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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108889/hg-and-se-exposure-in-brain-tissues-of-striped-dolphin-stenella-coeruleoalba-and-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-tyrrhenian-and-adriatic-seas
#1
Antonio Bellante, Fabio D'Agostino, Anna Traina, Daniela Piazzese, Maria Francesca Milazzo, Mario Sprovieri
In this study we analyzed Hg and Se concentrations in dolphin brain tissues of fifteen specimens of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and eight specimens of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas, in order to assess the toxicological risks associated with Hg exposure. High Hg concentrations were found in brain tissues of both analyzed specie (1.86-243 mg/kg dw for striped dolphin and 2.1-98.7 mg/kg dw for bottlenose dolphin), exceeding levels associated with marine mammals neurotoxicity...
January 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#2
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990605/profiling-of-selected-functional-metabolites-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-for-environmental-neurotoxicological-assessments
#3
Elva Ngai-Yu Lei, Man-Shan Yau, Chi-Chung Yeung, Margaret B Murphy, Ka-Leung Wong, Michael Hon-Wah Lam
The simultaneous profiling of 43 functional metabolites in the brain of the small model vertebrate organism, marine medaka (Oryzais melastigma), has been accomplished via dansyl chloride derivatization and LC-MS/MS quantification. This technique was applied to examine effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), one of the most abundant polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the natural environment, on the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. The model teleosts were fed with bioencapsulated Artemia nauplii for up to 21 days...
December 18, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990564/planarian-cholinesterase-in-vitro-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity-and-reactivation
#4
Danielle Hagstrom, Hideto Hirokawa, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D...
December 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883356/a-human-brain-microphysiological-system-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-study-neurological-diseases-and-toxicity
#5
David Pamies, Paula Barreras, Katharina Block, Georgia Makri, Anupama Kumar, Daphne Wiersma, Lenna Smirnova, Ce Zhang, Joseph Bressler, Kimberly M Christian, Georgina Harris, Guo-Li Ming, Cindy J Berlinicke, Kelly Kyro, Hongjun Song, Carlos A Pardo, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Human in-vitro models of brain neurophysiology are needed to investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurotoxicity. We have developed a reproducible iPSC-derived human 3D brain microphysiological system (BMPS), comprised of differentiated mature neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) that reproduce neuronal-glial interactions and connectivity. BMPS mature over eight weeks and show the critical elements of neuronal function: synaptogenesis and neuron-to-neuron (e...
November 24, 2016: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785753/phytanic-acid-induced-neurotoxicological-manifestations-and-apoptosis-ameliorated-by-mitochondria-mediated-actions-of-melatonin
#6
Shaista Chaudhary, Upasana Sahu, Sudeshna Kar, Suhel Parvez
Phytanic acid, a saturated branched chain fatty acid and a major constituent of human diet, is predominantly found in dairy products, meat, and fish. It is a degradation product from the phytol side chain of chlorophyll. Degradation of PA is known to occur mainly in peroxisomes via α-oxidation and in mitochondria via β-oxidation. Due to its β-methyl group present at the 3-position of the carbon atoms, PA cannot be β-oxidized. Although alteration in the metabolism of PA may play an important role in neurodegeneration, the exact mechanism behind it remains to be evaluated...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753008/neurotoxicology-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs
#7
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742467/electrophysiological-properties-of-neurons-derived-from-human-stem-cells-and-ineurons-in-vitro
#8
Robert F Halliwell
Functional studies of neurons have traditionally used nervous system tissues from a variety of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate species, even when the focus of much of this research has been directed at understanding human brain function. Over the last decade, the identification and isolation of human stem cells from embryonic, tissue (or adult) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the availability of human neurons for experimental studies in vitro. In addition, the direct conversion of terminally differentiated fibroblasts into Induced neurons (iN) has generated great excitement because of the likely value of such human stem cell derived neurons (hSCNs) and iN cells in drug discovery, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology and regenerative medicine...
October 11, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699601/generation-of-a-functional-human-neural-network-by-ndm29-overexpression-in-neuroblastoma-cancer-cells
#9
Susanna Alloisio, Patrizia Garbati, Federica Viti, Silvia Dante, Raffaella Barbieri, Giovanni Arnaldi, Alessia Petrelli, Arianna Gigoni, Paolo Giannoni, Rodolfo Quarto, Mario Nobile, Massimo Vassalli, Aldo Pagano
Recent advances in life sciences suggest that human and rodent cell responses to stimuli might differ significantly. In this context, the results achieved in neurotoxicology and biomedical research practices using neural networks obtained from mouse or rat primary culture of neurons would benefit of the parallel evaluation of the same parameters using fully differentiated neurons with a human genetic background, thus emphasizing the current need of neuronal cells with human origin. In this work, we developed a human functionally active neural network derived by human neuroblastoma cancer cells genetically engineered to overexpress NDM29, a non-coding RNA whose increased synthesis causes the differentiation toward a neuronal phenotype...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692542/neurotoxicology-of-aging-two-extreme-views-and-the-optimist-scientist-in-the-middle
#10
Joan M Cranmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678178/metal-nanoparticles-as-targeted-carriers-circumventing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#11
A C Sintov, C Velasco-Aguirre, E Gallardo-Toledo, E Araya, M J Kogan
Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as a carrier and a therapeutic agent in biomedical field because of their unique physiochemical properties. Due to these physicochemical properties, they can be used in different fields of biomedicine. In relation to this, plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for detection and photothermal destruction of tumor cells or toxic protein aggregates, and magnetic iron nanoparticles can be used for imaging and for hyperthermia of tumor cells. In addition, both therapy and imaging can be combined in one nanoparticle system, in a process called theranostics...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677079/effects-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-avermectin-exposure-on-alpha-synuclein-expression-and-proteasomal-activity-in-pigeons
#12
Ming Li, Shuo Zhou, Xian-Song Wang, Ci Liu, Shu Li
Avermectins (AVMs) are used worldwide in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Residues of avermectin drugs, causing toxicological effects on non-target organisms, have raised great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM on the expression levels of alpha synuclein (α-Syn) and proteasomal activity in pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that, the mRNA and protein levels of α-Syn increased in AVM treated groups relative to control groups in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574759/the-deterioration-seen-in-myelin-related-morphophysiology-in-vanadium-exposed-rats-is-partially-protected-by-concurrent-iron-deficiency
#13
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Dominque F Leitner, Elizabeth Neely, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Oligodendrocyte development and myelination occurs vigorously during the early post natal period which coincides with the period of peak mobilization of iron. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are easily disturbed by any agent that affects iron homeostasis and its assimilation into these cells. Environmental exposure to vanadium, a transition metal can disrupt this iron homeostasis. We investigated the interaction of iron deficiency and vanadium exposure on the myelination infrastructure and its related neurobehavioural phenotypes, and neurocellular profiles in developing rat brains...
August 30, 2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565891/arginine-decarboxylase-a-novel-biological-target-of-mercury-compounds-identified-in-pc12-cells
#14
Sufang Wang, Qiyan Lv, Yu Yang, Liang-Hong Guo, Bin Wan, Xiaomin Ren, Hui Zhang
Mercury compounds are well-known toxic environmental pollutants and potently induce severe neurotoxicological effects in human and experimental animals. Previous studies showed that one of the mechanisms of mercury compounds neurotoxicity arose from the over-activation of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor induced by increased glutamate release. In this work, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Hg compounds neurotoxicities by identifying their biological targets in cells...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519548/setting-evidence-based-occupational-exposure-limits-for-manganese
#15
Ruth Bevan, Lini Ashdown, Doreen McGough, Alicia-Huici Montagaud, Leonard Levy
In 2004, a review by the Institute of Environment and Health (IEH) made recommendations on occupational exposure limits (OELs) for manganese and its inorganic compounds for inhalable and respirable fractions respectively. These OELs were based on a detailed comprehensive evaluation of all the scientific data available at that time. Since then, more published studies have become available and a number of occupational standard-setting committees (EU SCOEL, US ACGIH-TLV, and Germany MAK) have proposed OEL's for manganese and its inorganic compounds that are somewhat lower that those proposed in the 2004 review...
August 9, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499880/planarian-brain-regeneration-as-a-model-system-for-developmental-neurotoxicology
#16
REVIEW
Danielle Hagstrom, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Eva-Maria S Collins
Freshwater planarians, famous for their regenerative prowess, have long been recognized as a valuable in vivo animal model to study the effects of chemical exposure. In this review, we summarize the current techniques and tools used in the literature to assess toxicity in the planarian system. We focus on the planarian's particular amenability for neurotoxicology and neuroregeneration studies, owing to the planarian's unique ability to regenerate a centralized nervous system. Zooming in from the organismal to the molecular level, we show that planarians offer a repertoire of morphological and behavioral readouts while also being amenable to mechanistic studies of compound toxicity...
April 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492622/in-vitro-acute-and-developmental-neurotoxicity-screening-an-overview-of-cellular-platforms-and-high-throughput-technical-possibilities
#17
REVIEW
Béla Z Schmidt, Martin Lehmann, Simon Gutbier, Erastus Nembo, Sabrina Noel, Lena Smirnova, Anna Forsby, Jürgen Hescheler, Hasan X Avci, Thomas Hartung, Marcel Leist, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity are important issues of chemical hazard assessment. Since the interpretation of animal data and their extrapolation to man is challenging, and the amount of substances with information gaps exceeds present animal testing capacities, there is a big demand for in vitro tests to provide initial information and to prioritize for further evaluation. During the last decade, many in vitro tests emerged. These are based on animal cells, human tumour cell lines, primary cells, immortalized cell lines, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells...
August 4, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479987/project-tendr-targeting-environmental-neuro-developmental-risks-the-tendr-consensus-statement
#18
Deborah Bennett, David C Bellinger, Linda S Birnbaum, Asa Bradman, Aimin Chen, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Stephanie M Engel, M Daniele Fallin, Alycia Halladay, Russ Hauser, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Carol F Kwiatkowski, Bruce P Lanphear, Emily Marquez, Melanie Marty, Jennifer McPartland, Craig J Newschaffer, Devon Payne-Sturges, Heather B Patisaul, Frederica P Perera, Beate Ritz, Jennifer Sass, Susan L Schantz, Thomas F Webster, Robin M Whyatt, Tracey J Woodruff, R Thomas Zoeller, Laura Anderko, Carla Campbell, Jeanne A Conry, Nathaniel DeNicola, Robert M Gould, Deborah Hirtz, Katie Huffling, Philip J Landrigan, Arthur Lavin, Mark Miller, Mark A Mitchell, Leslie Rubin, Ted Schettler, Ho Luong Tran, Annie Acosta, Charlotte Brody, Elise Miller, Pamela Miller, Maureen Swanson, Nsedu Obot Witherspoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371410/a-clinically-relevant-dose-of-cyclophosphamide-chemotherapy-impairs-memory-performance-on-the-delayed-spatial-alternation-task-that-is-sustained-over-time-as-mice-age
#19
Michelle C Janelsins, Charles E Heckler, Bryan D Thompson, Robert A Gross, Lisa A Opanashuk, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is a mainstay of adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Unfortunately, this drug is associated with cognitive impairments in cancer patients that may accelerate cognitive aging. Memory is particularly affected in many patients. In order to better understand the precise cognitive impairments caused by this chemotherapy agent, we investigated a clinically relevant dose and administration paradigm on delayed spatial memory abilities in C57BL/6 mice. We utilized a delayed alternation paradigm similar to a delayed match to sample paradigm reported to be sensitive in neurotoxicology research...
June 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328013/advancing-toxicology-research-using-in-vivo-high-throughput-toxicology-with-small-fish-models
#20
Antonio Planchart, Carolyn J Mattingly, David Allen, Patricia Ceger, Warren Casey, David Hinton, Jyotshna Kanungo, Seth W Kullman, Tamara Tal, Maria Bondesson, Shawn M Burgess, Con Sullivan, Carol Kim, Mamta Behl, Stephanie Padilla, David M Reif, Robert L Tanguay, Jon Hamm
Small freshwater fish models, especially zebrafish, offer advantages over traditional rodent models, including low maintenance and husbandry costs, high fecundity, genetic diversity, physiology similar to that of traditional biomedical models, and reduced animal welfare concerns. The Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology was held at North Carolina State University on May 5-6, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Participants discussed the ways in which small fish are being used as models to screen toxicants and understand mechanisms of toxicity...
2016: ALTEX
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