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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092689/three-dimensional-imaging-of-dislocation-dynamics-during-the-hydriding-phase-transformation
#1
A Ulvestad, M J Welland, W Cha, Y Liu, J W Kim, R Harder, E Maxey, J N Clark, M J Highland, H You, P Zapol, S O Hruszkewycz, G B Stephenson
Crystallographic imperfections significantly alter material properties and their response to external stimuli, including solute-induced phase transformations. Despite recent progress in imaging defects using electron and X-ray techniques, in situ three-dimensional imaging of defect dynamics remains challenging. Here, we use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to image defects during the hydriding phase transformation of palladium nanocrystals. During constant-pressure experiments we observe that the phase transformation begins after dislocation nucleation close to the phase boundary in particles larger than 300 nm...
January 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092537/detail-enhanced-multi-scale-exposure-fusion
#2
Zhengguo Li, Zhe Wei, Changyun Wen, Jinghong Zheng
Multi-scale exposure fusion is an effective image enhancement technique for a high dynamic range (HDR) scene. In this paper, a new multi-scale exposure fusion algorithm is proposed to merge differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images by using the weighted guided image filter (WGIF) to smooth the Gaussian pyramids of weight maps for all the LDR images. Details in the brightest and darkest regions of the HDR scene are preserved better by the proposed algorithm without relative brightness change in the fused image...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092528/low-rank-and-adaptive-sparse-signal-lassi-models-for-highly-accelerated-dynamic-imaging
#3
Saiprasad Ravishankar, Brian Moore, Raj Nadakuditi, Jeffrey Fessler
Sparsity-based approaches have been popular in many applications in image processing and imaging. Compressed sensing exploits the sparsity of images in a transform domain or dictionary to improve image recovery from undersampled measurements. In the context of inverse problems in dynamic imaging, recent research has demonstrated the promise of sparsity and low-rank techniques. For example, the patches of the underlying data are modeled as sparse in an adaptive dictionary domain, and the resulting image and dictionary estimation from undersampled measurements is called dictionary-blind compressed sensing, or the dynamic image sequence is modeled as a sum of low-rank and sparse (in some transform domain) components (L+S model) that are estimated from limited measurements...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092522/active-self-paced-learning-for-cost-effective-and-progressive-face-identification
#4
Liang Lin, Keze Wang, Deyu Meng, Wangmeng Zuo, Lei Zhang
This paper aims to develop a novel cost-effective framework for face identification, which progressively maintains a batch of classifiers with the increasing face images of different individuals. By naturally combining two recently rising techniques: active learning (AL) and self-paced learning (SPL), our framework is capable of automatically annotating new instances and incorporating them into training under weak expert recertification. We first initialize the classifier using a few annotated samples for each individual, and extract image features using the convolutional neural nets...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092513/automatic-nuclear-segmentation-using-multi-scale-radial-line-scanning-with-dynamic-programming
#5
Hongming Xu, Cheng Lu, Richard Berendt, Naresh Jha, Mrinal Mandal
In the diagnosis of various cancers by analyzing histological images, automatic nuclear segmentation is an important step. However, nuclear segmentation is a difficult problem because of overlapping nuclei, inhomogeneous staining, and presence of noisy pixels and other tissue components. In this paper, we present an automatic technique for nuclear segmentation in skin histological images. The proposed technique first applies a bank of generalized Laplacian of Gaussian (gLoG) kernels to detect nuclear seeds...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092414/dce-mri-of-the-prostate-using-shutter-speed-vs-tofts-model-for-tumor-characterization-and-assessment-of-aggressiveness
#6
Stefanie J Hectors, Cecilia Besa, Mathilde Wagner, Guido H Jajamovich, George K Haines, Sara Lewis, Ashutosh Tewari, Ardeshir Rastinehad, Wei Huang, Bachir Taouli
PURPOSE: To quantify Tofts model (TM) and shutter-speed model (SSM) perfusion parameters in prostate cancer (PCa) and noncancerous peripheral zone (PZ) and to compare the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) classification for the assessment of PCa aggressiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PCa patients (mean age 60 years old) who underwent MRI at 3...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092391/correlation-of-focal-adhesion-assembly-and-disassembly-with-cell-migration-on-nanotopography
#7
Elena I Liang, Emma J Mah, Albert F Yee, Michelle A Digman
Selective cell adhesion is desirable to control cell growth and migration on biomedical implants. Mesenchymal cell migration is regulated through focal adhesions (FAs) and can be modulated by their microenvironment, including changes in surface topography. We use the Number and Molecular Brightness (N&B) imaging analysis to provide a unique perspective on FA assembly and disassembly. This imaging analysis generates a map of real-time fluctuations of protein monomers, dimers, and higher order aggregates of FA proteins, such as paxillin during assembly and disassembly...
January 16, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091836/assessment-of-edema-using-stir-via-3d-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-suspected-myocarditis
#8
Michael Jeserich, Bela Merkely, Pascal Schlosser, Simone Kimmel, Gabor Pavlik, Stephan Achenbach
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three-dimensional T2-weighted fast spin echo triple inversion recovery sequences (STIR+) for the diagnosis of myocardial edema in patients with suspected early myocarditis after respiratory or gastrointestinal tract viral infection and at follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively examined 28 patients with suspected myocarditis and 37 controls matched for gender and age. An ECG-triggered STIR+ was used to cover the entire left ventricle in short-axis images with 10-mm slice thickness and no interslice gap...
January 16, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091597/direct-visualization-of-hydrogen-absorption-dynamics-in-individual-palladium-nanoparticles
#9
Tarun C Narayan, Fariah Hayee, Andrea Baldi, Ai Leen Koh, Robert Sinclair, Jennifer A Dionne
Many energy storage materials undergo large volume changes during charging and discharging. The resulting stresses often lead to defect formation in the bulk, but less so in nanosized systems. Here, we capture in real time the mechanism of one such transformation-the hydrogenation of single-crystalline palladium nanocubes from 15 to 80 nm-to better understand the reason for this durability. First, using environmental scanning transmission electron microscopy, we monitor the hydrogen absorption process in real time with 3 nm resolution...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091590/high-performance-magneto-fluorescent-nanoparticles-assembled-from-terbium-and-gadolinium-1-3-diketones
#10
Rustem Zairov, Asiya Mustafina, Nataliya Shamsutdinova, Irek Nizameev, Beatriz Moreira, Svetlana Sudakova, Sergey Podyachev, Alfia Fattakhova, Gulnara Safina, Ingemar Lundstrom, Aidar Gubaidullin, Alberto Vomiero
Polyelectrolyte-coated nanoparticles consisting of terbium and gadolinium complexes with calix[4]arene tetra-diketone ligand were first synthesized. The antenna effect of the ligand on Tb(III) green luminescence and the presence of water molecules in the coordination sphere of Gd(III) bring strong luminescent and magnetic performance to the core-shell nanoparticles. The size and the core-shell morphology of the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The correlation between photophysical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and their core composition was highlighted...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091541/apelin-receptor-homodimer-oligomers-revealed-by-single-molecule-imaging-and-novel-g-protein-dependent-signaling
#11
Xin Cai, Bo Bai, Rumin Zhang, Chunmei Wang, Jing Chen
The apelin receptor (APJ) belongs to family A of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and is a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for heart failure, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence APJ heterodimerizes with other GPCRs; however, the existence of APJ homodimers and oligomers remains to be investigated. Here, we measured APJ monomer-homodimer-oligomer interconversion by monitoring APJ dynamically on cells and compared their proportions, spatial arrangement, and mobility using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, resonance energy transfer, and proximity biotinylation...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090589/spiral-perfusion-imaging-with-consecutive-echoes-spice%C3%A2-for-the-simultaneous-mapping-of-dsc-and-dce-mri-parameters-in-brain-tumor-patients-theory-and-initial-feasibility
#12
Eric S Paulson, Douglas E Prah, Kathleen M Schmainda
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the perfusion imaging techniques most frequently used to probe the angiogenic character of brain neoplasms. With these methods, T1- and T2/T2*-weighted imaging sequences are used to image the distribution of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. However, it is well known that Gd exhibits combined T1, T2, and T2* shortening effects in tissue, and therefore, the results of both DCE- and DSC-MRI can be confounded by these opposing effects...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090122/effect-of-static-vs-dynamic-imaging-on-particle-transport-in-ct-based-numerical-models-of-human-central-airways
#13
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Eric A Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
Advances in quantitative computed tomography (CT) has provided methods to assess the detailed structure of the pulmonary airways and parenchyma, providing the means of applying computational fluid dynamics-based modeling to better understand subject-specific differences in structure-to-function relationships. Most of the previous numerical studies, seeking to predict patterns of inhaled particle deposition, have considered airway geometry and regional ventilation derived from static images. Because geometric alterations of the airway and parenchyma associated with regional ventilation may greatly affect particle transport, we have sought to investigate the effect of rigid vs...
October 2016: Journal of Aerosol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089989/rhoa-regulates-actin-network-dynamics-during-apical-surface-emergence-in-multiciliated-epithelial-cells
#14
Jakub Sedzinski, Edouard Hannezo, Fan Tu, Maté Biro, John B Wallingford
Homeostatic replacement of epithelial cells from basal precursors is a multistep process involving progenitor cell specification, radial intercalation and, finally, apical surface emergence. Recent data demonstrate that actin-based pushing under the control of the formin protein Fmn1 drives apical emergence in nascent multiciliated epithelial cells (MCCs), but little else is known about this actin network or the control of Fmn1. Here, we explore the role of the small GTPase RhoA in MCC apical emergence. Disruption of RhoA function reduced the rate of apical surface expansion and decreased the final size of the apical domain...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089912/hiding-clinical-information-in-medical-images-a-new-high-capacity-and-reversible-data-hiding-technique
#15
Shabir A Parah, Farhana Ahad, Javaid A Sheikh, G M Bhat
A new high capacity and reversible data hiding scheme for e-healthcare applications has been presented in this paper. Pixel to Block (PTB) conversion technique has been used as an effective and computationally efficient alternative to interpolation for the cover image generation to ensure reversibility of medical images. A fragile watermark and Block Checksum (computed for each 4 × 4 block) have been embedded in the cover image for facilitating tamper detection and tamper localization, and hence content authentication at receiver...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089903/advances-in-mr-angiography-with-7t-mri-from-microvascular-imaging-to-functional-angiography
#16
Chan-A Park, Chang-Ki Kang, Young-Bo Kim, Zang-Hee Cho
Over the past few decades, vascular flow-dependent imaging techniques have proven to be effective for the visualization of large vessel diseases. However, these approaches are unlikely to be efficacious for small vessels because the affected small vessels cannot always be visualized directly, owing to a lack of detection sensitivity. Recently, many researchers have introduced state-of-the-art imaging techniques to visualize cerebral microvessels using ultra-high-field (UHF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
January 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089807/ultrasonography-detects-ulnar-nerve-dislocation-despite-normal-electrophysiology-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Jared M Pisapia, Zarina S Ali, Eric D Hudgins, Viviane Khoury, Gregory G Heuer, Eric L Zager
BACKGROUND: Dislocation of the ulnar nerve (UN) occurs in a subset of patients with ulnar neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are performed to support the clinical diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with ulnar neuropathy with normal electrodiagnostic and MRI studies but with ultrasound (US) showing UN dislocation, which prompted successful treatment by UN submuscular transposition. CASE DESCRIPTION: A healthy 15 year-old female softball player presented with right medial elbow pain and paresthesias of the fourth and fifth digits...
January 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089607/estimates-of-nasal-airflow-at-the-nasal-cycle-mid-point-improve-the-correlation-between-objective-and-subjective-measures-of-nasal-patency
#18
Courtney Gaberino, John S Rhee, Guilherme J M Garcia
INTRODUCTION: The nasal cycle represents a significant challenge when comparing pre- and post-surgery objective measures of nasal airflow. METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow were conducted in 12 nasal airway obstruction patients showing significant nasal cycling between pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. To correct for the nasal cycle, mid-cycle models were created virtually. Subjective scores of nasal patency were obtained via the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and unilateral visual analog scale (VAS)...
January 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089518/transcriptional-pre-patterning-of-drosophila-gastrulation
#19
Bomyi Lim, Michael Levine, Yuji Yamakazi
Gastrulation of the Drosophila embryo is one of the most intensively studied morphogenetic processes in animal development [1-4]. Particular efforts have focused on the formation of the ventral furrow, whereby ∼1,000 presumptive mesoderm cells exhibit coordinated apical constrictions that mediate invagination [5, 6]. Apical constriction depends on a Rho GTPase signaling pathway (T48/Fog) that is deployed by the developmental regulatory genes twist and snail [7-10]. It is thought that coordinate mesoderm constriction depends on high levels of myosin along the ventral midline, although the basis for this localization is uncertain...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088847/vapor-and-gas-bubble-growth-dynamics-around-laser-irradiated-water-immersed-plasmonic-nanoparticles
#20
Yuliang Wang, Mikhail E Zaytsev, Hai Le The, Jan Cornelis Titus Eijkel, Harold J W Zandvliet, Xuehua Zhang, Detlef Lohse
Microbubbles produced by exposing water-immersed metallic nanoparticles to resonant light play an important role in novel and efficient plasmonic-enhanced processes for catalytic conversion, solar energy harvesting, biomedical imaging technique or cancer therapy. How do these bubbles form and what is their gas composition? In this article, the growth dynamics of nucleating bubbles around laser irradiated water-immersed Au plasmonic nanoparticles are studied to determine the exact origin of the occurrence and growth of these bubbles...
January 16, 2017: ACS Nano
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