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journal of applied physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317515/howard-wilcox-haggard-and-the-institutionalization-of-modern-alcohol-studies
#1
Nicholas Allred, William Bejarano, Judit Ward
OBJECTIVE: This biographical sketch and accompanying bibliography provide a new look at Howard Wilcox Haggard, M.D., Ph.D., whose career highlights the consolidation of alcohol studies as a field in twentieth-century America. METHOD: The article relies in large part on the works of Haggard assembled for the bibliography project, supplemented by published and unpublished documents and records from collections at Rutgers University. RESULTS: Haggard began his career in respiratory physiology, influenced by his work on chemical weapons for the Army during the First World War...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301750/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-assessing-macromolecular-structure-and-function-in-living-cells
#2
Conggangg Li, Jiajing Zhao, Kai Cheng, Yuwei Ge, Qiong Wu, Yansheng Ye, Guohua Xu, Zeting Zhang, Wenwen Zheng, Xu Zhang, Xin Zhou, Gary Pielak, Maili Liu
Investigating the structure, modification, interaction, and function of biomolecules in their native cellular environment leads to physiologically relevant knowledge about their mechanisms, which will benefit drug discovery and design. In recent years, nuclear and electron magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a useful tool for elucidating the structure and function of biomacromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates in living cells at atomic resolution. In this review, we summarize the progress and future of in-cell NMR as it is applied to proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates...
March 9, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268838/visualizing-patient-journals-by-combining-vital-signs-monitoring-and-natural-language-processing
#3
Adnan Vilic, John Asger Petersen, Karsten Hoppe, Helge B D Sorensen
This paper presents a data-driven approach to graphically presenting text-based patient journals while still maintaining all textual information. The system first creates a timeline representation of a patients' physiological condition during an admission, which is assessed by electronically monitoring vital signs and then combining these into Early Warning Scores (EWS). Hereafter, techniques from Natural Language Processing (NLP) are applied on the existing patient journal to extract all entries. Finally, the two methods are combined into an interactive timeline featuring the ability to see drastic changes in the patients' health, and thereby enabling staff to see where in the journal critical events have taken place...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259405/novel-approaches-to-assess-the-quality-of-fertility-data-stored-in-dairy-herd-management-software
#4
K Hermans, W Waegeman, G Opsomer, B Van Ranst, J De Koster, M Van Eetvelde, M Hostens
Scientific journals and popular press magazines are littered with articles in which the authors use data from dairy herd management software. Almost none of such papers include data cleaning and data quality assessment in their study design despite this being a very critical step during data mining. This paper presents 2 novel data cleaning methods that permit identification of animals with good and bad data quality. The first method is a deterministic or rule-based data cleaning method. Reproduction and mutation or life-changing events such as birth and death were converted to a symbolic (alphabetical letter) representation and split into triplets (3-letter code)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227035/visualizing-patient-journals-by-combining-vital-signs-monitoring-and-natural-language-processing
#5
Adnan Vilic, John Asger Petersen, Karsten Hoppe, Helge B D Sorensen, Adnan Vilic, John Asger Petersen, Karsten Hoppe, Helge B D Sorensen, John Asger Petersen, Adnan Vilic, Karsten Hoppe, Helge B D Sorensen
This paper presents a data-driven approach to graphically presenting text-based patient journals while still maintaining all textual information. The system first creates a timeline representation of a patients' physiological condition during an admission, which is assessed by electronically monitoring vital signs and then combining these into Early Warning Scores (EWS). Hereafter, techniques from Natural Language Processing (NLP) are applied on the existing patient journal to extract all entries. Finally, the two methods are combined into an interactive timeline featuring the ability to see drastic changes in the patients' health, and thereby enabling staff to see where in the journal critical events have taken place...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224100/early-infant-male-circumcision-systematic-review-risk-benefit-analysis-and-progress-in-policy
#6
Brian J Morris, Sean E Kennedy, Alex D Wodak, Adrian Mindel, David Golovsky, Leslie Schrieber, Eugenie R Lumbers, David J Handelsman, John B Ziegler
AIM: To determine whether recent evidence-based United States policies on male circumcision (MC) apply to comparable Anglophone countries, Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Articles in 2005 through 2015 were retrieved from PubMed using the keyword "circumcision" together with 36 relevant subtopics. A further PubMed search was performed for articles published in 2016. Searches of the EMBASE and Cochrane databases did not yield additional citable articles. Articles were assessed for quality and those rated 2+ and above according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Grading System were studied further...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188199/back-to-the-future-revisiting-the-physiological-cost-of-negative-work-as-a-team-based-activity-for-exercise-physiology-students
#7
Matthew A Kilgas, Steven J Elmer
We implemented a team-based activity in our exercise physiology teaching laboratory that was inspired from Abbott et al.'s classic 1952 Journal of Physiology paper titled "The physiological cost of negative work." Abbott et al. connected two bicycles via one chain. One person cycled forward (muscle shortening contractions, positive work) while the other resisted the reverse moving pedals (muscle lengthening contractions, negative work), and the cost of work was compared. This study was the first to link human whole body energetics with isolated muscle force-velocity characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904147/penile-constitutive-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-rats-exposed-to-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-role-of-inflammation
#8
T D Şahin, Y Yazır, T Utkan, S S Göçmez, D Bayramgürler
Chronic psychological stress cause erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering recent evidence that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels are increased in serum of patients with ED, the present study investigated the effects of infliximab (a TNF-α blocker) on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunoreactivity of rat penile corpus cavernosum in unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Male adult rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=8 per group): Control, UCMS and UCMS+infliximab...
March 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885692/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether-and-tertiary-butyl-alcohol-in-rats-contribution-of-binding-to-%C3%AE-2u-globulin-in-male-rats-and-high-exposure-nonlinear-kinetics-to-toxicity-and-cancer-outcomes
#9
Susan J Borghoff, Caroline Ring, Marcy I Banton, Teresa L Leavens
In cancer bioassays, inhalation, but not drinking water exposure to ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), caused liver tumors in male rats, while tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), an ETBE metabolite, caused kidney tumors in male rats following exposure via drinking water. To understand the contribution of ETBE and TBA kinetics under varying exposure scenarios to these tumor responses, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed based on a previously published model for methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a structurally similar chemical, and verified against the literature and study report data...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885153/karl-otto-landsteiner-1868-1943-physician-biochemist-immunologist
#10
Armond S Goldman, Frank C Schmalsteig
Karl Landsteiner applied the sciences of biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, and immunology in medical research to great success during the first half of the 20th century. Although he is principally known for elucidating the major blood group antigens A and B and their isoantibodies for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Landsteiner made many other important medical discoveries. In that respect, he ascertained that paralytic poliomyelitis was due to a virus, the pancreas was damaged in cystic fibrosis, simple chemicals called haptens were able to combine with antibodies, and the Rh antigen that was later found to be the principal cause of hemolytic anemia of the newborn was found in most humans...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860520/social-life-in-arid-environments-the-case-study-of-cataglyphis-ants
#11
Raphaël Boulay, Serge Aron, Xim Cerdá, Claudie Doums, Paul Graham, Abraham Hefetz, Thibaud Monnin
Unlike most desert-dwelling animals, Cataglyphis ants do not attempt to escape the heat; rather, they apply their impressive heat tolerance to avoid competitors and predators. This thermally defined niche has promoted a range of adaptations both at the individual and colony levels. We have also recently discovered that within the genus Cataglyphis there are incredibly diverse social systems, modes of reproduction, and dispersal, prompting the tantalizing question of whether social diversity may also be a consequence of the harsh environment within which we find these charismatic ants...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832032/accuracy-and-efficiency-of-recording-pediatric-early-warning-scores-using-an-electronic-physiological-surveillance-system-compared-with-traditional-paper-based-documentation
#12
Gerri Sefton, Steven Lane, Roger Killen, Stuart Black, Max Lyon, Pearl Ampah, Cathryn Sproule, Dominic Loren-Gosling, Caitlin Richards, Jean Spinty, Colette Holloway, Coral Davies, April Wilson, Chung Shen Chean, Bernie Carter, E D Carrol
Pediatric Early Warning Scores are advocated to assist health professionals to identify early signs of serious illness or deterioration in hospitalized children. Scores are derived from the weighting applied to recorded vital signs and clinical observations reflecting deviation from a predetermined "norm." Higher aggregate scores trigger an escalation in care aimed at preventing critical deterioration. Process errors made while recording these data, including plotting or calculation errors, have the potential to impede the reliability of the score...
November 9, 2016: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588539/sources-of-misspecification-bias-in-assessments-of-risks-related-to-alcohol-use
#13
Paul J Gruenewald, Meme Wang-Schweig, Christina Mair
OBJECTIVE: Many different measures of alcohol use are applied in survey-based epidemiological studies of alcohol-related risks. Differences in the selection of drinking measures and alternative specifications of quantitative relationships of these measures to problem outcomes limit researchers' abilities to compare and assess alcohol effects across studies. We used a quantitative definition of drinking patterns to identify relationships among drinking measures and uncover sources of bias in assessments of drinking risks...
September 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334280/factors-that-influence-the-performance-of-elite-sprint-cross-country-skiers
#14
REVIEW
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
February 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125848/the-emergence-of-applied-physiology-within-the-discipline-of-physiology
#15
Charles M Tipton
Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783263/noteworthy-articles-in-2015-for-the-cardiothoracic-anesthesiologist
#16
REVIEW
Dirk J Varelmann, J Daniel Muehlschlegel
Large multicenter, randomized controlled trials published in reputable journals had a large impact on the world of cardiothoracic anesthesia in 2015. We as cardiac anesthesiologists pride ourselves as being experts in applied physiology, physics, ultrasonography, and pharmacology/pharmacotherapy. The selected studies added to our knowledge in the fields of echocardiography, pharmacology, molecular biology, and genetics. Outcome studies shine a light on important topics that are relevant to all cardiac anesthesiologists: does surgical atrial fibrillation ablation during mitral valve surgery reduce the recurrence of atrial fibrillation at 1 year after surgery? Does remote ischemic preconditioning live up to its promise to reduce postoperative major cardiac and cerebral events? Although we still do not have the answer to all the questions, the year 2015 has been a great step toward the goal of understanding molecular mechanisms of ischemic myocardial injury and toward providing evidence-based medicine for improving patient outcome...
March 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26732374/dermal-bioaccessibility-of-flame-retardants-from-indoor-dust-and-the-influence-of-topically-applied-cosmetics
#17
Gopal Pawar, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Eugenia Villaverde de Sáa, Stuart Harrad
Despite extensive literature on their potential adverse health effects, there is a lack of information on human dermal exposure to organic flame retardant chemicals (FRs). This study applies an in vitro physiologically based extraction test to provide new insights into the dermal bioaccessibility of various FRs from indoor dust to synthetic sweat/sebum mixture (SSSM). The bioaccessible fractions of α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to 1:1 (sweat/sebum) mixture were 41%, 47%, 50% and 40%, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708189/histochemistry-in-biology-and-medicine-a-message-from-the-citing-journals
#18
REVIEW
Carlo Pellicciari
Especially in recent years, biomedical research has taken advantage of the progress in several disciplines, among which microscopy and histochemistry. To assess the influence of histochemistry in the biomedical field, the articles published during the period 2011-2015 have been selected from different databases and grouped by subject categories: as expected, biological and biomedical studies where histochemistry has been used as a major experimental approach include a wide of basic and applied researches on both humans and other animal or plant organisms...
2015: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26591003/airway-clearance-techniques-for-bronchiectasis
#19
REVIEW
Annemarie L Lee, Angela T Burge, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND: People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production, features that may be associated with progressive decline in clinical and functional status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Primary: to determine effects of ACTs on rates of acute exacerbation, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis...
November 23, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543889/combining-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-and-metabolomic-data-in-support-of-dry-season-survival-in-the-two-main-species-of-the-malarial-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#20
K Hidalgo, K Mouline, W Mamai, N Foucreau, K R Dabiré, A Bouchereau, F Simard, D Renault
In dry savannahs of West-Africa, the malarial mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto complex annually survive the harsh desiccating conditions of the dry season. However, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying how these mosquitoes survive such desiccating conditions are still undefined, and controversial. In this context, we provide the first work examining both proteomic and metabolomic changes in the two molecular forms of A. gambiae s.s (M and S forms) experimentally exposed to the rainy and dry season conditions as they experience in the field...
December 2015: Data in Brief
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