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Human exertion testing

Diana Wesselinova, Emilia D Naydenova, S Staykova, I G Goshev, L Vezenkov
BACKGROUND: Based on the structure of RC-121 (D-Phe-c (Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys)-Thr-NH2, - synthetic derivatives of somatostatin), some analogs were synthesized and tested for in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. OBJECTIVES: The new analogs were modifyed at position 5 with Dap (diaminopropanoic acid), Dab (diaminobutanoic acid) and Orn and at position 6 with the unnatural amino acids Tle (t-leucine). METHODS: The in vitro cytotoxic effects of the substances were investigated against a panel of human tumor cell lines HT-29 (human colorectal cancer cell line), MDA-MB-23 (human breast cancer cell line), Hep G-2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) and HeLa (cervical cancer cell line)...
April 17, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Guo-Qiang Zhang, Yong-Kang Tao, Yong-Ping Bai, Sheng-Tao Yan, Shui-Ping Zhao
Background: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced oxidative stress and endothelial apoptosis are essential for atherosclerosis. Our previous study has shown that ox-LDL-induced apoptosis is mediated by the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α-subunit (eIF2α)/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in endothelial cells. Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that exert pleiotropic effects including suppression of oxidative stress...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Elizabeth R Smith, Sophia H George, Erin Kobetz, Xiang-Xi Xu
The development of the Papanicolaou smear test by Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962) is one of the most significant achievements in screening for disease and cancer prevention in history. The Papanicolaou smear has been used for screening of cervical cancer since the 1950s. The test is technically straightforward and practical and based on a simple scientific observation: malignant cells have an aberrant nuclear morphology that can be distinguished from benign cells. Here, we review the scientific understanding that has been achieved and continues to be made on the causes and consequences of abnormal nuclear morphology, the basis of Dr...
April 16, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Dima A Sabbah, Fatima Al-Tarawneh, Wamidh H Talib, Kamal Sweidan, Sanaa K Bardaweel, Eveen Al-Shalabi, Haizhen A Zhong, Ghassan Abu Sheikha, Reema Abu Khalaf, Mohammad S Mubarak
BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase α (PI3Kα) is an attractive target for anticancer drug design. OBJECTIVES: Target compounds were designed to probe the significance of alcohol and imine moieties tailored on a benzoin scaffold to better understand the structure activity relation (SAR) and improve their biological activity as anticancer compounds. METHODS: Chemical synthesis of the targeted compounds, biological evaluation tests against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and breast carcinoma (T47D) cell lines, as well as Glide docking studies were employed in this investigation...
April 12, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Livia Tomova, Luiz Pessoa
Humans frequently make choices that involve risk for health and well-being. At the same time, information about others' choices is omnipresent due to new forms of social media and information technology. However, while past research has shown that peers can exert a strong influence on such risky choices, understanding how information about risky decisions of others affects one's own risky decisions is still lacking. We therefore developed a behavioral task to measure how information about peer choices affects risky decision-making and call it the social Balloon Analogue Risk Task (sBART)...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paula Lopez-Gamundi, Margaret C Wardle
Research in animals suggests that decisions about physical versus cognitive effort have distinct neural bases, but exploration of this question in humans is hampered by lack of parallel measures of physical and cognitive effort for rewards. We developed a novel measure of willingness to exert cognitive effort for rewards, the C-EEfRT, paralleling the validated physical effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). To validate the C-EEfRT we: (a) tested whether EEfRT and C-EEfRT tasks were equivalently difficult; (b) tested whether decisions on the EEfRT and C-EEfRT were equivalently responsive to changes in reward; (c) examined relationships between the C-EEfRT and anhedonia, intelligence, and working memory...
April 5, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Patricia Luiza Nunes da Costa, David Wynne, Theodora Fifis, Linh Nguyen, Marcos Perini, Christopher Christophi
BACKGROUND: The Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) has been found to play a role in tumor progression in several cancers. The KKS metabolic cascade depends on signalling through two cross talking receptors; bradykinin receptor 1 (B1R) and bradykinin receptor 2 (B2R). Activation of the Kinin receptor is responsible for multiple pathophysiologic functions including increase of vascular permeability and induction of host inflammatory responses that exert diverse effects on tumor growth. METHODS: B1R and B2R expression on mouse and human CRC cell lines was investigated...
April 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Bo Ma, Lan Yang, Ruihua Jing, Jie Liu, Yumeng Quan, Qiaoyan Hui, Jingming Li, Li Qin, Cheng Pei
The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in vitro and in vivo. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to test the IL-6-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), the extracellular matrix (ECM) markers fibronectin (Fn) and type I collagen (COL-1), transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2 ), and the activation and role of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs)...
April 1, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jinduo Zhang, Gang Su, Zengwei Tang, Li Wang, Wenkang Fu, Sheng Zhao, Yongjiang Ba, Bing Bai, Ping Yue, Yanyan Lin, Zhongtian Bai, Jinjing Hu, Wenbo Meng, Liang Qiao, Xun Li, Xiaodong Xie
Curcumol is the major component extracted from root of Rhizoma Curcumae . Recent studies have shown that curcumol exerts therapeutic effects against multiple conditions, particularly cancers. However, the therapeutic role and mechanism of curcumol against cholangiocarcinoma cells are still unclear. In our current research, we tested the effect of curcumol in cholangiocarcinoma cells, and using two-dimensional electrophoresis, proteomics and bioinformatics, we identified cyclin-dependent kinase like 3 (CDKL3) as a potential target for curcumol...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Paulina D Anindita, Michihito Sasaki, Kazuma Okada, Naoto Ito, Makoto Sugiyama, Noriko Saito-Tarashima, Noriaki Minakawa, Satoshi Shuto, Satoko Otsuguro, Satoshi Ichikawa, Akira Matsuda, Katsumi Maenaka, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Rabies remains an invariably fatal neurological disease despite the availability of a preventive vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis that must be immediately administered to the exposed individual before symptom onset. There is no effective medication for treatment during the symptomatic phase. Ribavirin, a guanine nucleoside analog, is a potent inhibitor of rabies virus (RABV) replication in vitro but lacks clinical efficacy. Therefore, we attempted to identify potential ribavirin analogs with comparable or superior anti-RABV activity...
March 27, 2018: Antiviral Research
Anca Macovei, Andrea Pagano, Maria Elisa Sabatini, Sofia Grandi, Alma Balestrazzi
The hTdp1 (human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1) inhibitor NSC120686 has been used, along with topoisomerase inhibitors, as a pharmacophoric model to restrain the Tdp1 activity as part of a synergistic treatment for cancer. While this compound has an end-point application in medical research, in plants, its application has not been considered so far. The originality of our study consists in the use of hTdp1 inhibitor in Medicago truncatula cells, which, unlike human cells, contain two Tdp1 genes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to test the hTdp1 inhibitor NSC120686 as an exploratory tool to investigate the plant Tdp1 genes, since their characterization is still in incipient phases...
March 28, 2018: Genes
Chen Deying, Hu Ge, Zhou Chuanjian, Ge Jianhua, Wu Junling
OBJECTIVE: This investigation aimed to develop a novel antibacterial dental adhesive containing nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers and measure the dentin bonding strength, mechanical properties, and antibacterial property of the novel adhesive in vitro. METHODS: Novel nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers containing quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl were synthesized on the basis of previous research. These novel nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers were added into the dental adhesive to prepare novel nanoantibacterial dental resin composite at mass fractions of 0%, 2...
February 1, 2018: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
M Madalena C Sobral, Miguel A Faria, Sara C Cunha, Isabel M P L V O Ferreira
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are toxic fungal metabolites co-occurring naturally in the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicological interactions of these mycotoxins concerning additive, antagonistic and synergistic toxicity towards human cells. The theoretical biology-based Combination index-isobologram method was used to evaluate the individual and binary effect of these toxins and determine the type of the interaction using as models Caco-2 (intestinal) and HepG2 (hepatic) cells...
March 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Bernadetta Lis, Dariusz Jędrejek, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas
Aerial parts and roots of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) have been found to be rich sources of polyphenols, including cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and triterpenoids, which exert different biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimicrobial. Additionally, the whole plant is recognized as safe and well tolerated by humans, with no reported adverse effects. Nowadays, dandelion is a commonly available dietary supplement and a component of pharmaceutical preparations used for the treatment of bladder, liver, and spleen...
May 2018: Food Research International
Gang Cai, Qing Zhu, Liqun Yuan, Qing Lan
It has been certified that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial regulators in the progression of various human cancers. snoRNA host gene 6 (SNHG6) has been uncovered to affect the initial stage and tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Nevertheless, the expression pattern and biological role of SNHG6 in glioma still need to be investigated. The study aims to investigate the expression pattern, biological role and the potential mechanism of SNHG6 in glioma. In this study, the high expression of SNHG6 was tested in both glioma tissues and glioma cells...
March 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yang Mu, Tai-Lang Yin, Lu Yin, Xue Hu, Jing Yang
Recent studies have suggested a role for abdominal obesity in male infertility. Previous studies have found that cell apoptosis exerts an important role in obesity-related male infertility. C1q/TNF-related protein 3 (CTRP3), a paralog of adiponectin, has been proposed to exert anti-apoptotic effects and to attenuate diabetes-related cardiac injuries. However, the role of CTRP3 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced spermatogenic impairment remains unclear. In the present study, we fed male mice a HFD for 24 weeks to induce obesity...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Elliot G Neal, Sandra A Acosta, Yuji Kaneko, Xunming Ji, Cesario V Borlongan
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs ) may exert a neuroprotective effect on ischemic stroke by inhibiting both inflammation and effector T-cell activation. Transplantation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) in ischemic stroke affords neuroprotection that results in part from the cells' anti-inflammatory property. However, the relationship between Tregs and BMSCs in treatment of ischemic stroke has not been fully elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Tregs within the BMSCs represent active mediators of immunomodulation and neuroprotection in experimental stroke...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Humphrey H T Ko, Ricky R Lareu, Brett R Dix, Jeffery D Hughes
With financial considerations impeding research and development of new antibiotics, drug repurposing (finding new indications for old drugs) emerges as a feasible alternative. Statins are extensively prescribed around the world to lower cholesterol, but they also possess inherent antimicrobial properties. This study identifies statins with the greatest potential to be repurposed as topical antibiotics and postulates a mechanism of action for statins' antibacterial activity. Using broth microdilution, the direct antibacterial effects of all seven parent statins currently registered for human use and three selected statin metabolites were tested against bacterial skin pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Yaming Ge, Lingli Chen, Zhihong Yin, Xiaochao Song, Tao Ruan, Liushuai Hua, Junwei Liu, Jundong Wang, Hongmei Ning
Fluoride (F) exposure causes cognitive dysfunction in humans and animals. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which fluoride exerts its neurotoxic effects are poorly understood. In this study, an animal model of fluoride exposure was created by providing ICR mice were treated with vehicle F at a dose of 0 (control group), 50 (low-fluoride group) or 100 mg/L (high-fluoride group) in water for one month. After the mice mated, parents and offspring were treated and maintained under these conditions...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Meixian Xiang, Li Wu, Hanwen Su, Bing Han, Huanxiang Liu, Xincai Xiao, Xian Yin, Ya Fan, Lang Zhang, Yuying Huang, Lei Zhao, Guangzhong Yang
Allergic rhinitis (AR), one of the common diseases of the upper respiratory system, is associated with high risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Biyuanling Granules (BLG), a formulated preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in China for treatment of AR for more than a decade; however, its exact action against allergic rhinitis and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In this study, we studied the effects of BLG on allergic rhinitis induced by toluene-2, 4- diisocyanate (TDI) in guinea pigs...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
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