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"Cognitive training"

Mariachiara Buonocore, Margherita Bechi, Paola Uberti, Marco Spangaro, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Marta Bosia, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reserve (CR), defined as individual differences in the ability to cope with brain damage, seem to be associated to the several psychopathological features in psychiatric patients, such as the functional outcome. This study aims to identify different profiles of CR by combining intelligence quotient (IQ) and premorbid functioning, two measures independently associated to CR in previous works, as well as to explore CR effect on both Theory of Mind (ToM) baseline performance and improvement after socio-cognitive trainings...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre
Normal and pathological ageing are associated with several motor impairments that reduce quality of life and represent a general challenge for public healthcare systems. Consequently, over the past decades, many scientists and physiotherapists dedicated their research to the development and improvement of safe and costless methods to counteract the progressive decline of motor functions with age. The urgency of finding new and easy to implement methods is even more paramount in case of acute pathologies (e...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Katina Swan, Marie Hopper, Rachel Wenke, Claire Jackson, Tracy Till, Erin Conway
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the evidence for direct and indirect interventions for communication in people with moderate-severe dementia. Method: A systematic search of the literature was conducted, as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysed guidelines, across 8 electronic databases. Studies were included if they included direct or indirect interventions, which could be administered by a speech-language pathologist to people with moderate-severe dementia (defined as having Mini-Mental State Examination of ≤ 15; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975)...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Susanne M Jaeggi, Julia Karbach, Tilo Strobach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Cognitive Enhancement
Bernadette A Fausto, Adrian N S Badana, Olivia M Valdes, Ponrathi Athilingam, Jerri D Edwards
Cognitive dysfunction is a predictor of driving cessation in older adults and a common sequela of heart failure (HF). Although HF has been associated with an increased risk of driving cessation, the independent relationship between HF and driving cessation after cognitive function is considered remains to be established. The objective of these analyses is to examine HF as an independent predictor of driving cessation across three years among a cohort of older drivers in the United States. Analyses included 850 older adults who completed sensory, cognitive, and physical measures at baseline and mobility and health measures at a three-year follow-up...
December 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Tina D Kristensen, Rene C W Mandl, Jens R M Jepsen, Egill Rostrup, Louise B Glenthøj, Merete Nordentoft, Birte Y Glenthøj, Bjørn H Ebdrup
OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD: A systematic review of non-psychiatric and psychiatric studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We included longitudinal, controlled studies in human participants aged 18-60 years published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2017...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Inbal Maidan, Freek Nieuwhof, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Bastiaan R Bloem, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Anat Mirelman
BACKGROUND: In a randomized control trial conducted in patients with Parkinson's disease, a treadmill training program combined with virtual reality that targeted motor and cognitive aspects of safe ambulation led to fewer falls, compared with treadmill training alone. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the 2 types of training differentially affected prefrontal activation and if this might explain differences in fall rates after the intervention. METHODS: Sixty-four patients with Parkinson's disease were randomized into the treadmill training arm (n = 34, mean age 73...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Reinout W Wiers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Alison Ward, Kim Alberg Sorensen, Helle Kousgaard, Diana Schack Thoft, Jacqueline Parkes
The provision of lifelong learning for older people is often promoted as a way of engaging socially and maintaining cognitive function. The concept is also used with people with dementia, but is often limited to short-term programmes. Innovative practice from Denmark takes this concept further, offering people with early stage dementia the opportunity to return to school to attend classes in cognitive training, music, art and woodcraft. A pilot study conducted by the school of teaching and communication (Voksenskolen For Undervisning og Kommunikation) offers evidence for the benefits of prolonged educational programmes for people with dementia in maintaining decision-making, cognitive function and social interactions, with limited evidence of the impact on memory...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Nuria Mendoza Laiz, Sagrario Del Valle Díaz, Natalia Rioja Collado, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Roberto Hornero
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that is constantly evolving in older people. Its diverse symptoms appear with varying degrees of severity affecting the daily life of those who suffer from it. The rate in which dementia progresses depends on different aspects of the treatment, chosen to try to control and slow down the development of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive training through a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and the NeuronUp platform in two age groups whose MMSE is between 18-23 MCI (mild dementia)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Synthia Guimond, Shezal Padani, Olivia Lutz, Shaun Eack, Heidi Thermenos, Matcheri Keshavan
Schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit deficits in emotion regulation that affect their daily functioning. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in emotion regulation. However, it remains unclear how this brain region is involved in emotion regulation deficits in SZ, and how such deficits impact performance on cognitively demanding tasks. We examined how happy and fearful emotional distractors impact performance on working memory (WM) tasks of varying difficulty (0-back, 2-back), and brain activity using fMRI...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jesús Cespón, Carlo Miniussi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari
A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease)...
March 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Measuring treatment efficacy in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relies primarily on behaviors, with limited evidence as to the neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral gains. This pilot study addresses this void by investigating neural and behavioral changes in a Phase I trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD who received an evidence-based behavioral intervention, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training over 5 weeks for a total of 10 hr. The participants were tested pre- and post-training with a validated biological/social versus scrambled/nonsocial motion neuroimaging task, previously shown to activate regions within the social brain networks...
March 8, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Annelies Wassenaar, Paul Rood, Danielle Boelen, Lisette Schoonhoven, Peter Pickkers, Mark van den Boogaard
BACKGROUND: Delirium occurs frequently in the intensive care unit and is associated with detrimental consequences. Cognitive training is a promising, nonpharmacologic, preventive intervention, but it is unknown whether cognitive training is feasible for patients in intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility for both nurses and patients of using cognitive training exercises for intensive care unit patients. METHODS: A pilot study of a set of cognitive training exercises in a large, academic intensive care unit...
March 2018: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
Bonfiglio Tommaso, Vergassola Matteo, Guendalina Olivero, Anna Pittaluga
BACKGROUND: Aging is an unavoidable, physiological process that reduces the complexity and the plasticity of the synaptic contacts in central nervous system (CNS), having profound implications for human wellbeing. The term "cognitive reserve" refers to central cellular adaptations that augment the resilience of human brain to damage and aging. The term "Cognitive training" indicates the cultural, social and physical stimulations proposed as add-on therapy for the cure of central neurological diseases...
February 28, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Ann-Marie Glasø de Lange, Anne Cecilie Sjøli Bråthen, Darius A Rohani, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Cognitive training has been suggested as a possible remediation of decline in brain structure with older age. However, it is unknown whether training effects are transient or enduring, as no studies have examined training-induced plasticity relative to decline in older adults across extended periods with multiple intervention phases. We investigated the temporal dynamics of brain plasticity across periods on and off memory training, hypothesizing that (1) a decline in white matter (WM) microstructure would be observed across the duration of the study and (2) that periods of memory training would moderate the WM microstructural decline...
February 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Franciele Cascaes da Silva, Rodrigo da Rosa Iop, Laiana Cândido de Oliveira, Alice Mathea Boll, José Gustavo Souza de Alvarenga, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho, Lídia Mara Aguiar Bezerra de Melo, André Junqueira Xavier, Rudney da Silva
BACKGROUND: Given the relative importance of cognitive impairment, there was considerable interest in identifying the cognitive profile of PD patients, in order to ensure specific and appropriate therapeutic interventions. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of physical exercise programs on cognitive function in PD patients, compared with the control group. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Cochrane, Scopus, PEDro and Web of Science (last searched in September 2016)...
2018: PloS One
Sarah C McEwen, Prabha Siddarth, Berna Abedelsater, Yena Kim, Wenli Mui, Pauline Wu, Natacha D Emerson, Jacob Lee, Shayna Greenberg, Tiffany Shelton, Scott Kaiser, Gary W Small, David A Merrill
BACKGROUND: Several modifiable lifestyle factors have been shown to have potential beneficial effects in slowing cognitive decline. Two such factors that may affect cognitive performance and slow the progression of memory loss into dementia in older adults are cognitive training and physical activity. There are currently no effective treatments for dementia; therefore, preventative strategies to delay or prevent the onset of dementia are of critical importance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of simultaneous performance of memory training and aerobic exercise to a sequential performance intervention on memory functioning in older adults...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Claudia Kim Nyberg, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Darius A Rohani, Donatas Sederevicius, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Background Computerized cognitive training is suggested to enhance attention and working memory functioning following stroke, but effects on brain and behavior are not sufficiently studied and longitudinal studies assessing brain and behavior relationships are scarce. Objective The study objectives were to investigate relations between neuropsychological performance post-stroke and white matter microstructure measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), including changes after 6 weeks of working memory training...
February 25, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
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