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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445355/plasma-levels-of-myonectin-but-not-myostatin-or-fibroblast-derived-growth-factor-21-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-adult-humans-without-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Freddy J K Toloza, Jose O Mantilla-Rivas, Maria C Pérez-Matos, Maria L Ricardo-Silgado, Martha C Morales-Alvarez, Jairo A Pinzón-Cortés, Maritza Pérez-Mayorga, Martha L Arévalo-Garcia, Giovanni Tolosa-González, Carlos O Mendivil
Background: Myokines are a group of protein mediators produced by skeletal muscle under stress or physical exertion. Even though their discovery and effects in cell culture and animal models of disease have elicited great enthusiasm, very little is known about their role in human metabolism. We assessed whether plasma concentrations of three known myokines [myonectin, myostatin, and fibroblast-derived growth factor 21 (FGF-21)] would be associated with direct and indirect indicators of insulin resistance (IR) in individuals who did not have a diagnosis of diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441873/microrna-190b-inhibits-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-by-regulating-bcl-2-in-u2os-osteosarcoma-cells
#2
Mingyang Kang, Peng Xia, Tingting Hou, Zhiping Qi, Shaojun Liao, Xiaoyu Yang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most prevalent malignancies in bone with no established therapy so far. This study was aimed to clarify the role of miR-190b in tumor cell growth of OS. The miR-190b mimic, inhibitor and miR-control were transfected into human OS U2OS cells. Then U2OS cell proliferation was tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. The apoptotic U2OS cells were detected by flow cytometry. Additionally, cell-cycle regulators p27, p21 and apoptosis factors B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X (Bax), caspase-3 were examined by western blotting...
May 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432934/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-from-the-lung-to-the-heart
#3
Ivan Curjuric, Medea Imboden, Robert Bettschart, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Marco Pons, Thomas Rothe, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Daiana Stolz, Gian Andri Thun, Arnold von Eckardstein, Florian Kronenberg, Ilaria Ferrarotti, Nicole M Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in human blood and exerts important anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects. In combination with smoking or other long-term noxious exposures such as occupational dust and fumes, genetic A1AT deficiency can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a condition with elevated cardiovascular risk. The effects of A1AT deficiency on cardiovascular risk have hardly been studied today. METHODS: Using data from 2614 adults from the population-based SAPALDIA cohort, we tested associations of serum A1AT and SERPINA1 mutations with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, measured by B-mode ultrasonography) or self-reported arterial hypertension or cardiovascular disease in multiple regression models using a Mendelian Randomization like analysis design...
January 31, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428530/rotenone-exerts-developmental-neurotoxicity-in-a-human-brain-spheroid-model
#4
David Pamies, Katharina Block, Pierre Lau, Laura Gribaldo, Carlos Pardo, Paula Barreras, Lena Smirnova, Daphne Wiersma, Liang Zhao, Georgina Harris, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Growing concern suggests that some chemicals exert (developmental) neurotoxicity (DNT and NT) and are linked to the increase in incidence of autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. The high cost of routine tests for DNT and neurotoxicity (NT) assessment make it difficult to test the high numbers of existing chemicals. Thus, more cost effective neurodevelopmental models are needed. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in combination with the emerging human 3D tissue culture platforms, present a novel tool to predicting and study human toxicity...
February 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425588/saponins-isolated-from-schizocapsa-plantaginea-inhibit-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-growth-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-via-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling
#5
Yue-Wen Sun, Han-Chen Qiu, Ming-Chun Ou, Run-Li Chen, Gang Liang
The underground cane of Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) has long been used by Chinese ethnic minority as a constituent of anti-cancer formulae. Saponins are abundant secondary metabolic products located in the underground cane of this plant. The potential therapeutic effects of total saponins isolated from Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) (SSPH) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were tested in vitro in human liver cancer cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7404. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined using flow cytometry, caspase activation was determined by ELISA, and PARP, cleaved PARP, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression and phosphorylation were measured using Western blotting analysis...
January 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419813/biodegradable-and-biocompatible-polyhydroxy-alkanoates-pha-auspicious-microbial-macromolecules-for-pharmaceutical-and-therapeutic-applications
#6
REVIEW
Martin Koller
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are bio-based microbial biopolyesters; their stiffness, elasticity, crystallinity and degradability are tunable by the monomeric composition, selection of microbial production strain, substrates, process parameters during production, and post-synthetic processing; they display biological alternatives for diverse technomers of petrochemical origin. This, together with the fact that their monomeric and oligomeric in vivo degradation products do not exert any toxic or elsewhere negative effect to living cells or tissue of humans or animals, makes them highly stimulating for various applications in the medical field...
February 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417230/identification-of-megakaryocytes-as-a-target-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-diabetic-complications-in-bone-marrow
#7
Benfang Wang, Jianjiang Yu, Ting Wang, Ying Shen, Dandan Lin, Xin Xu, Yiqiang Wang
AIMS: To define the possible effect of diabetic conditions on megakaryocytes, the long-know precursors of platelets and lately characterized modulator of hematopoietic stem quiescence-activation transition. METHODS: Megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cell culture and TPO/SCF/IL-3-induced differentiation of human umbilical blood mononuclear cells toward megakaryocytes were used to test effects of glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA-AGEs). The ob/ob mice and streptozotocin-treated mice were used as models of hyperglycemia...
February 8, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413100/interaction-between-iodine-and-glucosinolates-in-rutabaga-sprouts-and-selected-biomarkers-of-thyroid-function-in-male-rats
#8
Paweł Paśko, Krzysztof Okoń, Mirosław Krośniak, Ewelina Prochownik, Paweł Żmudzki, Jadwiga Kryczyk-Kozioł, Paweł Zagrodzki
Rutabaga sprouts belong to the Brassicaceae family and may exert a negative influence on thyroid function, because they are a rich in glucosinolates. These sprouts are also valuable source of iodine (6.5 ± 0.6 μg/100 g of fresh weight). Sprouts were tested in a long-term experiment with young male rats as an element of their diet, combined with two models of hypothyroidism, the first - deficit of iodine and the second - sulfadimethoxine ingestion as a pharmacological agent caused inhibition of thyroid peroxidase...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407821/a-human-exposure-based-mixture-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-affects-the-stress-response-in-female-mice-and-their-offspring
#9
Alexandra M Hudecova, Kristine E A Hansen, Siddhartha Mandal, Hanne F Berntsen, Abdolrahman Khezri, Tracy L Bale, Thomas W K Fraser, Karin E Zimmer, Erik Ropstad
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are found in the food chain of both humans and animals and exert a wide spectrum of potentially adverse effects. The present experiment aimed to investigate whether a defined mixture of 29 POPs, based on the dietary intake of Scandinavians, could affect the stress response in female mice exposed through ingestion, and in their offspring. Female mice 129:C57BL/6F0 hybrids were exposed from weaning, throughout pregnancy, and up until necropsy, to either 5000 × or 100 000 × the estimated daily intake for Scandinavians...
January 18, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399116/extraction-of-flavonoids-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-and-antitumor-activity-in-vitro
#10
Ying-Hui Liu, Xin Mou, Di-Yi Zhou, Dan-Yang Zhou, Cheng-Min Shou
The aim of the present study was to optimize flavonoid extraction from Chrysanthemum morifolium and to study the antitumor effects of flavonoids on human gastric cancer MKN45 cells in vitro. A single factor experiment was designed and the extraction process was optimized using an orthogonal test. MKN45 cells were treated with different concentrations of flavonoid from Chrysanthemum morifolium for 24 and 48 h and the inhibitory effect on the MKN45 cells was evaluated using an MTT assay. Following staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide, flow cytometry was performed...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392209/methylphenidate-attenuates-the-response-to-cold-pain-but-not-to-aversive-auditory-stimuli-in-healthy-human-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Dorit Pud, Eelena Broitman, Omar Hameed, Erica Suzan, Joshua Aviram, May Haddad, Salim Hadad, Rafi Shemesh, Elon Eisenberg
Introduction: We recently showed that the psycho-stimulant norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MP) prolonged cold pain threshold and tolerance in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to: (1) examine whether MP has antinociceptive properties in healthy men; (2) test MP's effects on responses to aversive auditory stimuli. The underlying aim was to determine whether MP exerts antinociceptive properties or more generalized, nonspecific attenuating effects on different aversive sensory modalities...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387392/effect-of-recombinant-human-prourokinase-on-thrombolysis-in-a-rabbit-model-of-thromboembolic-stroke
#12
Chunhua Hao, Wenxia Ding, Xiangwei Xu, Qian Sun, Xinxin Li, Weiting Wang, Zhuanyou Zhao, Lida Tang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of recombinant human prourokinase (rhPro-UK) on thromboembolic stroke in rabbits. A total of 210 rabbits were used in experiments. The 180 thromboembolic stroke rabbits were divided into three therapeutic time windows with six groups in each time window (n=10). The model group was administered saline, the reagent groups were administered rhPro-UK (2.5×, 5× and 10×104 U/kg), and the positive control groups were administered 5×104 urokinase (UK) U/kg and 4...
January 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382825/ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-rescues-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-a-triple-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-exerting-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects
#13
Caterina Scuderi, Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Roberta Facchinetti, Lorenzo Pace, Luca Ferraro, Kevin Donald Broad, Gaetano Serviddio, Francesco Bellanti, Gianmauro Palombelli, Giulia Carpinelli, Rossella Canese, Silvana Gaetani, Luca Steardo, Luca Steardo, Tommaso Cassano
In an aging society, Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts an increasingly serious health and economic burden. Current treatments provide inadequate symptomatic relief as several distinct pathological processes are thought to underlie the decline of cognitive and neural function seen in AD. This suggests that the efficacy of treatment requires a multitargeted approach. In this context, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) provides a novel potential adjunct therapy that can be incorporated into a multitargeted treatment strategy...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381751/molecular-mechanism-of-inhibitory-effects-of-bovine-lactoferrin-on-the-growth-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Chanbora Chea, Mutsumi Miyauchi, Toshihiro Inubushi, Nurina Febriyanti Ayuningtyas, Ajiravudh Subarnbhesaj, Phuong Thao Nguyen, Madhu Shrestha, Sivmeng Haing, Kouji Ohta, Takashi Takata
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin (LF), a member of the transferrin family, recently has been demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of its effects on OSCC. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of the suppressive effects of bovine LF (bLF) on the growth of OSCC cells. METHODS: In the current study, HSC2, HSC3, HSC4 and normal human oral keratinocytes (RT7) cell lines were tested with bLF 1, 10, and 100 μg/ml...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373982/secoisolariciresinol-diglucoside-is-a-blood-brain-barrier-protective-and-anti-inflammatory-agent-implications-for-neuroinflammation
#15
Slava Rom, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Nancy L Reichenbach, Michelle A Erickson, Malika Winfield, Sachin Gajghate, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Kelly L Jordan-Sciutto, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in flaxseed, is known for its beneficial effects in inflammation, oxidative stress, heart disease, tumor progression, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. SDG might be an attractive natural compound that protects against neuroinflammation. Yet, there are no comprehensive studies to date investigating the effects of SDG on brain endothelium using relevant in vivo and in vitro models. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of orally administered SDG on neuroinflammatory responses using in vivo imaging of the brain microvasculature during systemic inflammation and aseptic encephalitis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372342/determination-of-flutamide-and-two-major-metabolites-using-hplc-dad-and-hptlc-methods
#16
Nada S Abdelwahab, Heba A H Elshemy, Nehal F Farid
Flutamide is a potential antineoplastic drug classified as an anti-androgen. It is a therapy for men with advanced prostate cancer, administered orally after which it undergoes extensively first pass metabolism in the liver with the production of several metabolites. These metabolites are predominantly excreted in urine. One of the important metabolites in plasma is 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylamine (Flu-1), while the main metabolite in urine is 2-amino-5-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (Flu-3). In this work the two metabolites, Flu-1 and Flu-3, have been synthesized, and then structural confirmation has been carried out by HNMR analysis...
January 25, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371977/insulin-and-novel-thioglycosides-exert-suppressive-effect-on-human-breast-and-colon-carcinoma-cells
#17
Siddarth Agrawal, Marta Wozniak, Mateusz Luc, Kinga Walaszek, Ewa Pielka, Wieslaw Szeja, Gabriela Pastuch-Gawolek, Andrzej Gamian, Piotr Ziolkowski
The rationale for the implementation of novel therapies should be based on hallmarks of cancer. Two novel compounds labelled as thioglycoside A and B were designed and evaluated on breast and colon cancer cell lines. We assessed their cytotoxic effect after sensitizing cancer cells with insulin. In order to explore the underlying mechanisms, we performed tests to assess cell migration and motility, apoptosis, expression of glucose transporter 1 and proapoptotic proteins. Both compounds proved to have an antitumor effect which was significantly enhanced in combination with insulin...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370794/anti-proliferative-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-allium-autumnale-p-h-davis-amaryllidaceae-on-human-breast-cancer-cell-lines-mcf-7-and-mda-mb-231
#18
Ovgu Isbilen, Nahit Rizaner, Ender Volkan
BACKGROUND: Natural products obtained from plants can be potent sources for developing a variety of pharmaceutical products. Allium species have been widely studied for their anti-cancer effects and presented promising results as potential anti-cancer agents. Breast cancer (BCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer in women. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative, cytotoxic and anti-metastatic effects of bulb and stem extracts from Allium autumnale P...
January 25, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363783/long-noncoding-rna-neat1-modualted-mir-506-regulates-gastric-cancer-development-through-targeting-stat3
#19
Hai-Yang Tan, Changcheng Wang, Gao Liu, Xiang Zhou
Accumulating evidence has indicated that lncRNA NEAT1 exerts critical roles in cancers. So far, the detailed biological role and mechanisms of NEAT1 which are responsible for human gastric cancer (GC) is still largely unknown. Here, we observed that NEAT1 and STAT3 expression were significantly upregulated in human gastric cancer cells including BGC823, SGC-7901, AGS, MGC803 and MKN28 cells compared to normal gastric epithelial cells GES-1 while miR-506 was downregulated. We inhibited NEAT1 and observed that NEAT1 inhibition was able to repress the growth, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360435/cerebellar-oxidative-stress-and-fine-motor-impairment-in-adolescent-rats-exposed-to-hyperthermia-induced-seizures-is-prevented-by-maternal-caffeine-intake-during-gestation-and-lactation
#20
María Crespo, David Agustín León-Navarro, Mairena Martín
Febrile seizures (FS) is one of the most common convulsive disorders in infants and young children that only occurs during the first years of life in humans, when the cerebellum is still developing. Several works have shown that maternal caffeine consumption during gestation and lactation can exert protective effects on developing brain under pathological conditions. Here, we have used an animal model of FS to know whether maternal caffeine consumption during gestation and lactation exhibited protective effects on rat cerebellum...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
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