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Human exertion testing

Emily Medlin Martin, Kristen M Messenger, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones
Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP) receptors 2 and 4...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Shinya Okubo, Takuhiro Uto, Aya Goto, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Nishioku, Katsushi Yamada, Yukihiro Shoyama
Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid, is a well-known bioactive compound contained in medicinal plants used in traditional and folk medicines. In this study, we investigated the subcellular localization and the apoptotic mechanisms of BBR were elucidated. First, we confirmed the incorporation of BBR into the cell visually. BBR showed antiproliferative activity and promptly localized to the nucleus from 5[Formula: see text]min to 15[Formula: see text]min after BBR treatment in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Li Yin, Dan Huang, Xinxin Liu, Yongshun Wang, Jingjin Liu, Fang Liu, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as an extremely promising therapeutic agent for tissue repair. However, limitations exist such as the low numbers of MSCs obtained from donors, and the poor survival and function of donor cells. Omentin-1, a new fat depot-specific secretory adipokine, exerts proproliferation, prosurvival, and proangiogenic functions in certain cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism; however, little is known about the influence of omentin-1 on MSCs. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from 60-80 g donor rats...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Eduardo Lattari, Bruno Soares de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho Oliveira, Rodrigo Cunha de Mello Pedreiro, Sérgio Machado, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão Neto
The limiting factors of maximum performance in humans have been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the acute effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on time limit (i.e., the time by which an individual is able to sustain a certain intensity of effort) at 100% of peak power (tlim@100%PP) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Eleven moderately active women underwent an anthropometric evaluation and a maximal incremental test in the cycle ergometer, in order to obtain peak power (PP)...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Susanne Homann, Maria Grandoch, Lena S Kiene, Yanina Podsvyadek, Kathrin Feldmann, Berit Rabausch, Nadine Nagy, Stefan Lehr, Inga Kretschmer, Alexander Oberhuber, Paul Bollyky, Jens W Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Hyaluronan (HA) is a prominent component of the provisional extracellular matrix (ECM) present in the neointima of atherosclerotic plaques. Here the role of HA synthase 3 (HAS3) in atheroprogression was studied. APPROACH AND RESULTS: It is demonstrated here that HAS isoenzymes 1, -2 and -3 are expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery. In Apolipoprotein E (Apoe)-deficient mice Has3 expression is increased early during lesion formation when macrophages enter atherosclerotic plaques...
October 5, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Danielle Tilmanis, Carel van Baalen, Ding Yuan Oh, Jean-Francois Rossignol, Aeron C Hurt
Nitazoxanide is a thiazolide compound that was originally developed as an anti-parasitic agent, but has recently been repurposed for the treatment of influenza virus infections. Thought to exert its anti-influenza activity via the inhibition of hemagglutinin maturation and intracellular trafficking in infected cells, the effectiveness of nitazoxanide in treating patients with non-complicated influenza is currently being assessed in phase III clinical trials. Here, we describe the susceptibility of 210 seasonal influenza viruses to tizoxanide, the active circulating metabolite of nitazoxanide...
October 3, 2017: Antiviral Research
E Anagnostou, P Koutsoudaki, A Stavropoulos, I Evdokimidis
OBJECTIVE: It has long been suggested that antivertiginous medications exert their symptomatic effect through inhibition of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). We tested this hypothesis by directly measuring the VOR after administration of three agents from different substance classes: an antihistamine, a benzodiazepine and a calcium channel antagonist. METHODS: The gain and the variability of the high velocity VOR was assessed using video head impulses (vHIT) under the following conditions: baseline, after dimenhydrinate, after diazepam and after cinnarizine...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Elena Coccia, Isabel Calleja-Yagüe, Laura Planells-Ferrer, Blanca Sanuy, Belen Sanz, Joaquin López-Soriano, Rana S Moubarak, Francina Munell, Bruna Barneda-Zahonero, Joan X Comella, M Jose Pérez-García
Fas Apoptosis Inhibitory Molecule (FAIM) is an evolutionarily highly conserved death receptor antagonist, widely expressed and known to participate in physiological and pathological processes. Two FAIM transcript variants have been characterized to date, namely FAIM short (FAIM-S) and FAIM long (FAIM-L). FAIM-S is ubiquitously expressed and serves as an anti-apoptotic protein in the immune system. Furthermore, in neurons, this isoform promotes NGF-induced neurite outgrowth through NF-кB and ERK signaling. In contrast FAIM-L is found only in neurons, where it exerts anti-apoptotic activity against several stimuli...
2017: PloS One
Bryon A Tompkins, Darcy L DiFede, Aisha Khan, Ana Marie Landin, Ivonne Hernandez Schulman, Marietsy V Pujol, Alan W Heldman, Roberto Miki, Pascal J Goldschmidt-Clermont, Bradley J Goldstein, Muzammil Mushtaq, Silvina Levis-Dusseau, John J Byrnes, Maureen Lowery, Makoto Natsumeda, Cindy Delgado, Russell Saltzman, Mayra Vidro-Casiano, Moisaniel Da Fonseca, Samuel Golpanian, Courtney Premer, Audrey Medina, Krystalenia Valasaki, Victoria Florea, Erica Anderson, Jill El-Khorazaty, Adam Mendizabal, Geoff Green, Anthony A Oliva, Joshua M Hare
Background: Aging frailty, characterized by decreased physical and immunological functioning, is associated with stem cell depletion. Human allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (allo-hMSCs) exert immunomodulatory effects and promote tissue repair. Methods: This is a randomized, double-blinded, dose-finding study of intravenous allo-hMSCs (100 or 200-million [M]) vs placebo delivered to patients (n = 30, mean age 75.5 ± 7.3) with frailty. The primary endpoint was incidence of treatment-emergent serious adverse events (TE-SAEs) at 1-month postinfusion...
July 17, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Matthew M Mallette, Desmond G Stewart, Stephen S Cheung
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise performance can be limited by arterial hypoxemia, such that hyperoxia may be an ergogenic aid by increasing tissue oxygen availability. Hyperoxia during a single bout of exercise performance has been examined using many test modalities, including time trials (TTs), time to exhaustion (TTE), graded exercise tests (GXTs), and dynamic muscle function tests. Hyperoxia has also been used as a long-term training stimulus or a recovery intervention between bouts of exercise...
October 3, 2017: Sports Medicine
Agnieszka Kwiatkowska-Stenzel, Dorota Witkowska, Janina Sowińska, Artur Stopyra
The choice of bedding material affects the quality of air in a stable and, consequently, the respiratory health of horses and humans. The risk of respiratory problems can be mitigated by improving the quality of air in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions where horses are kept indoors throughout the year. This study examined the impact of three bedding materials: straw (S), peat with shavings (PS), and crushed wood pellets (CWP). The investigated factors were air contamination, including dust contamination and microbial (bacterial and fungal) contamination, and the condition of the equine respiratory tract...
September 25, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Enni-Kaisa Mustonen, Tiina Palomäki, Markku Pasanen
Antisense oligonucleotides, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and aptamers are oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals with a promising role in targeted therapies. Currently, five oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals have achieved marketing authorization in Europe or USA and many more are undergoing clinical testing. However, several safety concerns have been raised in non-clinical and clinical studies. Oligonucleotides share properties with both chemical and biological pharmaceuticals and therefore they pose challenges also from the regulatory point of view...
September 29, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ludovica Taglieri, Giovanna Rubinacci, Anna Giuffrida, Simone Carradori, Susanna Scarpa
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and its current chemotherapeutic options are limited to temozolomide. Recently, some synthetic compounds acting as inhibitors of kinesin spindle protein Eg5 have shown pronounced antitumor activity. Our group has recently demonstrated that one of these kinesin Eg5 inhibitors, named K858, exerted important antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on breast cancer cells. Since glioblastoma cells usually express high levels of kinesin Eg5, we tested the effect of K858 on two human glioblastoma cell lines (U-251 and U-87) and found that K858 inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inhibited migration in both cell lines...
September 30, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
Paola Cafforio, Luigi Viggiano, Francesco Mannavola, Eleonora Pellè, Concetta Caporusso, Eugenio Maiorano, Claudia Felici, Francesco Silvestris
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSCs) are favorably regarded in anti-cancer cytotherapies for their spontaneous chemotaxis toward inflammatory and tumor environments associated with an intrinsic cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Placenta-derived or TRAIL-engineered adipose MSCs have been shown to exert anti-tumor activity in both in-vitro and in-vivo models of multiple myeloma (MM) while TRAIL-transduced umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs appear efficient inducers of apoptosis in a few solid tumors...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mohamed Tarek Moustafa, Claudio Ramirez, Kevin Schneider, Shari R Atilano, Gloria Astrid Limb, Baruch D Kuppermann, Maria Cristina Kenney
PURPOSE: Memantine (MEM) acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. The role that MEM plays in protecting retinal cells is unknown. Hydroquinone (HQ) is one of the cytotoxic components in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we tested whether pretreatment with MEM could protect against the cytotoxic effects of HQ on human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) and human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1) in vitro. METHODS: Cells were plated, pretreated for 6 h with 30 μM of MEM, and then exposed for 24 h to 200, 100, 50, and 25 μM of HQ while MEM was still present...
October 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Kaisa Rajakylä, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Sari Tojkander
Cancer cells are surrounded by a mechanically and biochemically distinct microenvironment that undergoes dynamic changes throughout the neoplastic progression. During this progression, some cancer cells acquire abnormal characteristics that potentiate their escape from the primary tumor site, to establish secondary tumors in distant organs. Recent studies with several human cancer cell lines have shown that the altered physical properties of tumor cells, such as their ability to apply high traction forces to the surroundings, are directly linked with their potential to invade and metastasize...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Alessandro Benedetto, Claudia Bocca, Paola Brizio, Stefania Cannito, Maria Cesarina Abete, Stefania Squadrone
Human HT-29 and HepG2 cell lines were employed to test the effects of increasing concentrations of two rare earth elements (REEs), namely cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La), alone or in combination. Effects on cell proliferation were measured using MTT assay, luciferase-based assays and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, while cell mortality and type of cell death was determined by Annexin V-FTC test using flow cytometry. Modulation of 84 genes involved in oxidative stress pathways was also studied using RT-PCR based arrays...
September 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Jun Wu, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Huang, Wenmin Han
This study aimed to examine the effects of active task-related fatigue induced by maximal exercise on human cognitive and motor systems. To achieve the goal, we measured participants' activation changes in their prefrontal and motor cortices while performing an incremental cycling task using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The participant's task was to ride a test bike to maximal exertion twice within 2 days in a low-load and a high-load condition, respectively. The behavioral data showed longer cycling time in the low-load condition than that in the high-load condition...
September 25, 2017: Neuroreport
Yi Chang, Wen-Hsien Hsu, Wen-Bin Yang, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Tzu-Yin Lee, Joen-Rong Sheu, Wan-Jung Lu, Jiun-Yi Li
Antiplatelet agents have considerable benefits in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases; however, these agents still have substantial limitations due to their severe side-effects. In this study, the antiplatelet activity of three newly synthesized saccharide based benzimidazole derivatives, M3BIM, Malto-BIM and Melibio-BIM, in collagen and thrombin-stimulated human platelets in vitro was examined. Among the compounds tested, only compound M3BIM exerted concentration (20-60 µM)-dependent inhibitory effects against collagen (1 µg/ml) and thrombin (0...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Han Gil Seo, Youbin Yi, Byung-Mo Oh, Nam-Jong Paik
Objectives Recent evidence shows that stem cells exert neuroprotective effect through the secretion of immune modulatory, neurotrophic factors. We aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of selected recombinant factors (RFs) detected in human adipose stem cell (hASC)-conditioned medium (CM), in a rat ischemic stroke model. Methods Ischemic stroke was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using 2 h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One hour after reperfusion, the vehicle (Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; DMEM), concentrated CM, and selected RFs mixed with DMEM were administered intracerebroventricularly to each group (N = 14, 15, and 16, respectively)...
September 26, 2017: Neurological Research
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