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Human exertion testing

Oliver T Burton, Alexandra Epp, Manoussa E Fanny, Samuel J Miller, Amanda J Stranks, Jessica E Teague, Rachael A Clark, Matt van de Rijn, Hans C Oettgen
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions are induced by the interaction of allergens with specific IgE antibodies bound via FcεRI to mast cells and basophils. While these specific IgE antibodies are needed to trigger such reactions, not all individuals harboring IgE exhibit symptoms of allergy. The lack of responsiveness seen in some subjects correlates with the presence of IgG antibodies of the same specificity. In cell culture studies and in vivo animal models of food allergy and anaphylaxis such IgG antibodies have been shown to exert suppression via FcγRIIb...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alison E Casey, Ankit Sinha, Rajat Singhania, Julie Livingstone, Paul Waterhouse, Pirashaanthy Tharmapalan, Jennifer Cruickshank, Mona Shehata, Erik Drysdale, Hui Fang, Hyeyeon Kim, Ruth Isserlin, Swneke Bailey, Tiago Medina, Genevieve Deblois, Yu-Jia Shiah, Dalia Barsyte-Lovejoy, Stefan Hofer, Gary Bader, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl Arrowsmith, Stefan Knapp, Daniel De Carvalho, Hal Berman, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Rama Khokha
The mammary epithelium depends on specific lineages and their stem and progenitor function to accommodate hormone-triggered physiological demands in the adult female. Perturbations of these lineages underpin breast cancer risk, yet our understanding of normal mammary cell composition is incomplete. Here, we build a multimodal resource for the adult gland through comprehensive profiling of primary cell epigenomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes. We define systems-level relationships between chromatin-DNA-RNA-protein states, identify lineage-specific DNA methylation of transcription factor binding sites, and pinpoint proteins underlying progesterone responsiveness...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
C Gebhard, F Maafi, B E Stähli, J Dang, W Nachar, A B de Oliveira Moraes, A E Kernaleguen, V Lavoie, M Mecteau, T Mihalache-Avram, Y Shi, M Chabot-Blanchet, D Busseuil, D Rhainds, E Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. Therapy based on apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins, results in AVS regression in experimental models. Nevertheless, apoA-I degradation by proteases might lead to suboptimal efficacy of such therapy. An activatable probe using a quenched fluorescently labeled full-length apoA-I protein was generated to assess apoA-I-degrading protease activity in plasma derived from 44 men and 20 women with severe AVS (age 65...
June 18, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Victor Arana-Argáez, Julio Cesar Torres-Romero, Eyra Ramírez-Villanueva, Sabino Eduardo Pérez-Medina, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Morales, Mario Alberto Juárez-Méndez, Yessica Paola Infante-Barrios, Fidel Martínez-Gutiérrez, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Mario Alberto Isiordia-Espinoza, Andrés Flores-Santos
Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of EPE was evaluated using the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the acute toxicity test in mice, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Suleyman Zora, Gorkem Aybars Balci, Muzaffer Colakoglu, Tahsin Basaran
In this study, thermal behaviours of the athletes were investigated with respect to thermal comfort and exercise intensity. The relationship between an index for analysing thermal comfort (Predicted Mean Vote: PMV) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) which shows exercise intensity and exhaustion level was evaluated. Eleven moderately trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min-1 ∙kg-1 ) had volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; Body surface area (BSA): 1...
December 19, 2017: Sports
Ya Hui Zhang, Ke Ma, Jia Ren Liu, Hai Xia Wang, Wen Xia Tian, Yue Hua Tu, Wen Guang Sun
γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3), a tocotrienol isoform belonging to the vitamin E family, has been revealed to exert inhibitory effects on proliferation, migration and invasion in human gastric cancer cells. However, its precise mechanism of action is still unclear and needs to be further tested. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is well known for its key role in promoting the migration and invasion abilities of human gastric cancer cells. In light of these data, our study aimed to validate whether the inhibitory actions of γ-T3 could be achieved by downregulation of COX-2 activity in vitro...
June 14, 2018: Oncology Reports
Wenjie Hou, Min Mao, Zongji Shen, Youguo Chen, Chi Chi
Long non-coding RNAs are generally regarded as important regulators in various human diseases. As a lncRNA, HOXD-AS1 has been found to be a tumor promoter in ovarian cancer, glioma and lung cancer. However, the specific effects of HOXD-AS1 on the chemoresistance of cervical cancer cells are still not fully explored. Firstly, the level of HOXD-AS1 was tested in non-malignant tissues and CC tissues as well as in CC cells and cisplatin-resistant CC cells. As a result, HOXD-AS1 was overexpressed in CC tissues and cisplatin-resistant CC cells...
June 13, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Thomas M M Versluys, Robert A Foley, William J Skylark
Human mate choice is influenced by limb proportions. Previous work has focused on leg-to-body ratio (LBR) as a determinant of male attractiveness and found a preference for limbs that are close to, or slightly above, the average. We investigated the influence of two other key aspects of limb morphology: arm-to-body ratio (ABR) and intra-limb ratio (IR). In three studies of heterosexual women from the USA, we tested the attractiveness of male physiques that varied in LBR, ABR and IR, using figures that ranged from -3 to +3 standard deviations from the population mean...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
David Porciani, Leah N Cardwell, Kwaku D Tawiah, Khalid K Alam, Margaret J Lange, Mark A Daniels, Donald H Burke
Large RNAs and ribonucleoprotein complexes have powerful therapeutic potential, but effective cell-targeted delivery tools are limited. Aptamers that internalize into target cells can deliver siRNAs (<15 kDa, 19-21 nt/strand). We demonstrate a modular nanostructure for cellular delivery of large, functional RNA payloads (50-80 kDa, 175-250 nt) by aptamers that recognize multiple human B cell cancer lines and transferrin receptor-expressing cells. Fluorogenic RNA reporter payloads enable accelerated testing of platform designs and rapid evaluation of assembly and internalization...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Yijun Qi, Enzheng Shi, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan Bellaire, Michael Wannemuehler, Albert Jergens, Terrence Barrett, Yue Wu, Qun Wang
Compound semiconductor nanomaterials, such as telluride nanowires, nanorods, and nanoparticles, have many unique properties for wide range of potential applications. The interaction between organoids (a biological system) and telluride nanowires is a crucial research area for human health in terms of its safety concerns. In this study, we demonstrated a case study on Bi2Te3 nanowires. Through live/dead cell viability testing, bright-light image analysis, and surface area calculations, we showed that 50 μg/mL Bi2Te3 exerts minimum influence on shrinking crypts and disrupting lumen structure, which causes unhealthy growth...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Juan Garona, Natasha T Sobol, Marina Pifano, Valeria I Segatori, Daniel E Gomez, Giselle V Ripoll, Daniel F Alonso
Purpose: Control of metastatic spread of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains as a major therapeutic challenge. [V4Q5]dDAVP is a vasopressin peptide analog with previously reported anticancer activity against carcinoma tumors. By acting as a selective agonist of AVPR2 present in endothelial and tumor cells, [V4Q5]dDAVP is able to impair tumor aggressiveness and distant spread. Our aim was to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits of [V4Q5]dDAVP on highly aggressive CRC disease using experimental models with translational relevance...
June 1, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Hiroya Mizutani, Fukumitsu Sakakibara, Masahito Komuro, Eiji Sasaki
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is characterized by involuntary leakage associated with exertion, effort, sneezing, coughing, or lifting. Duloxetine, a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with SUI in some European countries, but not in the USA. There is currently no globally approved pharmacological drug for the treatment of SUI patients. Therefore, a new pharmacological treatment option is required. TAS-303 is a novel small-molecule selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that displays significant norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitory activity toward the serotonin or dopamine transporters...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Serena Varesano, Maria Raffaella Zocchi, Alessandro Poggi
New successful anti-cancer strategies are based on the stimulation of immune reaction against tumors: however, preclinical testing of such treatments is still a challenge. To improve the screening of anti-cancer drugs, three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, including spheroids, have been validated as preclinical models. We propose the spheroid 3D system to test anti-tumor drug-induced immune responses. We show that colorectal carcinoma (CRC) spheroids, generated with the epithelial growth factor (EGF), can be co-cultured with Vδ2 T cells to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of these effector lymphocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic, Laurent O Mosnier
Protein C is a plasma serine protease zymogen whose active form, activated protein C (APC), exerts potent anticoagulant activity. In addition to its antithrombotic role as a plasma protease, pharmacologic APC is a pleiotropic protease that activates diverse homeostatic cell signaling pathways via multiple receptors on many cells. Engineering of APC by site-directed mutagenesis provided a signaling selective APC mutant with 3 Lys residues replaced by 3 Ala residues, 3K3A-APC, that lacks > 90 % anticoagulant activity but retains normal cell signaling activities...
June 4, 2018: Blood
R Preston Mason, Hazem Dawoud, Robert F Jacob, Samuel C R Sherratt, Tadeusz Malinski
The endothelium exerts many vasoprotective effects that are largely mediated by release of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction represents an early but reversible step in atherosclerosis and is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of NO. Previous studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA), and statins individually improve endothelial cell function, but their effects in combination have not been tested. Through a series of in vitro experiments, this study evaluated the effects of a combined treatment of EPA and the active metabolite of atorvastatin (ATM) on endothelial cell function under conditions of oxidative stress...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Arbace Officioso, Lucia Panzella, Fabiana Tortora, Maria Laura Alfieri, Alessandra Napolitano, Caterina Manna
Oxidative stress is one of the underlying mechanisms of the toxic effects exerted by mercury (Hg) on human health. Several antioxidant compounds, including the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT), were investigated for their protective action. Recently, we have reported that 5- S -lipoylhydroxytyrosol (Lipo-HT) has shown increased antioxidant activities compared to HT and exerted potent protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Pei-Ling Hsu, Yung-Ching Lin, Hao Ni, Fan-E Mo
Ganoderma mushrooms, used in traditional Chinese medicine to promote health and longevity, have become widely accepted as herbal supplements. Ganoderma lucidum (GL), a commonly seen ganoderma species, is commercially cultivated under controlled conditions for more consistent chemical composition. The medicinal properties of GL are attributable to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We intended to assess the effect of GL in atherosclerosis, an arterial condition associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, using a carotid-artery-ligation mouse model...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Wolfgang Jelkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sotatercept and luspatercept are recombinant soluble activin type-II receptor-IgG-Fc fusion proteins that are tested in clinical trials for the treatment of various types of anemias, including renal anemia. The mechanism of the action of the novel drugs is incompletely understood, but it seems to be based on the inactivation of soluble proteins of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) family. This review considers pros and cons of the clinical use of the drugs in reference to the current therapy with recombinant erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs)...
May 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Seulgi Bae, Taeho Oh
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the principal pathogen causing bacterial skin infections in dogs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involving the combination of light and a topical photosensitizer is used to treat human skin infections. Although the antimicrobial effects of PDT have been demonstrated using in vivo and in vitro studies in humans, its effects on dogs and their pathogens are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the in vitro efficacy of PDT over a 465-470 nm spectrum to kill S...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Mousa A Qasem, Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin, Aditya Arya, Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Soher Nagi Jayash
Background: Ceratonia siliqua pods (carob) have been nominated to control the high blood glucose of diabetics. In Yemen, however, its antihyperglycemic activity has not been yet assessed. Thus, this study evaluated the in vitro inhibitory effect of the methanolic extract of carob pods against α-amylase and α-glucosidase and the in vivo glycemic effect of such extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) were applied to evaluate the antioxidant activity of carob...
2018: PeerJ
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