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journal of applied physiology

Paul J Gruenewald, Meme Wang-Schweig, Christina Mair
OBJECTIVE: Many different measures of alcohol use are applied in survey-based epidemiological studies of alcohol-related risks. Differences in the selection of drinking measures and alternative specifications of quantitative relationships of these measures to problem outcomes limit researchers' abilities to compare and assess alcohol effects across studies. We used a quantitative definition of drinking patterns to identify relationships among drinking measures and uncover sources of bias in assessments of drinking risks...
September 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
June 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
Charles M Tipton
Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Dirk J Varelmann, J Daniel Muehlschlegel
Large multicenter, randomized controlled trials published in reputable journals had a large impact on the world of cardiothoracic anesthesia in 2015. We as cardiac anesthesiologists pride ourselves as being experts in applied physiology, physics, ultrasonography, and pharmacology/pharmacotherapy. The selected studies added to our knowledge in the fields of echocardiography, pharmacology, molecular biology, and genetics. Outcome studies shine a light on important topics that are relevant to all cardiac anesthesiologists: does surgical atrial fibrillation ablation during mitral valve surgery reduce the recurrence of atrial fibrillation at 1 year after surgery? Does remote ischemic preconditioning live up to its promise to reduce postoperative major cardiac and cerebral events? Although we still do not have the answer to all the questions, the year 2015 has been a great step toward the goal of understanding molecular mechanisms of ischemic myocardial injury and toward providing evidence-based medicine for improving patient outcome...
March 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Gopal Pawar, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Eugenia Villaverde de Sáa, Stuart Harrad
Despite extensive literature on their potential adverse health effects, there is a lack of information on human dermal exposure to organic flame retardant chemicals (FRs). This study applies an in vitro physiologically based extraction test to provide new insights into the dermal bioaccessibility of various FRs from indoor dust to synthetic sweat/sebum mixture (SSSM). The bioaccessible fractions of α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to 1:1 (sweat/sebum) mixture were 41%, 47%, 50% and 40%, respectively...
January 6, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Carlo Pellicciari
Especially in recent years, biomedical research has taken advantage of the progress in several disciplines, among which microscopy and histochemistry. To assess the influence of histochemistry in the biomedical field, the articles published during the period 2011-2015 have been selected from different databases and grouped by subject categories: as expected, biological and biomedical studies where histochemistry has been used as a major experimental approach include a wide of basic and applied researches on both humans and other animal or plant organisms...
2015: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Annemarie L Lee, Angela T Burge, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND: People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production, features that may be associated with progressive decline in clinical and functional status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Primary: to determine effects of ACTs on rates of acute exacerbation, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
K Hidalgo, K Mouline, W Mamai, N Foucreau, K R Dabiré, A Bouchereau, F Simard, D Renault
In dry savannahs of West-Africa, the malarial mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto complex annually survive the harsh desiccating conditions of the dry season. However, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying how these mosquitoes survive such desiccating conditions are still undefined, and controversial. In this context, we provide the first work examining both proteomic and metabolomic changes in the two molecular forms of A. gambiae s.s (M and S forms) experimentally exposed to the rainy and dry season conditions as they experience in the field...
December 2015: Data in Brief
Ramón Escuriet, Joanna White, Katrien Beeckman, Lucy Frith, Fatima Leon-Larios, Christine Loytved, Ans Luyben, Marlene Sinclair, Edwin van Teijlingen
BACKGROUND: This paper critically reviews published tools and indicators currently used to measure maternity care performance within Europe, focusing particularly on whether and how current approaches enable systematic appraisal of processes of minimal (or non-) intervention in support of physiological or "normal birth". The work formed part of COST Actions IS0907: "Childbirth Cultures, Concerns, and Consequences: Creating a dynamic EU framework for optimal maternity care" (2011-2014) and IS1405: Building Intrapartum Research Through Health - an interdisciplinary whole system approach to understanding and contextualising physiological labour and birth (BIRTH) (2014-)...
2015: BMC Health Services Research
Denise Harrison, Janet Yamada, Thomasin Adams-Webber, Arne Ohlsson, Joseph Beyene, Bonnie Stevens
BACKGROUND: Extensive evidence exists showing analgesic effects of sweet solutions for newborns and infants. It is less certain if the same analgesic effects exist for children one year to 16 years of age. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011 (Harrison 2011) titled Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of sweet tasting solutions or substances for reducing needle-related procedural pain in children beyond one year of age...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Changshuan L Lin, Yuh-Shan Ho
OBJECTIVE: Human pluripotent stem cells are self-renewing cells with the ability to differentiate into a variety of cells and are viewed to have great potential in the field of regenerative medicine. Research in pluripotent stem cells holds great promise for patient specific therapy in various diseases. In this study, pluripotent stem cell articles published from 1991 to 2012 were screened and retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the publication trend, citation trends for top articles, distributions of journals and Web of Science categories were analyzed...
2015: Cell Journal
Victor J Thannickal, Mahadev Murthy, William E Balch, Navdeep S Chandel, Silke Meiners, Oliver Eickelberg, Moisés Selman, Annie Pardo, Eric S White, Bruce D Levy, Paula J Busse, Rubin M Tuder, Veena B Antony, Jacob I Sznajder, G R Scott Budinger
The aging of the population in the United States and throughout the developed world has increased morbidity and mortality attributable to lung disease, while the morbidity and mortality from other prevalent diseases has declined or remained stable. Recognizing the importance of aging in the development of lung disease, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) highlighted this topic as a core theme for the 2014 annual meeting. The relationship between aging and lung disease was discussed in several oral symposiums and poster sessions at the annual ATS meeting...
February 1, 2015: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jing-Ran Sun, Yun-Mei Tian
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status and papers information of Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology, and provide a guide for authors, readers and editing staffs. METHODS: We retrieved papers of Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology from 2009 to 2013 from CNKI, and performed a statistical analysis of papers information contained in the text using bibliometrics method. Papers information such as document type, found support, author affiliation type, and discipline classification, etc...
September 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Suja S Rajan, Suja Rajan, Sarah Baraniuk, Stephanie Parker, Tzu-Ching Wu, Ritvij Bowry, James C Grotta
IMPORTANCE: There are many ways a mobile stroke unit (MSU) might prove valuable for patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, such as earlier recognition, more accurate triage, improved management of blood pressure and other critical physiological variables, and eventually earlier implementation of effective therapies. The MSU may be particularly valuable for treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 hours of symptom onset, the most evidence-based effective emergency treatment for the most prevalent stroke diagnosis...
February 2015: JAMA Neurology
E Erteld, J Krohn, I T Dzhakupov, A Wehrend
AIM: To summarize the available literature on the therapy of uterine torsion in cattle and the consequences for cow and calf. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of the literature using electronic libraries (PubMed, Medline), German veterinary medical journals and obstetrical textbooks. RESULTS: The therapy includes the attempt to rotate the uterus back into its physiological position. Direct and indirect methods of retorsion are available and applied according to the case conditions...
2014: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Xiaofeng Zhou, Pan-Chyr Yang
One of the most significant achievements in biological science in the last decade is the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), a process within living cells that regulates gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Historically, this process was described by other more generic names, such as co-suppression and post transcriptional gene silencing. Only after the molecular mechanism underlying these apparently unrelated processes was fully understood did it become apparent that they all described the RNAi phenomenon...
2012: MicroRNA
Poppy L A Schoenberg, Anthony S David
Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review...
June 2014: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Paul M Candon, Judit H Ward, Robert J Pandina
This article reviews the history of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs as well as the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies. Each has its roots in the Yale Laboratory of Applied Physiology and the era shortly after the repeal of National Prohibition in the United States. The journal was founded as the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol in 1940 by Howard W. Haggard, M.D., director of the Yale Laboratory of Physiology. Alcohol, although not originally the sole focus of the laboratory, eventually became the main and then only focus...
2014: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Supplement
Gary A Cuthbert, Bilal H Kirmani, Andrew D Muir
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether dialysis-dependent patients with upper limb arterio-venous fistulae (AVFs) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting should avoid having ipsilateral in situ internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts. A literature search performed yielded 28 peer reviewed articles, of which 21 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated...
May 2014: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Peter B Raven, Mark W Chapleau
While the importance of regulating arterial blood pressure within a 'normal' range is widely appreciated, the definition of 'normal' and the means by which humans and other species regulate blood pressure under various conditions remain hotly debated. The effects of diverse physiological, pathological and environmental challenges on blood pressure and the mechanisms that attempt to maintain it at an optimal level are reviewed and critically analyzed in a series of articles published in this themed issue of the European Journal of Applied Physiology...
March 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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