capillary bridges. This material has a geometry similar to a wet packing of beads, but with an additional control over the elasticity of the bonds holding the particles together. We show that its mechanical response can be varied over several orders of magnitude by adjusting the size and stiffness of the bridges, and the size of the particles. We also investigate its mechanism of failure under unconfined uniaxial compression in combination with in situ x-ray microtomography...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Roberta Iatta, Maria Rita Puttilli, Davide Immediato, Domenico Otranto, Claudia Cafarchia
This study aims to evaluate the effect of efflux pump modulators (EPMs) on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole (FLZ) and voriconazole (VOR) in Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis. The in vitro efficacy of azoles, in combination with EPMs (ie haloperidol-HAL, promethazine-PTZ and cyclosporine A-CYS), against 21 M. furfur from bloodstream infection patients and 14 M. pachydermatis from the skin of dogs with dermatitis, was assessed using a broth microdilution chequerboard analysis...
October 24, 2016: Mycoses
Javier Sanchez-Villamil, Gabriela Tapia-Pastrana, Fernando Navarro-Garcia
Inflammatory response is key for the host defense against diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease but there is not a comparative study among different diarrheagenic pathotypes. We analyzed the inflammatory response induced by five diarrheagenic pathotypes in a HT-29 cell infection model. The model was unified to reproduce the pathogenesis of each pathotype. To compare the inflammatory responses we evaluated: (i) nuclear NF-κB and ERK1/2 translocation by confocal microscopy; (ii) kinetics of activation by each pathway detecting p65 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by Western blotting; (iii) pathways modulation through bacterial infections with or without co-stimulation with TNF-α or EGF; (iv) cytokine profile induced by each pathotype with and without inhibitors of each pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
En-Ming He, Cheng-Wen Chen, Yong Guo, Mei-Hua Hsu, Liang Zhang, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Guo-Ping Zhao, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Yan Zhou
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes serious infections in humans and other species. A total of 25 complete GBS genomes, including the first sequenced serotype VI genome (GBS-M002), were compared in this study. The power law model suggested that the pan-genome of GBS is open, with approximately 1300 genes in the core genome of GBS, accounting for approximately 60% of the average genome content. GBS-M002 has 73 specific genes and is one of the five strains containing >60 specific genes. Based on COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins) functional classification, 24% of the genes related to defense mechanisms are specific among the strains...
October 20, 2016: Gene
Luqi Duan, John S Davis, Benjamin L Woolbright, Kuo Du, Mala Cahkraborty, James Weemhoff, Hartmut Jaeschke, Mohammed Bourdi
: Mouse models of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity are considered relevant for the human pathophysiology. The C57BL/6 strain is most popular because it is the background strain of gene knock-out mice. However, conflicting results in the literature may have been caused by sub-strain mismatches, e.g. C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N. This study was initiated to determine the mechanism behind the sub-strain susceptibility to APAP toxicity. C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice were dosed with 200 mg/kg APAP and sacrificed at different time points...
October 20, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Kara J Levinson, Danielle E Baranova, Nicholas J Mantis
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, an acute diarrheal disease that remains endemic in many parts of the world. The mechanisms underlying immunity to cholera remain poorly defined, though it is increasingly clear that protection is associated with antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report that ZAC-3, a monoclonal antibody against the core/lipid A region of V. cholerae LPS is a potent inhibitor of V. cholerae flagellum-based motility in viscous and liquid environments. ZAC-3 arrested motility of the classical Ogawa strain O395, as well as the El Tor Inaba strain C6706...
October 20, 2016: Vaccine
Lena Hoffmann, Andreas Schummer, Julia Reimann, Maria F Haurat, Amanda J Wilson, Morgan Beeby, Bettina Warscheid, Sonja-V Albers
Expression of the archaellum, the archaeal-type IV pilus-like rotating motility structure is upregulated under nutrient limitation. This is controlled by a network of regulators, called the archaellum regulatory network (arn). Several of the components of this network in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius can be phosphorylated, and the deletion of the phosphatase PP2A results in strongly increased motility during starvation, indicating a role for phosphorylation in the regulation of motility. Analysis of the motility of different protein kinase deletion strains revealed that deletion of saci_0965, saci_1181, and saci_1193 resulted in reduced motility, whereas the deletion of saci_1694 resulted in hypermotility...
October 22, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Johnson Lin
Quantification of gene expression of Acinetobacter strain Y under 1000 mg/l of phenol was investigated using qPCR and proteomic analyses. The results show that Acinetobacter strain Y utilized 100 % of phenol within 18 h of exposure. The results of qPCR and proteomic analyses demonstrate a sequential expression of phenol-degrading genes of Acinetobacter strain Y via the ortho-pathway followed by the β-ketoadipate pathway. Many stress-responsive proteins such as chaperones, chaperonins, porins and the enzymes involved in the signal transduction pathway were upregulated especially in the early stage...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Ida S Leren, Jørg Saberniak, Trine F Haland, Thor Edvardsen, Kristina H Haugaa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate early markers of arrhythmic events (AEs) and improve risk stratification in early arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). BACKGROUND: AEs are frequent in patients with ARVC, but risk stratification in subjects with early ARVC is challenging. METHODS: Early ARVC disease was defined as possible or borderline ARVC diagnosis according to the ARVC Task Force Criteria 2010. We performed resting and signal averaged electrocardiogram (ECG)...
October 14, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Arnaud Ambrosini, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
It is now well established that apoptosis is induced in response to mechanical strain. Indeed, increasing compressive forces induces apoptosis in confined spheroids of tumour cells, whereas releasing stress reduces apoptosis in spheroids cultivated in free suspension (Abrams et al., 1993). Apoptosis can also be induced by applying a 100 to 250MPa pressure, as shown in different cultured cells (for review, see (Belacortu & Paricio, 2011)). During epithelium development, the pressure caused by a fast-growing clone can trigger apoptosis at the vicinity of the clone, mediating mechanical cell competition (Bertet et al...
October 19, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Pengbo Ning, Lifang Gao, Yulu Zhou, Congxia Hu, Zhi Lin, Cunmei Gong, Kangkang Guo, Xianghan Zhang
Macrophages are at the frontline of defense against pathogenic microorganisms. However, very little is known about the cell invasion mechanism of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Shimen strain. To elucidate the infective mechanism of this important pathogen, we screened deep-sequencing data derived from macrophages infected with CSFV Shimen and uninfected macrophages, and identified a role of caveolin-1 (CAV1). Digital gene expression profiling showed that CAV1 was differentially expressed in CSFV Shimen-infected macrophages...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Brenden Van Wyk, Marlene Snider, Erin Scruten, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Scott Napper
As a part of their pathogenic mechanism, many pathogens causing persistent infections, including bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), immunosuppress their hosts, often by limiting the ability to either produce, or respond to, interferon. The objective of this study was to quantify the extent to which an acute infection of cattle with a non-cytopathic strain of BVDV induces interferon responses and to establish the functionality of these responses. Functionality of responses was investigated using a bovine specific peptide array to monitor kinase-mediated signal transduction activity within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at time points corresponding to the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and alpha (IFN-α) responsive phases of acute BVDV infection...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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