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The immune response in atherosclerosis: a double edged sword

Morana Jaganjac, Ana Cipak, Rudolf Joerg Schaur, Neven Zarkovic
Neutrophil granulocyte leukocytes (neutrophils) play fundamental role in the innate immune response. In the presence of adequate stimuli, neutrophils release excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may induce cell and tissue injury. Oxidative burst of neutrophils acts as a double-edged sword. It may contribute to the pathology of atherosclerosis and brain injury but is also necessary in resolving infections. Moreover, neutrophil-derived ROS may also have both a tumor promoting and tumor suppressing role...
January 1, 2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Nicolas Vuilleumier, Fabrizio Montecucco, Oliver Hartley
Immune-driven inflammation plays an important part in atherogenesis and is therefore believed to be key to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is currently the leading cause of death in the Western world. By fulfilling some of the Koch postulates, atherogenesis has even been proposed to be considered as an autoimmune disease, raising the hope that CVD could be prevented by immunomodulation. Nevertheless, the role of the immune system and autoimmune reactions in atherosclerosis appear to be a double edged-sword, with both pro-atherogenic and anti-atherogenic attributes...
May 26, 2014: World Journal of Cardiology
Izabela Pągowska-Klimek, Maciej Cedzyński
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease...
2014: BioMed Research International
Göran K Hansson, Peter Libby
Immune responses participate in every phase of atherosclerosis. There is increasing evidence that both adaptive and innate immunity tightly regulate atherogenesis. Although improved treatment of hyperlipidaemia reduces the risk for cardiac and cerebral complications of atherosclerosis, these remain among the most prevalent of diseases and will probably become the most common cause of death globally within 15 years. This Review focuses on the role of immune mechanisms in the formation and activation of atherosclerotic plaques, and also includes a discussion of the use of inflammatory markers for predicting cardiovascular events...
July 2006: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Ebru Karpuzoglu, S Ansar Ahmed
Nitric oxide plays a central role in the physiology and pathology of diverse tissues including the immune system. It is clear that the levels of nitric oxide must be carefully regulated to maintain homeostasis. Appropriate levels of nitric oxide derived from iNOS assist in mounting an effective defense against invading microbes. Conversely, inability to generate nitric oxide results in serious, even fatal, susceptibility to infections. Further, dysregulation or overproduction of nitric oxide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders, including atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory autoimmune diseases, and cancer...
November 2006: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jacob George, Sigal Ben Shmuel, Arie Roth, Itzhak Herz, Sabina Izraelov, Varda Deutsch, Gad Keren, Hylton Miller
BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndromes exhibit evidence of peripheral T lymphocyte activation, elevated acute phase proteins and enhanced oxidative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized as one of the relaxant factors synthesized and released by normal endothelium, and acts as a double-edged sword on the immune system. L-arginine ameliorates experimental atherosclerosis and restenosis as well as endothelial dysfunction. We sought to investigate the effect of L-arginine administration on the extent of lymphocyte activation and anti-oxLDL antibodies in patients with unstable angina undergoing PCI with stent placement...
June 2004: Atherosclerosis
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