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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#1
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190432/acute-neurotoxicology-of-drugs-of-abuse
#2
S J Traub, M D Levine
Many substances can affect the central nervous system, and may cause patients to become critically ill. Acute central neurotoxicologic syndromes associated with drugs of abuse are usually caused by an overdose of sedative-hypnotic agents (including alcohol) or opioids, withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic agents, or an overdose of anticholinergic or sympathomimetic agents. Clinical findings are often syndromic, making physical examination the most important diagnostic tool in the approach to the patient with an unknown ingestion...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174116/comparative-study-of-human-neuronal-and-glial-cell-sensitivity-for-in-vitro-neurogenotoxicity-testing
#3
Blanca Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Cell cultures from neuronal and glial origin have proven to be powerful tools for elucidating cellular and molecular mechanisms of nervous system development and physiology, and as neurotoxicity models to evaluate in vitro the possible effects of chemicals. But cellular heterogeneity of nervous system is considerable and these cells have been shown to respond diversely to neurotoxic insults, leading to disparate results from different studies. To shed more light on suitability of cellular models of nervous origin for neurotoxicity screening, the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity to genetic damage induction of two nervous cell lines...
February 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160021/are-multitasking-abilities-impaired-in-welders-exposed-to-manganese-translating-cognitive-neuroscience-to-neurotoxicology
#4
Christoph van Thriel, Clara Quetscher, Beate Pesch, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Swaantje Casjens, Tobias Weiss, Rainer Van Gelder, Katrin Plitzke, Thomas Brüning, Christian Beste
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element with well characterized neurotoxic effects in high concentrations. Neurochemically, the initial neurotoxic effect of Mn is the perturbation of striatal γ-aminobutyric acid levels. Specific tasks for the assessment of cognitive functions subserved by fronto-striatal loops are available as the stop-change task (SCT) assessing control of multi-component behavior and action cascading. In a cross-sectional study, fifty male welders and 28 age-matched controls completed the SCT during a whole day examination...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109771/assessment-of-learning-memory-and-attention-in-developmental-neurotoxicology-regulatory-testing-commentary-on-essentiality-of-cognitive-assessment-for-protecting-child-health
#5
Charles V Vorhees
This commentary is in response to the remarks of Drs. Christina Sobin, Mari Golub, and David Herr on the Special Issue of this Journal entitled "Assessment of Learning, Memory, and Attention in Developmental Neurotoxicology Regulatory Testing." I endorse the views expressed by Drs. Sobin, Golub, and Herr and add some discussion on a recent Organization on Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline, the Extended One Generation Reproductive Toxicology Guideline (OECD 446), in which testing for higher cognitive function (learning and memory) has been eliminated...
January 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108889/hg-and-se-exposure-in-brain-tissues-of-striped-dolphin-stenella-coeruleoalba-and-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-tyrrhenian-and-adriatic-seas
#6
Antonio Bellante, Fabio D'Agostino, Anna Traina, Daniela Piazzese, Maria Francesca Milazzo, Mario Sprovieri
In this study we analyzed Hg and Se concentrations in dolphin brain tissues of fifteen specimens of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and eight specimens of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas, in order to assess the toxicological risks associated with Hg exposure. High Hg concentrations were found in brain tissues of both analyzed specie (1.86-243 mg/kg dw for striped dolphin and 2.1-98.7 mg/kg dw for bottlenose dolphin), exceeding levels associated with marine mammals neurotoxicity...
January 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#7
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990605/profiling-of-selected-functional-metabolites-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-for-environmental-neurotoxicological-assessments
#8
Elva Ngai-Yu Lei, Man-Shan Yau, Chi-Chung Yeung, Margaret B Murphy, Ka-Leung Wong, Michael Hon-Wah Lam
The simultaneous profiling of 43 functional metabolites in the brain of the small model vertebrate organism, marine medaka (Oryzais melastigma), has been accomplished via dansyl chloride derivatization and LC-MS/MS quantification. This technique was applied to examine effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), one of the most abundant polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the natural environment, on the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. The model teleosts were fed with bioencapsulated Artemia nauplii for up to 21 days...
February 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990564/planarian-cholinesterase-in-vitro-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity-and-reactivation
#9
Danielle Hagstrom, Hideto Hirokawa, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D...
December 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883356/a-human-brain-microphysiological-system-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-study-neurological-diseases-and-toxicity
#10
David Pamies, Paula Barreras, Katharina Block, Georgia Makri, Anupama Kumar, Daphne Wiersma, Lenna Smirnova, Ce Zhang, Joseph Bressler, Kimberly M Christian, Georgina Harris, Guo-Li Ming, Cindy J Berlinicke, Kelly Kyro, Hongjun Song, Carlos A Pardo, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Human in-vitro models of brain neurophysiology are needed to investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurotoxicity. We have developed a reproducible iPSC-derived human 3D brain microphysiological system (BMPS), comprised of differentiated mature neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) that reproduce neuronal-glial interactions and connectivity. BMPS mature over eight weeks and show the critical elements of neuronal function: synaptogenesis and neuron-to-neuron (e...
November 24, 2016: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785753/phytanic-acid-induced-neurotoxicological-manifestations-and-apoptosis-ameliorated-by-mitochondria-mediated-actions-of-melatonin
#11
Shaista Chaudhary, Upasana Sahu, Sudeshna Kar, Suhel Parvez
Phytanic acid, a saturated branched chain fatty acid and a major constituent of human diet, is predominantly found in dairy products, meat, and fish. It is a degradation product from the phytol side chain of chlorophyll. Degradation of PA is known to occur mainly in peroxisomes via α-oxidation and in mitochondria via β-oxidation. Due to its β-methyl group present at the 3-position of the carbon atoms, PA cannot be β-oxidized. Although alteration in the metabolism of PA may play an important role in neurodegeneration, the exact mechanism behind it remains to be evaluated...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753008/neurotoxicology-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs
#12
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742467/electrophysiological-properties-of-neurons-derived-from-human-stem-cells-and-ineurons-in-vitro
#13
Robert F Halliwell
Functional studies of neurons have traditionally used nervous system tissues from a variety of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate species, even when the focus of much of this research has been directed at understanding human brain function. Over the last decade, the identification and isolation of human stem cells from embryonic, tissue (or adult) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the availability of human neurons for experimental studies in vitro. In addition, the direct conversion of terminally differentiated fibroblasts into Induced neurons (iN) has generated great excitement because of the likely value of such human stem cell derived neurons (hSCNs) and iN cells in drug discovery, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology and regenerative medicine...
October 11, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699601/generation-of-a-functional-human-neural-network-by-ndm29-overexpression-in-neuroblastoma-cancer-cells
#14
Susanna Alloisio, Patrizia Garbati, Federica Viti, Silvia Dante, Raffaella Barbieri, Giovanni Arnaldi, Alessia Petrelli, Arianna Gigoni, Paolo Giannoni, Rodolfo Quarto, Mario Nobile, Massimo Vassalli, Aldo Pagano
Recent advances in life sciences suggest that human and rodent cell responses to stimuli might differ significantly. In this context, the results achieved in neurotoxicology and biomedical research practices using neural networks obtained from mouse or rat primary culture of neurons would benefit of the parallel evaluation of the same parameters using fully differentiated neurons with a human genetic background, thus emphasizing the current need of neuronal cells with human origin. In this work, we developed a human functionally active neural network derived by human neuroblastoma cancer cells genetically engineered to overexpress NDM29, a non-coding RNA whose increased synthesis causes the differentiation toward a neuronal phenotype...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692542/neurotoxicology-of-aging-two-extreme-views-and-the-optimist-scientist-in-the-middle
#15
Joan M Cranmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678178/metal-nanoparticles-as-targeted-carriers-circumventing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#16
A C Sintov, C Velasco-Aguirre, E Gallardo-Toledo, E Araya, M J Kogan
Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as a carrier and a therapeutic agent in biomedical field because of their unique physiochemical properties. Due to these physicochemical properties, they can be used in different fields of biomedicine. In relation to this, plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for detection and photothermal destruction of tumor cells or toxic protein aggregates, and magnetic iron nanoparticles can be used for imaging and for hyperthermia of tumor cells. In addition, both therapy and imaging can be combined in one nanoparticle system, in a process called theranostics...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677079/effects-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-avermectin-exposure-on-alpha-synuclein-expression-and-proteasomal-activity-in-pigeons
#17
Ming Li, Shuo Zhou, Xian-Song Wang, Ci Liu, Shu Li
Avermectins (AVMs) are used worldwide in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Residues of avermectin drugs, causing toxicological effects on non-target organisms, have raised great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM on the expression levels of alpha synuclein (α-Syn) and proteasomal activity in pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that, the mRNA and protein levels of α-Syn increased in AVM treated groups relative to control groups in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574759/the-deterioration-seen-in-myelin-related-morphophysiology-in-vanadium-exposed-rats-is-partially-protected-by-concurrent-iron-deficiency
#18
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Dominque F Leitner, Elizabeth Neely, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Oligodendrocyte development and myelination occurs vigorously during the early post natal period which coincides with the period of peak mobilization of iron. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are easily disturbed by any agent that affects iron homeostasis and its assimilation into these cells. Environmental exposure to vanadium, a transition metal can disrupt this iron homeostasis. We investigated the interaction of iron deficiency and vanadium exposure on the myelination infrastructure and its related neurobehavioural phenotypes, and neurocellular profiles in developing rat brains...
August 30, 2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565891/arginine-decarboxylase-a-novel-biological-target-of-mercury-compounds-identified-in-pc12-cells
#19
Sufang Wang, Qiyan Lv, Yu Yang, Liang-Hong Guo, Bin Wan, Xiaomin Ren, Hui Zhang
Mercury compounds are well-known toxic environmental pollutants and potently induce severe neurotoxicological effects in human and experimental animals. Previous studies showed that one of the mechanisms of mercury compounds neurotoxicity arose from the over-activation of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor induced by increased glutamate release. In this work, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Hg compounds neurotoxicities by identifying their biological targets in cells...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519548/setting-evidence-based-occupational-exposure-limits-for-manganese
#20
Ruth Bevan, Lini Ashdown, Doreen McGough, Alicia Huici-Montagud, Leonard Levy
In 2004, a review by the Institute of Environment and Health (IEH) made recommendations on occupational exposure limits (OELs) for manganese and its inorganic compounds for inhalable and respirable fractions respectively. These OELs were based on a detailed comprehensive evaluation of all the scientific data available at that time. Since then, more published studies have become available and a number of occupational standard-setting committees (EU SCOEL, US ACGIH-TLV, and German MAK) have proposed OEL's for manganese and its inorganic compounds that are somewhat lower that those proposed in the 2004 review...
August 9, 2016: Neurotoxicology
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