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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528264/baseline-and-longitudinal-variability-of-normal-tissue-uptake-values-of-18-f-fluorothymidine-pet-images
#1
Matthijs C F Cysouw, Gerbrand M Kramer, Virginie Frings, Adrianus J De Langen, Mariëlle J Wondergem, Laura M Kenny, Eric O Aboagye, Carsten Kobe, Jürgen Wolf, Otto S Hoekstra, Ronald Boellaard
PURPOSE: [(18)F]-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]-FLT) is a PET-tracer enabling in-vivo visualization and quantification of tumor cell proliferation. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, adequate knowledge of normal tissue uptake is indispensable. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate baseline tracer uptake of blood pool, lung, liver and bone marrow and their precision, and to assess the longitudinal effect of systemic treatment on biodistribution. METHODS: (18)F-FLT-PET(/CT) scans (dynamic or static) of 90 treatment-naïve oncological patients were retrospectively evaluated...
May 10, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527889/enhanced-cardiomyogenic-induction-of-mouse-pluripotent-cells-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch
#2
Akankshya Shradhanjali, Brandon D Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Jung Yul Lim
The cardiac milieu is mechanically active with spontaneous contraction beginning from early development and persistent through maturation and homeostasis, suggesting that mechanical loading may provide biomimetic myocardial developmental signal. In this study, we tested the role of cyclic mechanical stretch loading in the cardiomyogenesis of pluripotent murine embryonic (P19) stem cells. A Flexcell tension system was utilized to apply equiaxial stretch (12% strain, 1.25 Hz frequency) to P19 cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs)...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527792/3d-cmro2-mapping-in-human-brain-with-direct-17-o-mri-comparison-of-conventional-and-proton-constrained-reconstructions
#3
Dmitry Kurzhunov, Robert Borowiak, Marco Reisert, Axel Joachim Krafft, Ali Caglar Özen, Michael Bock
Oxygen metabolism is altered in brain tumor regions and is quantified by the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). Direct dynamic (17)O MRI with inhalation of isotopically enriched (17)O2 gas can be used to quantify CMRO2; however, pixel-wise CMRO2 quantification in human brain is challenging due to low natural abundance of (17)O isotope and, thus, the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of (17)O MR images. To test the feasibility CMRO2 mapping at a clinical 3 T MRI system, a new iterative reconstruction was proposed, which uses the edge information contained in a co-registered (1)H gradient image to construct a non-homogeneous anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527200/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-in-renal-imaging-at-an-interdisciplinary-ultrasound-centre-possibilities-of-dynamic-microvascularisation-and-perfusion
#4
Franz Josef Putz, Anna Erlmeier, Isabel Wiesinger, Niklas Verloh, Christian Stroszczynski, Bernhard Banas, Ernst Michael Jung
OBJECTIVE: To identify the indications for CEUS in renal imaging in an interdisciplinary ultrasound department. METHODS: 102 CEUS examinations of the kidney in 82 patients between September 2014 and July 2016 were analysed regarding the indication for ultrasound. CEUS was performed by one experienced sonographer agent after bolus injection of 1.0 up to 2.4 ml sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles using multifrequency probes with Contrast Harmonic imaging. RESULTS: CEUS of the kidney was performed in patients from 20 to 87 years...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527126/polycaprolactone-based-nanoparticles-loaded-with-indomethacin-for-anti-inflammatory-therapy-from-preparation-to-ex-vivo-study
#5
Waisudin Badri, Karim Miladi, Sophie Robin, Céline Viennet, Qand Agha Nazari, Géraldine Agusti, Hatem Fessi, Abdelhamid Elaissari
PURPOSE: This work focused on the preparation of polycaprolactone based nanoparticles containing indomethacin to provide topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect for symptomatic treatment of inflammatory diseases. Indomethacin loaded nanoparticles are prepared for topical application to decrease indomethacin side effects and administration frequency. Oppositely to already reported works, in this research non-invasive method has been used for the enhancement of indomethacin dermal drug penetration...
May 19, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527023/-high-resolution-manometry-of-pharyngeal-swallowing-dynamics
#6
REVIEW
M Jungheim, M Ptok
BACKGROUND: To transport a bolus from the mouth into the stomach, regular contraction of the pharyngeal muscles and a coordinated function of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) are necessary. The muscle contraction generates intraluminal pressure, which pushes the bolus continuously forward. In contrast to imaging studies, manometric methods enable assessment of intraluminal pressure buildup and the function of the muscles involved. These methods were initially established for the esophagus and have been used increasingly in the pharynx for 7-8 years...
May 19, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526859/evaluation-of-arteriolar-smooth-muscle-cell-function-in-an-ex-vivo-microvascular-network-model
#7
Jessica M Motherwell, Mohammad S Azimi, Kristine Spicer, Natascha G Alves, Nicholas A Hodges, Jerome W Breslin, Prasad V G Katakam, Walter L Murfee
An emerging challenge in tissue engineering biomimetic models is recapitulating the physiological complexity associated with real tissues. Recently, our laboratory introduced the rat mesentery culture model as an ex vivo experimental platform for investigating the multi-cellular dynamics involved in angiogenesis within an intact microvascular network using time-lapse imaging. A critical question remains whether the vessels maintain their functionality. The objective of this study was to determine whether vascular smooth muscle cells in cultured microvascular networks maintain the ability to constrict...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526840/in-situ-stem-imaging-of-growth-and-phase-change-of-individual-cualx-precipitates-in-al-alloy
#8
Chunhui Liu, Sairam K Malladi, Qiang Xu, Jianghua Chen, Frans D Tichelaar, Xiaodong Zhuge, Henny W Zandbergen
Age-hardening in Al alloys has been used for over a century to improve its mechanical properties. However, the lack of direct observation limits our understanding of the dynamic nature of the evolution of nanoprecipitates during age-hardening. Using in-situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) while heating an Al-Cu alloy, we were able to follow the growth of individual nanoprecipitates at atomic scale. The heat treatments carried out at 140, 160, 180 and 200 °C reveal a temperature dependence on the kinetics of precipitation and three kinds of interactions of nano-precipitates...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526563/live-cell-imaging-and-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-biogenesis-in-hcv-infected-cells
#9
Inbar Nevo-Yassaf, Marcos Lovelle, Yaacov Nahmias, Koret Hirschberg, Ella H Sklan
Lipid droplets (LDs) are regulated neutral lipid storage organelles having a central role in numerous cellular processes as well as in various pathologies such as metabolic disorders, immune responses and during pathogen infection. Several viruses were found to use the interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and LDs as the site for replication and assembly. Due to the growing significance of LDs, extensive efforts are made to study the mechanism and the dynamics of their formation and life history and how are these diverted or modified by pathogens...
May 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526560/limb-flexion-induced-axial-compression-and-bending-in-human-femoropopliteal-artery-segments
#10
William Poulson, Alexey Kamenskiy, Andreas Seas, Paul Deegan, Carol Lomneth, Jason MacTaggart
BACKGROUND: High failure rates of femoropopliteal artery (FPA) interventions are often attributed in part to severe mechanical deformations that occur with limb movement. Axial compression and bending of the FPA likely play significant roles in FPA disease development and reconstruction failure, but these deformations are poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to quantify axial compression and bending of human FPAs that are placed in positions commonly assumed during the normal course of daily activities...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526430/combination-of-integrated-dynamic-shimming-and-readout-segmented-echo-planar-imaging-for-diffusion-weighted-mri-of-the-head-and-neck-region-at-3tesla
#11
Sven S Walter, Wei Liu, Alto Stemmer, Petros Martirosian, Konstantin Nikolaou, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Sergios Gatidis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of combined integrated slice-by-slice shimming and readout-segmented EPI (irsEPI) for diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of the neck at 3Tesla. METHODS: This study was approved by the local ethics committee. An anthropometric phantom of the head/neck region incorporating compartments with different diffusivities was constructed. In vivo measurements were performed in 10 healthy volunteers. DWI of the phantom and volunteers was performed on a 3Tesla MR scanner using single shot EPI (sEPI), a prototype single shot EPI with integrated slice-by-slice shimming (iEPI), readout segmented EPI (rsEPI) and a prototype readout segmented EPI with integrated shimming irsEPI...
May 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525836/arterial-spin-labelling-shows-functional-depression-of-non-lesion-tissue-in-chronic-wernicke-s-aphasia
#12
Holly Robson, Karsten Specht, Helen Beaumont, Laura M Parkes, Karen Sage, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Roland Zahn
Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants...
November 10, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525448/18f-fluorocholine-pet-ct-complementing-the-role-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-for-providing-comprehensive-diagnostic-workup-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-suspected-relapse-following-radical-prostatectomy
#13
Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Baljinder Singh, Rajender K Basher, Ankit Watts, Ashwani K Sood, Anupam Lal, Nandita Kakkar, S K Singh
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of pelvis in restaging prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: Twenty PC patients who had undergone RP and had BCR were recruited in this study. All the patients underwent whole-body FCH PET/CT and DCE-MRI of the pelvis. An overall pattern of recurrent disease was analyzed, and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of pelvic disease recurrence by the 2 modalities was evaluated by taking histopathologic analysis as the criterion standard...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525289/high-throughput-phenotyping-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-and-neurons-using-electric-field-stimulation-and-high-speed-fluorescence-imaging
#14
Neil J Daily, Zhong-Wei Du, Tetsuro Wakatsuki
Electrophysiology of excitable cells, including muscle cells and neurons, has been measured by making direct contact with a single cell using a micropipette electrode. To increase the assay throughput, optical devices such as microscopes and microplate readers have been used to analyze electrophysiology of multiple cells. We have established a high-throughput (HTP) analysis of action potentials (APs) in highly enriched motor neurons and cardiomyocytes (CMs) that are differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
May 19, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525260/three-dimensional-visualization-and-characterization-of-polymeric-self-assemblies-by-transmission-electron-microtomography
#15
Hiroshi Jinnai, Takeshi Higuchi, Xiaodong Zhuge, Akihito Kumamoto, Kees Joost Batenburg, Yuichi Ikuhara
Self-assembling structures and their dynamical processes in polymeric systems have been investigated using three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (3D-TEM). Block copolymers (BCPs) self-assemble into nanoscale periodic structures called microphase-separated structures, a deep understanding of which is important for creating nanomaterials with superior physical properties, such as high-performance membranes with well-defined pore size and high-density data storage media. Because microphase-separated structures have become increasingly complicated with advances in precision polymerization, characterizing these complex morphologies is becoming increasingly difficult...
May 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524772/effects-of-stereoscopic-disparity-on-early-erp-components-during-classification-of-three-dimensional-objects
#16
Alan J Pegna, Alexandre Darque, Mark V Roberts, E Charles Leek
This study investigates the effects of stereo disparity on the perception of three-dimensional (3D) object shape. We tested the hypothesis that stereo input modulates the brain activity related to perceptual analyses of 3D shape configuration during image classification. High-density (256-channel) EEG was used to record the temporal dynamics of visual shape processing under conditions of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visual presentation. On each trial, observers made image classification judgements ('Same'/'Different') to two briefly presented, multi-part, novel objects...
May 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524691/scheme-to-measure-the-topological-number-of-a-chern-insulator-from-quench-dynamics
#17
Ce Wang, Pengfei Zhang, Xin Chen, Jinlong Yu, Hui Zhai
We show how the topological number of a static Hamiltonian can be measured from a dynamical quench process. We focus on a two-band Chern insulator in two dimension, for instance, the Haldane model, whose dynamical process can be described by a mapping from the [k_{x},k_{y},t] space to the Bloch sphere, characterized by the Hopf invariant. Such a mapping has been constructed experimentally by measurements in cold atom systems. We show that, taking any two constant vectors on the Bloch sphere, their inverse images of this mapping are two trajectories in the [k_{x},k_{y},t] space, and the linking number of these two trajectories exactly equals the Chern number of the static Hamiltonian...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524459/prognostic-role-of-conventional-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-in-optic-pathway-gliomas
#18
Nutchawan Jittapiromsak, Ping Hou, Ho-Ling Liu, Jia Sun, John M Slopis, T Linda Chi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The natural history of optic pathway glioma (OPG) is highly variable and unpredictable. We present a pilot study of the prognostic role of conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) in the evaluation of OPG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients with 20 pretreatment OPG lesions who underwent conventional and DCE MRI between January 2010 and December 2016. Conventional MRI was evaluated for enhancement pattern, cystic component, optic nerve tortuosity, optic nerve dural ectasia, and optic nerve perineural thickening...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524198/isomer-dependent-fragmentation-dynamics-of-inner-shell-photoionized-difluoroiodobenzene
#19
Utuq Ablikim, Cédric Bomme, Evgeny Savelyev, Hui Xiong, Rajesh Kushawaha, Rebecca Boll, Kasra Amini, Timur Osipov, David Kilcoyne, Artem Rudenko, Nora Berrah, Daniel Rolles
The fragmentation dynamics of 2,6- and 3,5-difluoroiodobenzene after iodine 4d inner-shell photoionization with soft X-rays are studied using coincident electron and ion momentum imaging. By analyzing the momentum correlation between iodine and fluorine cations in three-fold ion coincidence events, we can distinguish the two isomers experimentally. Classical Coulomb explosion simulations are in overall agreement with the experimentally determined fragment ion kinetic energies and momentum correlations and point toward different fragmentation mechanisms and time scales...
May 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523281/imaging-membrane-potential-changes-from-dendritic-spines-using-computer-generated-holography
#20
Dimitrii Tanese, Ju-Yun Weng, Valeria Zampini, Vincent De Sars, Marco Canepari, Balazs Rozsa, Valentina Emiliani, Dejan Zecevic
Electrical properties of neuronal processes are extraordinarily complex, dynamic, and, in the general case, impossible to predict in the absence of detailed measurements. To obtain such a measurement one would, ideally, like to be able to monitor electrical subthreshold events as they travel from synapses on distal dendrites and summate at particular locations to initiate action potentials. It is now possible to carry out these measurements at the scale of individual dendritic spines using voltage imaging. In these measurements, the voltage-sensitive probes can be thought of as transmembrane voltmeters with a linear scale, which directly monitor electrical signals...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
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