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Exertion Testing

Daniel Shane Wright, Nicolle Demandt, Jeroen T Alkema, Ole Seehausen, Ton G G Groothuis, Martine E Maan
Local adaptation can be a potent force in speciation, with environmental heterogeneity leading to niche specialization and population divergence. However, local adaption often requires non-random mating in order to generate reproductive isolation. Population divergence in sensory properties can be particularly consequential in speciation, affecting both ecological adaptation and sexual communication. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two closely related African cichlid species that differ in male coloration, blue vs...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub, Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Three different soils were spiked with 12 different concentrations of inorganic mercury (Hg). Sub-chronic Hg toxicity tests were carried out with Eisenia fetida in spiked soils by exposing the worms for 28 days following standard procedures. The toxicity studies revealed that Hg exerted less lethal effect on earthworms in acidic soil with higher organic carbon (S-3 soil) where water soluble Hg recovery was very low compared to the water soluble Hg fractions in soils with less organic carbon and higher pH (S-1 and S-2 soils)...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dan Li, Nan Liu, Liang Zhao, Lei Tong, Hitoshi Kawano, Hong-Jing Yan, Hong-Peng Li
Nigrostriatal pathway injury is one of the traumatic brain injury models that usually lead to neurological dysfunction or neuron necrosis. Resveratrol-induced benefits have recently been demonstrated in several models of neuronal degeneration diseases. However, the protective properties of resveratrol against neurodegeneration have not been explored definitely. Thus, we employ the nigrostriatal pathway injury model to mimic the insults on the brain. Resveratrol decreased the p-ERK expression and increased the p-JNK expression compared to the DMSO group, but not alter the p38 MAPK proteins around the lesion site by Western blot...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Giulia Cattaneo, Daniela Ubiali, Enrica Calleri, Marco Rabuffetti, Georg C Höfner, Klaus T Wanner, Marcela C De Moraes, Leonardo K B Martinelli, Diógenes Santiago Santos, Giovanna Speranza, Gabriella Massolini
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP, EC has been identified as a target for the development of specific inhibitors with potential antimycobacterial activity. We hereby described the development and validation of a new 96-well LC-ESI-MS/MS method to assess the inhibition activity of nucleoside analogues towards MtbPNP and the human PNP (HsPNP). Enzyme activity was determined by monitoring the phosphorolysis of inosine (Ino) to hypoxanthine (Hpx). The enzymatic assay (v = 0...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yu Cheng, Srinivasa Rao Avula, Wei-Wei Gao, Dinesh Addla, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Ling Zhang, Jian-Mei Lin, Cheng-He Zhou
A series of new potentially multi-targeting antimicrobial 2-aminothiazolyl quinolones were designed, synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, MS and HRMS spectra. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds showed moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities. Noticeably, compound 10f could effectively inhibit the growth of B. typhi and MRSA with MIC values of 1 and 8 μg/mL, respectively. Experimental results revealed that compound 10f was membrane-active and had the ability to rapidly kill the tested strains and effectively prevent the development of bacterial resistance...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Izabela Jatczak-Pawlik, Michal Gorzkiewicz, Maciej Studzian, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Lukasz Pulaski, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
PURPOSE: Fourth-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers fully surface-modified by maltose (dense shell, PPI-m DS) were shown to be biocompatible in cellular models, which is important for their application in drug delivery. We decided to verify also their inherent bioactivity, including immunomodulatory activity, for potential clinical applications. We tested their effects on the THP-1 monocytic cell line model of innate immunity effectors. METHODS: To estimate the cytotoxicity of dendrimers the reasazurin assay was performed...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Arthur C Leuthold, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that six alleles from class II genes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) confer protection from Gulf War Illness (GWI) (Georgopoulos et al., 2015). The most significant effect is exerted on Neurological-Cognitive-Mood (NCM), Pain, and Fatigue symptoms, such that higher number of copies of the protective alleles are associated with lower symptom severity. Here we tested the hypothesis that this effect is exerted by modulating the strength of neural synchronicity...
October 14, 2016: EBioMedicine
Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Ivan Pires de Oliveira, Tiago Zaminelli, Débora da Silva Baldivia, Luan Ramos da Silva, Mauro Napolitano, Camila Bitencourt Mendes Silvério, Nilton Lincopan, Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña
Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model...
2016: PloS One
David F Woodward, Stacey L Wenthur, Tara L Rudebush, Shan Fan, Carol B Toris
PURPOSE: Since all prostanoid receptors affect intraocular pressure (IOP) and endogenous prostanoids are found in ocular tissues, the pressor effects of prostanoid antagonists were comprehensively evaluated. The absence of effects of most of these antagonists was not entirely anticipated. To ensure no false-negative results, ocular biodisposition studies were conducted. METHODS: Monkeys with laser-induced ocular hypertension were used to study antagonist effects on IOP...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Liina Pajusalu, Georg Martin, Tiina Paalme, Arno Põllumäe
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere are causing reduction in the global ocean pH, also known as ocean acidification. This change alters the equilibrium of different forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater that macroalgae use for their photosynthesis. In the Baltic Sea, benthic macroalgae live in a highly variable environment caused by seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. The effect of increasing water CO2 concentration on the net photosynthesis of the red macroalgae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux was tested in short-term mesocosm experiments conducted in Kõiguste Bay (N Gulf of Riga) in June-July 2012 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
Preeti Rawat, Lokesh M Saroj, Anil Kumar, Tryambak D Singh, S K Tewari, Mahesh Pal
BACKGROUND: The plant Launaea procumbens belongs to the family Asteraceae and traditionally used in the treatment rheumatism, kidney, liver dysfunctions and eye diseases. In the present study Phytochemical analysis and fractions of methanolic extract of L. procumbens leaves were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Launaea procumbens against four cancer cell lines K562, HeLa, MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and MCF-2 by SRB assay...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
M Luz Sánchez-Sánchez, Maria-Arántzazu Ruescas-Nicolau, José-Antonio Pérez-Miralles, Elena Marqués-Sulé, Gemma-Victoria Espí-López
BACKGROUND: In chronic stroke, feasible physical therapy (PT) programs are needed to promote function throughout life. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated the feasibility and effect of a PT program composed of strengthening exercises with elastic bands and bimanual functional training, with clearly defined doses based on the rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale), to counteract inactivity in chronic stroke. METHODS: Fifteen subjects > 6 month post-stroke were randomized to three-month of UE function training (UE group), or to lower extremity function training (LE group)...
October 19, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Rocío López-Posadas, Cristina Mascaraque, Raquel González, María D Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
BACKGROUND: Statins have antiinflammatory effects at the cardiovascular level because of inhibition of prenylation, which also probably underlies their therapeutic effects in preclinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Another inhibitor of prenylation, namely alendronate, reduces colitis in rodents. In this study, we aim to explore the therapeutic potential of second-generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in 3 preclinical models of colitis. METHODS: The trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and dextran sulfate sodium models of rat colitis and the adoptive lymphocyte transfer model of colitis in mice were used...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Astrid Parenti, Boris Indorato, Sara Paccosi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the in vitro activity of minocycline and doxycycline on human polymorphonuclear (h-PMN) cell function. METHODS: h-PMNs were isolated from whole venous blood of healthy subjects; PMN oxidative burst was measured by monitoring ROS-induced oxidation of luminol and transendothelial migration was studied by measuring PMN migration through a monolayer of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Differences between multiple groups were determined by ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test; Student's t test for unpaired data for two groups...
October 18, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Hsin-An Chang, Ying-Hsiu Wang, Che-Se Tung, Chin-Bin Yeh, Yia-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its specific receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase (TrkB), play important roles in treating depression. In this experiment, we examined whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a novel potent TrkB agonist, could reverse the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm in rats. METHODS: SD rats were exposed to a battery of stressors for 56 days. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (5 and 20 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally during the last 28 days of the CMS paradigm...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Rajesh Kumar Goel, Dilpreet Kaur, Priyanka Pahwa
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The present study was to assess the anxiolytic effect of nerolidol in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anxiolytic activity was examined using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), and motor coordination by rotarod test. Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups of six mice each. Group 1 received vehicle control (normal saline); Group 2 received diazepam (1 mg/kg); Groups 3, 4, and 5 received nerolidol 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Narayan Dolai, Aminul Islam, Pallab Kanti Haldar
OBJECTIVE: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Family: Rubiaceae), a folk medicine commonly known as "Kadam" in Bengali, has been used for the treatment of tumor. The methanolic extract of A. cadamba (MEAC) showing antitumor activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells treated mice was already reported. This study was designed to study the apoptosis-inducing property of MEAC and its mechanism in EAC cells in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apoptogenic morphology was determined by fluorescent DNA-binding double staining method using dyes acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Pedro M D Agrícola, Daniel G da Silva Machado, Luiz F de Farias Junior, Luiz I do Nascimento Neto, André I Fonteles, Samara K A da Silva, Cheng H N Chao, Eduardo B Fontes, Hassan M Elsangedy, Alexandre H Okano
Pleasure plays a key role in exercise behavior. However, the influence of cycling cadence needs to be elucidated. Here, we verified the effects of cycling cadence on affect, perceived exertion (ratings of perceived exertion), and physiological responses. In three sessions, 15 men performed a maximal cycling incremental test followed by two 30-min constant workload (50% of peak power) bouts at 60 and 100 r/min. The pleasure was higher when participants cycled at 60 r/min, whereas ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate, and oxygen uptake were lower (p < ...
October 17, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
T Hertz, M G Logan, M Rolland, C A Magaret, C Rademeyer, A Fiore-Gartland, P T Edlefsen, A DeCamp, H Ahmed, N Ngandu, B B Larsen, N Frahm, J Marais, R Thebus, D Geraghty, J Hural, L Corey, J Kublin, G Gray, M J McElrath, J I Mullins, P B Gilbert, C Williamson
INTRODUCTION: The Merck Adenovirus-5 Gag/Pol/Nef HIV-1 subtype-B vaccine evaluated in predominately subtype B epidemic regions (Step Study), while not preventing infection, exerted vaccine-induced immune pressure on HIV-1 breakthrough infections. Here we investigated if the same vaccine exerted immune pressure when tested in the Phambili Phase 2b study in a subtype C epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sieve analysis, which compares breakthrough viruses from placebo and vaccine arms, was performed on 277 near full-length genomes generated from 23 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients...
October 15, 2016: Vaccine
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