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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313079/comprehensive-characterization-of-neurochemicals-in-three-zebrafish-chemical-models-of-human-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Cristian Gómez-Canela, Daniel Tornero-Cañadas, Eva Prats, Benjamí Piña, Romà Tauler, Demetrio Raldúa
There is a growing interest in biological models to investigate the effect of neurotransmitter dysregulation on the structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) at different stages of development. Zebrafish, a vertebrate model increasingly used in neurobiology and neurotoxicology, shares the common neurotransmitter systems with mammals, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the multiresidue determination of neurotransmitters and related metabolites...
January 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286468/analysis-of-immune-cells-in-single-sciatic-nerves-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-from-a-single-mouse-using-flow-cytometry
#2
Asa S Hidmark, Peter P Nawroth, Thomas Fleming
Nerve-resident immune cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential to maintaining neuronal integrity in a healthy nerve. The immune cells of the PNS are affected by injury and disease, affecting the nerve function and the capacity for regeneration. Neuronal immune cells are commonly analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF). While IF is essential for determining the location of the immune cells in the nerve, IF is only semi-quantitative and the method is limited to the number of markers that can be analyzed simultaneously and the degree of surface expression...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247915/uncovering-neurodevelopmental-windows-of-susceptibility-to-manganese-exposure-using-dentine-microspatial-analyses
#3
Birgit Claus Henn, Christine Austin, Brent A Coull, Lourdes Schnaas, Chris Gennings, Megan K Horton, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila, Howard Hu, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Associations between manganese (Mn) and neurodevelopment may depend on dose and exposure timing, but most studies cannot measure exposure variability over time well. OBJECTIVE: We apply temporally informative tooth-matrix biomarkers to uncover windows of susceptibility in early life when Mn is associated with visual motor ability in childhood. We also explore effect modification by lead (Pb) and child sex. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the ELEMENT (Early Life Exposures in MExico and NeuroToxicology) longitudinal birth cohort studies...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199887/the-inflammatory-response-to-silver-and-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
Tianshu Wu, Meng Tang
Despite the increasing number of neurotoxicological studies on metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs), the NP-induced neuroinflammation has not yet been well understood. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of inflammatory responses to two typical metal-containing NPs, namely silver NPs (Ag-NPs) and titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2-NPs). Ag-NPs and TiO2-NPs could translocate into the CNS through damaged blood-brain barrier, nerve afferent signaling and eye-to-brain ways, and even cell uptake. NPs could stimulate the activation of glial cells to release proinflammatory cytokines and generate reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, resulting in the neuroinflammation...
December 4, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199130/the-neurodevelopmental-toxicity-of-heavy-metals-a-fish-perspective
#5
Adrian J Green, Antonio Planchart
The causes of neurodegenerative diseases are complex with likely contributions from genetic susceptibility, and environmental exposures over an organism's lifetime. In this review, we examine the role that aquatic models, especially zebrafish, have played in the elucidation of mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity and nervous system function over the last half-decade. Focus is applied to cadmium, lead and mercury as significant contributors to central nervous system morbidity, and to the application of numerous transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent reporters within specific neuronal populations or brain regions enabling high-resolution neurodevelopmental and neurotoxicology research...
November 30, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167930/planarian-cholinesterase-molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity
#6
Danielle Hagstrom, Siqi Zhang, Alicia Ho, Eileen S Tsai, Zoran Radić, Aryo Jahromi, Kelson J Kaj, Yingtian He, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has emerged as a medium-throughput alternative animal model for neurotoxicology. We have previously shown that D. japonica are sensitive to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and characterized the in vitro inhibition profile of planarian cholinesterase (DjChE) activity using irreversible and reversible inhibitors. We found that DjChE has intermediate features of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Here, we identify two candidate genes (Djche1 and Djche2) responsible for DjChE activity...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163011/optimised-pdms-tunnel-devices-on-meas-increase-the-probability-of-detecting-electrical-activity-from-human-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-networks
#7
Maria Toivanen, Anssi Pelkonen, Meeri Mäkinen, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Lassi Sukki, Pasi Kallio, Mervi Ristola, Susanna Narkilahti
Measurement of the activity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neuronal networks with microelectrode arrays (MEAs) plays an important role in functional in vitro brain modelling and in neurotoxicological screening. The previously reported hPSC-derived neuronal networks do not, however, exhibit repeatable, stable functional network characteristics similar to rodent cortical cultures, making the interpretation of results difficult. In earlier studies, microtunnels have been used both to control and guide cell growth and amplify the axonal signals of rodent neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117435/overview-of-neurotoxicology
#8
Lucio G Costa
The nervous system has a central and primary function in the body, and its relevance and complexity make it a target for a large number of toxic substances. The most common forms of neurotoxicity are the death of neurons (neuronopathy), the degeneration of axons (axonopathy), damage to glial cells (e.g., myelinopathy), and interference with the axonal membrane or neurotransmission. Important neurotoxicants are found among pesticides, metals, solvents, natural substances, and industrial chemicals. Environmental chemicals may also contribute to the etiopathogenesis of neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114259/identification-of-splicing-quantitative-trait-loci-sqtl-in-drosophila-melanogaster-with-developmental-lead-pb-2-exposure
#9
Wen Qu, Katherine Gurdziel, Roger Pique-Regi, Douglas M Ruden
Lead (Pb) poisoning has been a major public health issue globally and the recent Flint water crisis has drawn nation-wide attention to its effects. To better understand how lead plays a role as a neurotoxin, we utilized the Drosophila melanogaster model to study the genetic effects of lead exposure during development and identified lead-responsive genes. In our previous studies, we have successfully identified hundreds of lead-responsive expression QTLs (eQTLs) by using RNA-seq analysis on heads collected from the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108800/nano-and-neurotoxicology-an-emerging-discipline
#10
REVIEW
Anna Bencsik, Philippe Lestaevel, Irina Guseva Canu
The present critical review analyzes the question of how nanoparticles from continuously growing industrial production and use of nanomaterials may impact human brain health. Available evidence suggests incomplete effectiveness of protective barriers of the brain against nanoparticles translocation to the brain. This raises concerns of potential effects of manufactured nanoparticles on brain functions, given that nanoparticle's potential to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, death by apoptosis, or changes in the level of expression of certain neurotransmitters...
November 3, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038777/the-abcd-study-of-neurodevelopment-identifying-neurocircuit-targets-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-adolescent-substance-abuse
#11
James M Bjork, Lisa K Straub, Rosellen G Provost, Michael C Neale
Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987169/neurotoxicology-and-drug-related-disorders
#12
Serge Weis, Andreas Büttner
Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by toxic substances pose a great diagnostic challenge due to the large variety of changes caused in the central and peripheral nervous system. The pathogenetic mechanisms at work are multifaceted and partly not solved. In human drug abusers (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and "designer drugs"), a broad spectrum of central nervous system alterations are observed including infarction, intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy, infections, neuronal loss, specific astroglial and microglial reaction patterns, and vascular changes, including the endothelial cell as well as the basal lamina...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970803/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-pelvic-nerve-inhibits-urinary-voiding-in-anesthetized-rats
#13
Jonathan J Crook, Thelma A Lovick
Urge Urinary Incontinence: "a sudden and uncontrollable desire to void which is impossible to defer" is extremely common and considered the most bothersome of lower urinary tract conditions. Current treatments rely on pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurotoxicological approaches to manage the disorder, by reducing the excitability of the bladder muscle. However, some patients remain refractory to treatment. An alternative approach would be to temporarily suppress activity of the micturition control circuitry at the time of need i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969326/thinking-fast-and-slow-highlights-from-the-2016-bja-seminar-on-anaesthetic-neurotoxicity-and-neuroplasticity
#14
S G Soriano, L Vutskits, V Jevtovic-Todorovic, H C Hemmings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968676/lagged-kernel-machine-regression-for-identifying-time-windows-of-susceptibility-to-exposures-of-complex-mixtures
#15
Shelley H Liu, Jennifer F Bobb, Kyu Ha Lee, Chris Gennings, Birgit Claus Henn, David Bellinger, Christine Austin, Lourdes Schnaas, Martha M Tellez-Rojo, Howard Hu, Robert O Wright, Manish Arora, Brent A Coull
The impact of neurotoxic chemical mixtures on children's health is a critical public health concern. It is well known that during early life, toxic exposures may impact cognitive function during critical time intervals of increased vulnerability, known as windows of susceptibility. Knowledge on time windows of susceptibility can help inform treatment and prevention strategies, as chemical mixtures may affect a developmental process that is operating at a specific life phase. There are several statistical challenges in estimating the health effects of time-varying exposures to multi-pollutant mixtures, such as: multi-collinearity among the exposures both within time points and across time points, and complex exposure-response relationships...
September 6, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964377/happy-transition-of-neurotoxicology-editor-in-chief-from-joan-cranmer-to-pamela-lein-and-remco-westerink
#16
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959621/health-effects-following-subacute-exposure-to-geogenic-dust-collected-from-active-drainage-surfaces-nellis-dunes-recreation-area-las-vegas-nv
#17
Jamie C DeWitt, Brenda J Buck, Dirk Goossens, Yuanxin Teng, James Pollard, Brett T McLaurin, Russell Gerads, Deborah E Keil
The specific health effects of direct inhalation of fine minerogenic dusts generated by natural soil surfaces remain poorly known and relatively little researched. To learn more about this exposure and its contribution to human health effects, we surveyed surface sediment and characterized dust from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA) in Clark County, Nevada, a popular off-road vehicle (ORV) recreational site. Dry drainage systems at NDRA are commonly used as natural trail systems for ORV recreation; these surfaces also are characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942534/cholinergic-system-and-oxidative-stress-changes-in-the-brain-of-a-zebrafish-model-chronically-exposed-to-ethanol
#18
Jotele Fontana Agostini, Helena Cristina Zuehl Dal Toé, Karine Medeiros Vieira, Samira Leila Baldin, Naithan Ludian Fernandes Costa, Carolina Uribe Cruz, Larisse Longo, Marcel Marcos Machado, Themis Reverbel da Silveira, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck, Eduardo Pacheco Rico
Ethanol is a widely used drug, and excess or even moderate consumption of ethanol is associated with changes in several neurotransmitter systems, including the cholinergic system. The incidence of alcoholic dementia and its insults are well supported by multiple studies, although the mechanisms of neurotoxicity are still poorly understood. Considering that zebrafish have a complete central nervous system (CNS) and that several signaling systems have already been identified in zebrafish, this neurotoxicological model has become useful...
September 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889277/neurodegeneration-induced-by-metals-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Felix Antunes Soares, Daiandra Almeida Fagundez, Daiana Silva Avila
Metals are a component of a variety of ecosystems and organisms. They can generally be divided into essential and nonessential metals. The essential metals are involved in physiological processes once the deficiency of these metals has been associated with diseases. Although iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are important for life, it has been evidenced that they are also involved in neuronal damage in many neurodegenerative disorders. Nonessential metals, which are metals without physiological functions, are present in trace or higher levels in living organisms...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889273/neurotoxicity-of-vanadium
#20
Hilary Afeseh Ngwa, Muhammet Ay, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Vanadium (V) is a transition metal that presents in multiple oxidation states and numerous inorganic compounds and is also an ultra-trace element considered to be essential for most living organisms. Despite being one of the lightest metals, V offers high structural strength and good corrosion resistance and thus has been widely adopted for high-strength steel manufacturing. High doses of V exposure are toxic, and inhalation exposure to V adversely affects the respiratory system. The neurotoxicological properties of V are just beginning to be identified...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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