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Dario Graceffa, Claudio Bonifati, Viviana Lora, Pier Luigi Saraceni, Catia De Felice, Maria Sole Chimenti, Roberto Perricone, Aldo Morrone
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory involvement of the enthesis in the course of psoriasis is accompanied by structural abnormalities detectable by ultrasound. The most common of these abnormalities is the thickening of the tendon at the insertion site. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to compare the thickness of entheses of patients with psoriatic arthritis, only skin psoriasis, and healthy controls. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of patients affected with either only skin psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis as well as in a control group...
March 16, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Ryota Tamura, Ryosuke Tomio, Farrag Mohammad, Masahiro Toda, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE The anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) was established in 1984 and has been particularly effective for petroclival tumors. Although some complications associated with this approach, such as venous hemorrhage in the temporal lobe and nervous disturbances, have been resolved over the years, the incidence rate of CSF leaks has not greatly improved. In this study, some varieties of air cell tracts that are strongly related to CSF leaks are demonstrated. In addition, other pre- and postoperative risk factors for CSF leakage after ATPA are discussed...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
E Verheij, L Elden, T B Crowley, F A Pameijer, E H Zackai, D M McDonald-McGinn, H G X M Thomeer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized by a heterogenic phenotype, including hearing loss. The underlying cause of hearing loss, especially sensorineural hearing loss, is not yet clear. Therefore, our objective was to describe anatomic malformations in the middle and inner ear in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case series was conducted in 2 tertiary referral centers. All patients with 22q11...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Marc A Bjurlin, Baris Turkbey, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Sonia Gaur, Peter L Choyke, Samir S Taneja
Imaging is critically important for the diagnosis, staging, and management of men with high-risk prostate cancer. Conventional imaging modalities, including computed tomography and radionuclide bone scan have been employed for local and metastatic staging, but their performance has generally been poor. Sodium fluoride positron emission tomography is recommended when there is high suspicion for bone metastases despite a negative or indeterminate bone scan. Magnetic resonance imaging has advantages in local staging but its value depends on the extent of disease...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Franz X Bauer, Veronika Heinrich, Florian D Grill, Felix Wölfle, Dennis M Hedderich, Andrea Rau, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Lucas M Ritschl, Denys J Loeffelbein
Nasoalveolar Molding (NAM) is associated with ambivalent acceptance regarding effectiveness and unknown long-term results. Our purpose was to analyze the stress distribution patterns within the viscero- and neurocranium of neonates during the first phase of NAM therapy. A finite element (FE) model of a healthy four-week-old neonate was generated, derived from a computed tomography scan allowing the implementation of a bone-density-dependent material model. The influence of dental germs with variable material properties, the cleft width and area of expected force application were analyzed in a worst-case scenario...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Daniel B Rodrigues, Paulo S F Campos, Larry M Wolford, Jaqueline Ignácio, João R Gonçalves
PURPOSE: Maxillary segmentation involving interdental osteotomies can have an adverse effect on the interdental crestal bone and adjacent teeth. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of interdental osteotomies on surrounding osseous and dental structures, including adjacent teeth, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), in patients who underwent segmental maxillary osteotomies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study evaluated interdental osteotomy (IDO) sites between the lateral incisors and canines in patients treated with 3-piece Le Fort I osteotomies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Rolf Quam, Nohemi Sala, Morgane Bardey, James C Ohman, Antoine Balzeau
The La Ferrassie 1 (LF1) skeleton, discovered over a century ago, is one of the most important Neandertal individuals both for its completeness and due to the role it has played historically in the interpretation of Neandertal anatomy and lifeways. Here we present new skeletal remains from this individual, which include a complete right middle ear ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes), three vertebral fragments, and two costal remains. Additionally, the study of the skeleton has allowed us to identify new pathological lesions, including a congenital variant in the atlas, a greenstick fracture of the left clavicle, and a lesion in a mid-thoracic rib of unknown etiology...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Ali Deniz Dalgic, Ammar Zeidan Alshemary, Ayşen Tezcaner, Dilek Keskin, Zafer Evis
In this study, novel graphene oxide-incorporated silicate-doped nano-hydroxyapatite composites were prepared and their potential use for bone tissue engineering was investigated by developing an electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold. Nanocomposite groups were synthesized to have two different ratios of graphene oxide (2 and 4 wt%) to evaluate the effect of graphene oxide incorporation and groups with different silicate-doped nano-hydroxyapatite content was prepared to investigate optimum concentrations of both silicate-doped nano-hydroxyapatite and graphene oxide...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Ludmila S Almeida, Maidane C Araújo, Denise E Zantut-Wittmann, Lígia V Assumpção, Thiago F Souza, Cleide M Silva, Juliana L Argenton, Allan O Santos, Jair Mengatti, Celso D Ramos, Elba C Etchebehere
BACKGROUND: Radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinomas (RAIRs) are characterized by reduced expression of sodium-iodine symporter, rising serum thyroglobulin levels, and negative whole-body radioiodine scans. Interestingly, RAIRs continue to express somatostatin receptors and can be identified with Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare lesion detectability in Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT performed with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (eTSH) levels with suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH) levels...
March 14, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Hidetoshi Hamada, Masaki Takao, Takashi Sakai, Nobuhiko Sugano
PURPOSE: For successful joint preservation in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), it is important to understand the mechanism of collapse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the initiation of subchondral fracture in ONFH by using micro-CT imaging of the whole femoral head, focusing on the three-dimensional relationship between the subchondral fracture and the bone resorption area. METHODS: A total of 40 femoral heads from 37 patients retrieved during total hip arthroplasty for stage 3A or 3B ONFH by Japanese Investigation Committee criteria were scanned using micro-CT with a 0...
March 14, 2018: International Orthopaedics
D Burkard, T Beckett, E Kourtjian, C Messingschlager, R Sipahi, M Padley, J Stubbart
Teriparatide is an anabolic therapy used to treat patients with osteoporosis and is only approved for 2 years of treatment. This is the first study to look at two common osteoporosis drugs in maintaining its beneficial effects: denosumab and zoledronic acid. Denosumab treatment was associated with the greatest increase in bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, an amount that was statistically greater than no treatment and zoledronic acid treatment. INTRODUCTION: Teriparatide, a hallmark treatment for osteoporosis, has been shown to increase BMD and bone turnover...
March 14, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Glen M Blake, Tanuj Puri, Musib Siddique, Michelle L Frost, Amelia E B Moore, Ignac Fogelman
Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with fluorine-18 labelled sodium fluoride ([18 F]NaF) allows the quantitative assessment of regional bone formation by measuring the plasma clearance of fluoride to bone at any site in the skeleton. Today, hybrid PET and computed tomography (CT) dual-modality systems (PET/CT) are widely available, and [18 F]NaF PET/CT offers a convenient non-invasive method of studying bone formation at the important osteoporotic fracture sites at the hip and spine, as well as sites of pure cortical or trabecular bone...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Yan Wu, Yaojun Jiang, Xueli Han, Mingyue Wang, Jianbo Gao
Background: To investigate the repeatability and accuracy of quantitative CT (QCT) measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by low-mAs using iterative model reconstruction (IMR) technique based on phantom model. Methods: European spine phantom (ESP) was selected and measured on the Philips Brilliance iCT Elite FHD machine for 10 times. Data were transmitted to the QCT PRO workstation to measure BMD (mg/cm3 ) of the ESP (L1, L2, L3). Scanning method: the voltage of X-ray tube is 120 kV, the electric current of X-ray tube output in five respective groups A-E were: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mAs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Valerio Nardone, Paolo Tini, Stefania Croci, Salvatore Francesco Carbone, Lucio Sebaste, Tommaso Carfagno, Giuseppe Battaglia, Pierpaolo Pastina, Giovanni Rubino, Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Luigi Pirtoli
Background: The aim of our work is to assess the potential role of texture analysis (TA), applied to computed tomography (CT) simulation scans, in relation to the development of insufficiency fractures (IFs) in patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for pelvic malignancies. Methods: We analyzed patients undergoing pelvic RT from Jan-2010 to Dec-2016, 31 of whom had developed IFs of the pelvis. We analyzed CT simulation scans using LifeX Software© , and in particular we selected three regions of interest (ROI): L5 body, the sacrum and both the femoral heads...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Galateia J Kazakia, Julio Carballido-Gamio, Andrew Lai, Lorenzo Nardo, Luca Facchetti, Courtney Pasco, Chiyuan A Zhang, Misung Han, Amanda Hutton Parrott, Phyllis Tien, Roland Krug
Background: There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Dylan K Wainwright, Sam Ingersoll, George V Lauder
Tunas of the genus Thunnus possess many morphological and physiological adaptations for their high-performance epipelagic ecology. Although Thunnus anatomy has been studied, there are no quantitative studies on the structure of their scales. We investigated the scales of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) from ten regions of the body using micro computed tomography (µCT)-scanning and histology to quantitatively and qualitatively compare regional scale morphology. We found a diversity of scale sizes and shapes across the body of bigeye tuna and discriminant function analysis on variables derived from µCT-data showed that scales across the body differ quantitatively in shape and size...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Chih-Chien Wang, Chih-Hsin Wang, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Juin-Hong Cherng, Shu-Jen Chang, Yi-Wen Wang, Adrienne Chang, Jue-Zong Yeh, Yi-Huei Huang, Cheng-Che Liu
Repair and regeneration of craniofacial tissues is particularly challenging because they comprise a complex structure of hard and soft tissues involved in intricate functions. This study combined collagen scaffolds and human adipose stem cells (hASCs) for oral mucosal and calvarial bone regeneration by using resveratrol (RSV), which affects the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We have evaluated the effect of collagen scaffold-containing RSV (collagen/RSV) scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo for their wound healing and bone regeneration potential...
March 13, 2018: International Wound Journal
Volker Vieth, Ronald Schulz, Walter Heindel, Heidi Pfeiffer, Boris Buerke, Andreas Schmeling, Christian Ottow
PURPOSE: To explore the possibility of determining majority via a morphology-based examination of the epiphyseal-diaphyseal fusion by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional study developing and applying a new stage classification was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 344 male and 350 female volunteers of German nationality between the ages of 12-24 years were scanned between May 2013 and June 2015. A 3.0 T MRI scanner was used, acquiring a T1-weighted (T1-w) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE) and a T2-weighted (T2-w) TSE sequence with fat suppression by spectral pre-saturation with inversion recovery (SPIR)...
March 13, 2018: European Radiology
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