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Neurotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751962/corrigendum-to-jp8-exposure-and-neurocognitive-performance-among-us-air-force-personnel-neurotoxicology-62-2017-170-180
#1
Kristin J Heaton, Alexis L Maule, Kristen W Smith, Ema G Rodrigues, Michael D McClean, Susan P Proctor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732485/role-of-melatonin-in-aluminum-related-neurodegenerative-disorders-a-review
#2
José L Esparza, Mercedes Gómez, José L Domingo
Aluminum (Al), a potentially neurotoxic element, provokes various adverse effects on human health such as dialysis dementia, osteomalacia, and microcytic anemia. It has been also associated with serious neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinsonism dementia of Guam. The "aluminum hypothesis" of AD assumes that the metal complexes can potentiate the rate of aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ), enhancing the toxicity of this peptide, and being able of contributing to the pathogenesis of AD...
May 7, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704628/42nd-annual-meeting-of-the-developmental-neurotoxicology-society-held-in-conjunction-with-the-58th-annual-meeting-of-the-teratology-society-hilton-clearwater-beach-resort-clearwater-beach-fl-june-23-27-2018
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669297/effects-of-apomorphine-a-dopamine-agonist-on-daphnia-magna-imaging-of-swimming-track-density-as-a-novel-tool-in-the-assessment-of-swimming-activity
#4
Adam Bownik, Natalia Sokołowska, Brygida Ślaska
Apomorphine (APO) is a non-selective agonist of dopamine receptor activating D2-like receptors. Although Daphnia has been used in neurotoxicology in toxicity testing, little is known on its behavioural and physiological responses to dopamine receptors ligands. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine swimming behaviour (swimming track density, speed, turning activity) and physiological parameters such as heart rate, thoracic limb activity and post-abdominal claw movement frequency in daphnids exposed for 1, 2 and 4h to concentrations of 0...
April 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559311/inhibition-of-o-linked-n-acetylglucosamine-transferase-activity-in-pc12-cells-a-molecular-mechanism-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-developmental-neurotoxicity
#5
Yuxin Gu, Yu Yang, Bin Wan, Minjie Li, Liang-Hong Guo
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), as alternatives of brominated flame retardants, can cause neurodevelopmental effects similar to organophosphate pesticides. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity remain elusive. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) regulates numerous neural processes through the O-GlcNAcylation modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms accounting for the developmental neurotoxicity of OPFRs by identifying potential targets of OPFRs and the attendant effects...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550512/c-elegans-as-a-model-in-developmental-neurotoxicology
#6
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Adi Pinkas, Mahfuzur R Miah, Rebecca L Weitz, Michael J A Lawes, Ayodele J Akinyemi, Omamuyovwi M Ijomone, Michael Aschner
Due to many advantages Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has become a preferred model of choice in many fields, including neurodevelopmental toxicity studies. This review discusses the benefits of using C. elegans as an alternative to mammalian systems and gives examples of the uses of the nematode in evaluating the effects of major known neurodevelopmental toxins, including manganese, mercury, lead, fluoride, arsenic and organophosphorus pesticides. Reviewed data indicates numerous similarities with mammals in response to these toxins...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494781/lead-pb-neurotoxicology-and-cognition
#7
Michael P Santa Maria, Benjamin D Hill, Joshua Kline
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic substance. While it is widely understood that Pb exposure in early childhood adversely impacts neurodevelopment and intelligence, other aspects of cognition that are negatively affected, and the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underlying Pb-related cognitive impairment are not widely appreciated by clinicians. This critical review gives a broad synopsis of the current literature in the field. The means by which Pb enters the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier, alters brain structure and function, and consequently impacts measurable aspects of cognition are reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430559/developmental-lead-and-or-prenatal-stress-exposures-followed-by-different-types-of-behavioral-experience-result-in-the-divergence-of-brain-epigenetic-profiles-in-a-sex-brain-region-and-time-dependent-manner-implications-for-neurotoxicology
#8
Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Marissa Sobolewski, G Varma, J S Schneider
Over a lifetime, early developmental exposures to neurocognitive risk factors, such as lead (Pb) exposures and prenatal stress (PS), will be followed by multiple varied behavioral experiences. Pb, PS and behavioral experience can each influence brain epigenetic profiles. Our recent studies show a greater level of complexity, however, as all three factors interact within each sex to generate differential adult variation in global post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), which may result in fundamentally different consequences for life-long learning and behavioral function...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313079/comprehensive-characterization-of-neurochemicals-in-three-zebrafish-chemical-models-of-human-acute-organophosphorus-poisoning-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Cristian Gómez-Canela, Daniel Tornero-Cañadas, Eva Prats, Benjamí Piña, Romà Tauler, Demetrio Raldúa
There is a growing interest in biological models to investigate the effect of neurotransmitter dysregulation on the structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) at different stages of development. Zebrafish, a vertebrate model increasingly used in neurobiology and neurotoxicology, shares the common neurotransmitter systems with mammals, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the multiresidue determination of neurotransmitters and related metabolites...
February 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286468/analysis-of-immune-cells-in-single-sciatic-nerves-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-from-a-single-mouse-using-flow-cytometry
#10
Asa S Hidmark, Peter P Nawroth, Thomas Fleming
Nerve-resident immune cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential to maintaining neuronal integrity in a healthy nerve. The immune cells of the PNS are affected by injury and disease, affecting the nerve function and the capacity for regeneration. Neuronal immune cells are commonly analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF). While IF is essential for determining the location of the immune cells in the nerve, IF is only semi-quantitative and the method is limited to the number of markers that can be analyzed simultaneously and the degree of surface expression...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247915/uncovering-neurodevelopmental-windows-of-susceptibility-to-manganese-exposure-using-dentine-microspatial-analyses
#11
Birgit Claus Henn, Christine Austin, Brent A Coull, Lourdes Schnaas, Chris Gennings, Megan K Horton, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila, Howard Hu, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Associations between manganese (Mn) and neurodevelopment may depend on dose and exposure timing, but most studies cannot measure exposure variability over time well. OBJECTIVE: We apply temporally informative tooth-matrix biomarkers to uncover windows of susceptibility in early life when Mn is associated with visual motor ability in childhood. We also explore effect modification by lead (Pb) and child sex. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the ELEMENT (Early Life Exposures in MExico and NeuroToxicology) longitudinal birth cohort studies...
February 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199887/the-inflammatory-response-to-silver-and-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Tianshu Wu, Meng Tang
Despite the increasing number of neurotoxicological studies on metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs), the NP-induced neuroinflammation has not yet been well understood. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of inflammatory responses to two typical metal-containing NPs, namely silver NPs (Ag-NPs) and titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2 -NPs). Ag-NPs and TiO2 -NPs could translocate into the CNS through damaged blood-brain barrier, nerve afferent signaling and eye-to-brain ways, and even cell uptake. NPs could stimulate the activation of glial cells to release proinflammatory cytokines and generate reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, resulting in the neuroinflammation...
January 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199130/the-neurological-toxicity-of-heavy-metals-a-fish-perspective
#13
Adrian J Green, Antonio Planchart
The causes of neurodegenerative diseases are complex with likely contributions from genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures over an organism's lifetime. In this review, we examine the role that aquatic models, especially zebrafish, have played in the elucidation of mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity and nervous system function over the last decade. Focus is applied to cadmium, lead, and mercury as significant contributors to central nervous system morbidity, and the application of numerous transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent reporters in specific neuronal populations or brain regions enabling high-resolution neurodevelopmental and neurotoxicology research...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167930/planarian-cholinesterase-molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity
#14
Danielle Hagstrom, Siqi Zhang, Alicia Ho, Eileen S Tsai, Zoran Radić, Aryo Jahromi, Kelson J Kaj, Yingtian He, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has emerged as a medium-throughput alternative animal model for neurotoxicology. We have previously shown that D. japonica are sensitive to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and characterized the in vitro inhibition profile of planarian cholinesterase (DjChE) activity using irreversible and reversible inhibitors. We found that DjChE has intermediate features of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Here, we identify two candidate genes (Djche1 and Djche2) responsible for DjChE activity...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163011/optimised-pdms-tunnel-devices-on-meas-increase-the-probability-of-detecting-electrical-activity-from-human-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-networks
#15
Maria Toivanen, Anssi Pelkonen, Meeri Mäkinen, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Lassi Sukki, Pasi Kallio, Mervi Ristola, Susanna Narkilahti
Measurement of the activity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neuronal networks with microelectrode arrays (MEAs) plays an important role in functional in vitro brain modelling and in neurotoxicological screening. The previously reported hPSC-derived neuronal networks do not, however, exhibit repeatable, stable functional network characteristics similar to rodent cortical cultures, making the interpretation of results difficult. In earlier studies, microtunnels have been used both to control and guide cell growth and amplify the axonal signals of rodent neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117435/overview-of-neurotoxicology
#16
Lucio G Costa
The nervous system has a central and primary function in the body, and its relevance and complexity make it a target for a large number of toxic substances. The most common forms of neurotoxicity are the death of neurons (neuronopathy), the degeneration of axons (axonopathy), damage to glial cells (e.g., myelinopathy), and interference with the axonal membrane or neurotransmission. Important neurotoxicants are found among pesticides, metals, solvents, natural substances, and industrial chemicals. Environmental chemicals may also contribute to the etiopathogenesis of neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114259/identification-of-splicing-quantitative-trait-loci-sqtl-in-drosophila-melanogaster-with-developmental-lead-pb-2-exposure
#17
Wen Qu, Katherine Gurdziel, Roger Pique-Regi, Douglas M Ruden
Lead (Pb) poisoning has been a major public health issue globally and the recent Flint water crisis has drawn nation-wide attention to its effects. To better understand how lead plays a role as a neurotoxin, we utilized the Drosophila melanogaster model to study the genetic effects of lead exposure during development and identified lead-responsive genes. In our previous studies, we have successfully identified hundreds of lead-responsive expression QTLs (eQTLs) by using RNA-seq analysis on heads collected from the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108800/nano-and-neurotoxicology-an-emerging-discipline
#18
REVIEW
Anna Bencsik, Philippe Lestaevel, Irina Guseva Canu
The present critical review analyzes the question of how nanoparticles from continuously growing industrial production and use of nanomaterials may impact human brain health. Available evidence suggests incomplete effectiveness of protective barriers of the brain against nanoparticles translocation to the brain. This raises concerns of potential effects of manufactured nanoparticles on brain functions, given that nanoparticle's potential to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, death by apoptosis, or changes in the level of expression of certain neurotransmitters...
January 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038777/the-abcd-study-of-neurodevelopment-identifying-neurocircuit-targets-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-adolescent-substance-abuse
#19
James M Bjork, Lisa K Straub, Rosellen G Provost, Michael C Neale
Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987169/neurotoxicology-and-drug-related-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Serge Weis, Andreas Büttner
Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by toxic substances pose a great diagnostic challenge due to the large variety of changes caused in the central and peripheral nervous system. The pathogenetic mechanisms at work are multifaceted and partly not solved. In human drug abusers (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and "designer drugs"), a broad spectrum of central nervous system alterations are observed including infarction, intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy, infections, neuronal loss, specific astroglial and microglial reaction patterns, and vascular changes, including the endothelial cell as well as the basal lamina...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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