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Radiation dose measurements

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430990/three-dimensional-dose-prediction-and-validation-with-the-radiobiological-gamma-index-based-on-a-relative-seriality-model-for-head-and-neck-imrt
#1
Noriaki Hamatani, Iori Sumida, Yutaka Takahashi, Michio Oda, Yuji Seo, Fumiaki Isohashi, Keisuke Tamari, Kazuhiko Ogawa
This study proposes a quality assurance (QA) method incorporating radiobiological factors based on the QUANTEC-determined tumor control probability and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (HN-IMRT). Per-beam measurements were conducted for 20 cases using a 2D detector array. Three-dimensional predicted dose distributions within targets and organs at risk were reconstructed based on the per-beam QA results derived from differences between planned and measured doses...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430589/ier5-as-a-promising-predictive-marker-promotes-irradiation-induced-apoptosis-in-cervical-cancer-tissues-from-patients-undergoing-chemoradiotherapy
#2
Yang Liu, Ming Tian, Hui Zhao, Yue He, Fengshuang Li, Xiunan Li, Xinping Yu, Kuke Ding, Pingkun Zhou, Yumei Wu
PURPOSE: To define the role of immediate-early 5 (IER5) gene as a promising biomarker in predicting the radiosensitivity and prognosis of cervical cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (DDP-CCRT). RESULTS: Our investigations found that IER5 level was markedly elevated in cervical cancer patients after being treated with irradiation, which indicated IER5 was closely dose induced. By contrast, the correlation between IER5 and radiosensitivity cannot be confirmed by the present study...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429827/a-descriptive-and-broadly-applicable-model-of-therapeutic-and-stray-absorbed-dose-from-6-mv-to-25-mv-photon-beams
#3
Christopher W Schneider, Wayne D Newhauser, Lydia J Wilson, Uwe Schneider, Robert Kaderka, Saveta Miljanić, Željka Knežević, Liliana Stolarcyzk, Marco Durante, Roger M Harrison
PURPOSE: To develop a simple model of therapeutic and stray absorbed dose for a variety of treatment machines and techniques without relying on proprietary machine-specific parameters. METHODS: Dosimetry measurements conducted in this study and from the literature were used to develop an analytical model of absorbed dose from a variety of treatment machines and techniques in the 6 MV to 25 MV interval. A modified one-dimensional gamma-index analysis was performed to evaluate dosimetric accuracy of the model on an independent dataset consisting of measured dose profiles from seven treatment units spanning four manufacturers...
April 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429391/technical-note-direct-measurement-of-continuous-tmr-data-with-a-1d-tank-and-automated-couch-movements
#4
Nels C Knutson, Matthew C Schmidt, Matthew D Belley, Ngoc Nguyen, H Harold Li, Erno Sajo, Michael Price
PURPOSE: Real-time dynamic control of the linear accelerator, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery was investigated as a novel technique for acquiring tissue maximum ratio (TMR) data. METHODS: TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was used to control the linear accelerator using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A single XML file was used to dynamically manipulate the machine, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery...
April 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429191/melanogenesis-inhibition-in-mice-using-a-low-fluence-1064-nm-q-switched-neodymium-doped-yttrium-aluminum-garnet-laser-a-pilot-study
#5
Jae-Hui Nam, Joon Hong Min, Wang-Kyun Kim, Sunmin Yim, Won-Serk Kim
A low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, or laser toning, has yielded favorable outcomes in various benign pigmented disorders. However, the exact mechanism of action of laser toning has not been fully elucidated. We sought to determine the inhibitory effect of laser toning on melanogenesis and to assess how laser passes influence the outcomes. To produce perceptible pigmentation, nine HRM-2 melanin-possessing hairless mice were treated with ultraviolet (UV) B radiation on the dorsal skin...
April 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428474/evaluation-of-absorbed-dose-for-cbct-in-image-guided-radiation-therapy-comparison-of-each-devices-and-facilities
#6
Yumiko Kitazato, Noriyuki Kuga, Katsutoshi Shirieda, Masahiro Enzaki, Yuji Nakaguchi, Yoshinobu Shimohigashi, Toshihisa Kawasaki, Masahiko Toyoda, Daisuke Kawahara, Fujio Araki, Shinji Kawamura
Recently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used worldwide, highly accurate verification of the location using image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become critical. However, the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to ascertain the location each time raises concerns about its influence on radiotherapy dosage and increased radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose using nine kilovoltage (kV) devices and two megavoltage (MV) devices (total 11 devices) at eight facilities, compare the absorbed dose among the devices, and assess the characteristics of the respective devices to ensure optimal clinical operation...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427834/doped-silica-fibre-thermoluminescence-measurements-of-radiation-dose-in-the-use-of-223-ra
#7
Bradley, S F Abdul Sani, A S Siti Shafiqah, S M Collins, R P Hugtenburg, H A Abdul Rashid, Nurul Najua Zulkepely, M J Maah
Using tailor-made sub-mm dimension doped-silica fibres, thermoluminescent dosimetric studies have been performed for α-emitting sources of (223)RaCl2 (the basis of the Bayer Healthcare product Xofigo®). The use of (223)RaCl2 in the palliative treatment of bone metastases resulting from late-stage castration-resistant prostate cancer focuses on its favourable uptake in metabolically active bone metastases. Such treatment benefits from the high linear energy transfer (LET) and associated short path length (<100µm) of the α-particles emitted by (223)Ra and its decay progeny...
April 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427800/the-effect-of-optune%C3%A2-tumor-treating-fields-transducer-arrays-on-skin-radiation-dose-during-radiotherapy
#8
Edward Bender, Kevin Kozak, Steven Howard, Lori Hayes, John Bayouth, H Ian Robins
A Phase 3 clinical study demonstrated that the addition of 200kHz Tumor Treating Fields (TTF) to temozolomide in the post-radiation (RT) phase of therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma increases progression free and overall survival (resulting in FDA and European Union approval). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of TTF to act as a radiosensitizer, suggesting concurrent TTF and RT may have clinical utility. The removal and replacement of TTF transducer arrays from the scalps of patients on a daily basis, i...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427782/prospective-study-of-a-non-restrictive-decision-rule-for-acute-aortic-syndrome
#9
Judah Goldschmiedt, Jeffrey M Levsky, Eran Y Bellin, Esther Mizrachi, David Esses, Linda B Haramati
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of a non-restrictive clinical decision rule on CT utilization for Emergency Department patients suspected of having an acute aortic syndrome (AAS). METHODS: We prospectively assessed the performance of a previously described, collaboratively designed, non-restrictive clinical decision rule for AAS. Emergency Department patients with suspected AAS were stratified into low and high-risk groups based on decision rule results, from July 2013-August 2014...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425920/development-of-a-fast-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-system-for-online-adaptive-radiation-therapy-quality-assurance
#10
Yuhe Wang, Thomas Mazur, Justin Park, Deshan Yang, Sasa Mutic, H Harold Li
Online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) based on real-time magnetic resonance imaging represents a paradigm-changing treatment scheme. However, conventional quality assurance (QA) methods based on phantom measurements are not feasible with the patient on the treatment couch. The purpose of this work is to develop a fast Monte Carlo system for validating online re-optimized tri-60Co IMRT adaptive plans with both high accuracy and speed. The Monte Carlo system is based on Dose Planning Method (DPM) code with further simplification of electron transport and consideration of external magnetic fields...
April 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422397/a-novel-radiation-protection-device-based-on-tungsten-functional-paper-for-application-in-interventional-radiology
#11
Hajime Monzen, Mikoto Tamura, Kohei Shimomura, Yuichi Onishi, Shinichi Nakayama, Takahiro Fujimoto, Kenji Matsumoto, Kohei Hanaoka, Takeshi Kamomae
Tungsten functional paper (TFP), which contains 80% tungsten by weight, has radiation-shielding properties. We investigated the use of TFP for the protection of operators during interventional or therapeutic angiography. The air kerma rate of scattered radiation from a simulated patient was measured, with and without TFP, using a water-equivalent phantom and fixed C-arm fluoroscopy. Measurements were taken at the level of the operator's eye, chest, waist, and knee, with a variable number of TFP sheets used for shielding...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420863/changes-of-systemic-immune-response-after-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-sabr-first-results-of-a-prospective-study-in-early-lung-cancer-patients
#12
Jacek Rutkowski, Tomasz Ślebioda, Zbigniew Kmieć, Renata Zaucha
INTRODUCTION    Among all lung tumors non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common. Conventional conservative treatment in medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC has a poor outcome. To improve treatment efficacy stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has been developed to enable the delivery of high-dose radiation to the tumor.  OBJECTIVES    This prospective study was conducted to confirm the hypothesis that a sudden death of cancer cells after SABR may lead to systemic immune response changes...
April 18, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418935/aluminum-vacuum-multilayer-configuration-for-spatial-high-energy-electron-shielding-via-electron-return-effects-induced-by-magnetic-field
#13
Tuo Chen, Xiaobin Tang, Feida Chen, Minxuan Ni, Hai Huang, Yun Zhang, Da Chen
Radiation shielding of high-energy electrons is critical for successful space missions. However, conventional passive shielding systems exhibit several limitations, such as heavy configuration, poor shielding ability, and strong secondary bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, an aluminum/vacuum multilayer structure was proposed based on the electron return effects induced by magnetic field. The shielding property of several configurations was evaluated by using the Monte Carlo method. Results showed that multilayer systems presented improved shielding ability to electrons, and less secondary x-ray transmissions than those of conventional systems...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417855/optimization-of-pediatric-pet-ct
#14
REVIEW
Marguerite T Parisi, Mohammed S Bermo, Adam M Alessio, Susan E Sharp, Michael J Gelfand, Barry L Shulkin
PET/CT, the most common form of hybrid imaging, has transformed oncologic imaging and is increasingly being used for nononcologic applications as well. Performing PET/CT in children poses unique challenges. Not only are children more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults but, following radiation exposure, children have a longer postexposure life expectancy in which to exhibit adverse radiation effects. Both the PET and CT components of the study contribute to the total patient radiation dose, which is one of the most important risks of the study in this population...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417170/reduced-dose-ct-with-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-compared-to-standard-dose-ct-of-the-chest-abdomen-and-pelvis-in-oncology-patients-intra-individual-comparison-study-on-image-quality-and-lesion-conspicuity
#15
Linda Nayeli Morimoto, Aya Kamaya, Isabelle Boulay-Coletta, Dominik Fleischmann, Lior Molvin, Lu Tian, George Fisher, Jia Wang, Jürgen K Willmann
PURPOSE: To compare image quality and lesion conspicuity of reduced dose (RD) CT with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared to standard dose (SD) CT in patients undergoing oncological follow-up imaging. METHODS: Forty-four cancer patients who had a staging SD CT within 12 months were prospectively included to undergo a weight-based RD CT with MBIR. Radiation dose was recorded and tissue attenuation and image noise of four tissue types were measured...
April 17, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416492/intravitreal-triamcinolone-acetate-for-radiation-maculopathy-recalcitrant-to-high-dose-intravitreal-bevacizumab
#16
Richard I Kaplan, Sonal S Chaugule, Paul T Finger
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the effect of adjuvant intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (ITA) for radiation maculopathy (RM) recalcitrant to high-dose bevacizumab in patients with choroidal melanoma after plaque radiotherapy. METHODS: Eight eyes of eight patients with RM secondary to plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma, recalcitrant to high-dose bevacizumab (3.0 mg) were retrospectively evaluated. Intravitreal injections of ITA (4 mg/0.1 mL) were performed at 4-week to 16-week intervals as an adjunct to continued bevacizumab therapy...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412775/defining-value-in-radiation-oncology-approaches-to-weighing-benefits-vs-costs
#17
REVIEW
Andre A Konski
The passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 initiated discussion regarding transitioning from a fee-for-service arrangement of care reimbursement to value-based care. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been used in the past to quantify value as it relates to the provision of healthcare. New treatments or techniques being compared with other new or existing therapies or approaches to care were determined to be cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/life-year or quality-adjusted life-year...
April 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412761/preoperative-assessment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-split-bolus-combined-phase-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#18
Jian Jiang, Ke Wang, Yufeng Xu, Jianxin Liu, Jingjing Luo, Xin Tao, Xiaoying Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a split-bolus combined phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography protocol in evaluation of liver vasculature in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients for the purpose of surgery guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two groups of patients were recruited for the study: 24 consecutive cases of HCC who underwent multiphasic CT examination, and 22 consecutive cases who afterwards underwent split-bolus combined phase CT examination. The multiphasic protocol included an unenhanced scan and 3 image acquisitions after contrast injection...
April 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412010/assessment-of-impact-of-urbanisation-on-background-radiation-exposure-and-human-health-risk-estimation-in-kuala-lumpur-malaysia
#19
M S M Sanusi, A T Ramli, W M S W Hassan, M H Lee, A Izham, M N Said, H Wagiran, A Heryanshah
Kuala Lumpur has been undergoing rapid urbanisation process, mainly in infrastructure development. The opening of new township and residential in former tin mining areas, particularly in the heavy mineral- or tin-bearing alluvial soil in Kuala Lumpur, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Construction practices, i.e. reclamation and dredging in these areas are potential to enhance the radioactivity levels of soil and subsequently, increase the existing background gamma radiation levels. This situation is worsened with the utilisation of tin tailings as construction materials apart from unavoidable soil pollutions due to naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction materials, e...
April 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410690/eye-lens-dose-correlations-with-personal-dose-equivalent-and-patient-exposure-in-paediatric-interventional-cardiology-performed-with-a-fluoroscopic-biplane-system
#20
L Alejo, C Koren, E Corredoira, F Sánchez, J Bayón, A Serrada, E Guibelalde
PURPOSE: To analyse the correlations between the eye lens dose estimates performed with dosimeters placed next to the eyes of paediatric interventional cardiologists working with a biplane system, the personal dose equivalent measured on the thorax and the patient dose. METHODS: The eye lens dose was estimated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a monthly basis, placing optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) on goggles. The Hp(0.07) personal dose equivalent was measured over aprons with whole-body OSLDs...
April 2017: Physica Medica: PM
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