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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899737/cognitive-training-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-theoretical-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Courtney C Walton, Sharon L Naismith, Amit Lampit, Loren Mowszowski, Simon J G Lewis
Cognitive impairment is now widely accepted as a fundamental aspect of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given the prevalence of cognitive impairment and the associated impact on well-being, evidence-based interventions are needed. However, while research is continually accumulating in order to better understand the pathology and trajectory of cognitive changes, treatment options lag behind. Nonpharmacological approaches are of particular interest in this group, given the typical polypharmacy already present in PD patients...
November 28, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897677/cognitive-training-in-the-elderly-bottlenecks-and-new-avenues
#2
Nahid Zokaei, Christopher MacKellar, Giedrė Čepukaitytė, Eva Zita Patai, Anna Christina Nobre
Development of measures to preserve cognitive function or even reverse cognitive decline in the ever-growing elderly population is the focus of many research and commercial efforts. One such measure gaining in popularity is the development of computer-based interventions that "exercise" cognitive functions. Computer-based cognitive training has the potential to be specific and flexible, accommodates feedback, and is highly accessible. As in most budding fields, there are still considerable inconsistencies across methodologies and results, as well as a lack of consensus on a comprehensive assessment protocol...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888736/activity-engagement-and-physical-function-in-old-age-sample
#3
Krupa N Shah, Feng V Lin, Fang Yu, James M McMahon
OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns of engagement in mental, physical, and social activity (MA, PA, and SA) and to examine the relationship between combined activity engagement and physical function among community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional correlational study. SETTING: Multiple communities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 466 individuals aged 55 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Physical function was assessed using grip strength and gait speed...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877122/changes-in-neural-activity-underlying-working-memory-after-computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults
#4
Erich S Tusch, Brittany R Alperin, Eliza Ryan, Phillip J Holcomb, Abdul H Mohammed, Kirk R Daffner
Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ∼40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#5
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867257/learningrx-cognitive-training-effects-in-children-ages-8-14-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Dick M Carpenter, Christina Ledbetter, Amy Lawson Moore
In a randomized controlled study, we examined the effects of a one-on-one cognitive training program on memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, attention, and General Intellectual Ability (GIA) score for students ages 8-14. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group to complete 60 h of cognitive training or to a wait-list control group. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in multiple cognitive skills after completing cognitive training with ThinkRx, a LearningRx program...
September 2016: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853432/clinical-trials-to-gain-fda-approval-for-computerized-cognitive-training-what-is-the-ideal-control-condition
#7
Jeffrey N Motter, Davangere P Devanand, P Murali Doraiswamy, Joel R Sneed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847686/parkinson-disease-and-cognitive-impairment-five-new-things
#8
REVIEW
Albert A Davis, Brad Racette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the distinctive motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) have been described for centuries, cognitive impairment has only recently been recognized as a central feature. Studies have yielded clues to the etiology and natural history of cognitive impairment in PD, but much remains unclear and effective therapies are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Longitudinal cohort studies demonstrate that almost all patients with PD will develop dementia if they live long enough...
October 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847486/enhancing-executive-function-and-neural-health-in-bipolar-disorder-through-reasoning-training
#9
Erin E Venza, Sandra B Chapman, Sina Aslan, Jennifer E Zientz, David L Tyler, Jeffrey S Spence
Cognitive deficits in executive function and memory among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are well-documented; however, only recently have efforts begun to address whether such cognitive deficits can be ameliorated through cognitive training. This pilot study examined the effects of a top-down, cognitive reasoning training program in adults with BD on both brain and cognitive measures. Twenty-seven participants (11 males, 16 females), aged 21-70 years old, completed the study. Participants completed neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training, consisting of 8 h (2 h/week) of training in small groups...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847195/augmented-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-post-stroke-depressive-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Joyce A Kootker, Sascha Mc Rasquin, Frederik C Lem, Caroline M van Heugten, Luciano Fasotti, Alexander C Geurts
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety post stroke. DESIGN: Multi-center, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Six ambulatory rehabilitation settings in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who had a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - subscale Depression (HADS-D) score > 7 at least three months post stroke...
November 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845490/cognitive-disability-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-its-management
#11
M Corsi, T Di Raimo, C Di Lorenzo, M Rapp-Ricciardi, T Archer, S Ricci, R Businaro
Cognitive disability linked to neurodegenerative diseases and in particular to Alzheimer's disease, remains an increasing cause for concern through a dramatic prevalence increment and associated socio-economic burdens. Initially Alzheimer's disease develops asymptomatically with primary clinical signs, such as memory impairment, decline of spatial and perceptual abilities, occurring at a later stage. This delay implies the possibility of promoting early interventions during the pre-symptomatic stage of the disease...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844294/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-the-structure-of-intelligence
#12
John Protzko
Targeted cognitive training, such as n-back or speed of processing training, in the hopes of raising intelligence is of great theoretical and practical importance. The most important theoretical contribution, however, is not about the malleability of intelligence. Instead, I argue the most important and novel theoretical contribution is understanding the causal structure of intelligence. The structure of intelligence, most often taken as a hierarchical factor structure, necessarily prohibits transfer from subfactors back up to intelligence...
November 14, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842463/do-cognitive-training-strategies-improve-motor-and-positive-psychological-skills-development-in-soccer-players-insights-from-a-systematic-review
#13
Maamer Slimani, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, David Tod, Alexandre Dellal, Olivier Hue, Foued Cheour, Lee Taylor, Karim Chamari
Soccer players are required to have well-developed physical, technical and cognitive abilities. The present systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, examined the effects of cognitive training strategies on motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer performance and identified the potential moderators of the "cognitive training-soccer performance" relationship. Thirteen databases were systematically searched using keywords related to psychological or cognitive training in soccer players...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833579/the-erp-effects-of-combined-cognitive-training-on-intention-based-and-stimulus-based-actions-in-older-chinese-adults
#14
Ya-Nan Niu, Xinyi Zhu, Juan Li, Jiang-Ning Fu
: Age-related decreases in action are caused by neuromuscular weakness and cognitive decline. Although physical interventions have been reported to have beneficial effects on cognitive function in older adults, whether cognitive training improves action-related function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of combined cognitive training on intention-based and stimulus-based actions in older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). A total of 26 healthy older adults (16 in the training group and 10 in the control group) participated in the study...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833541/cognitive-training-for-post-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Harry Hallock, Daniel Collins, Amit Lampit, Kiran Deol, Jennifer Fleming, Michael Valenzuela
Objective: To quantitatively aggregate effects of cognitive training (CT) on cognitive and functional outcome measures in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) more than 12-months post-injury. Design: We systematically searched six databases for non-randomized and randomized controlled trials of CT in TBI patients at least 12-months post-injury reporting cognitive and/or functional outcomes. Main Measures: Efficacy was measured as standardized mean difference (Hedges' g) of post-training change. We investigated heterogeneity across studies using subgroup analyses and meta-regressions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827541/can-mindfulness-based-interventions-influence-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adults-a-review-and-considerations-for-future-research
#16
Lotte Berk, Martin van Boxtel, Jim van Os
OBJECTIVES: An increased need exists to examine factors that protect against age-related cognitive decline. There is preliminary evidence that meditation can improve cognitive function. However, most studies are cross-sectional and examine a wide variety of meditation techniques. This review focuses on the standard eight-week mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). METHOD: We searched the PsychINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, COCHRANE, and PubMed databases to identify original studies investigating the effects of MBI on cognition in older adults...
November 9, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822047/a-pilot-study-of-cognitive-training-with-and-without-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-improve-cognition-in-older-persons-with-hiv-related-cognitive-impairment
#17
Raymond L Ownby, Amarilis Acevedo
BACKGROUND: In spite of treatment advances, HIV infection is associated with cognitive deficits. This is even more important as many persons with HIV infection age and experience age-related cognitive impairments. Both computer-based cognitive training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have shown promise as interventions to improve cognitive function. In this study, we investigate the acceptability and efficacy of cognitive training with and without tDCS in older persons with HIV...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815519/a-window-of-opportunity-for-cognitive-training-in-adolescence
#18
Lisa J Knoll, Delia Fuhrmann, Ashok L Sakhardande, Fabian Stamp, Maarten Speekenbrink, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
In the current study, we investigated windows for enhanced learning of cognitive skills during adolescence. Six hundred thirty-three participants (11-33 years old) were divided into four age groups, and each participant was randomly allocated to one of three training groups. Each training group completed up to 20 days of online training in numerosity discrimination (i.e., discriminating small from large numbers of objects), relational reasoning (i.e., detecting abstract relationships between groups of items), or face perception (i...
November 4, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808537/the-effect-of-positive-symptoms-on-social-cognition-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-is-modified-by-the-presence-of-negative-symptoms
#19
Vibeke Bliksted, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Chris Frith
Objective: There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. Method: Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were tested using the Danish version of NART (premorbid IQ), subtests from WAIS-III (current IQ), and global cognition using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrena (BACS), a neurocognitive test battery. Social perception was tested using film clips of everyday interactions (TASIT)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804270/does-body-mass-index-modify-memory-reasoning-and-speed-of-processing-training-effects-in-older-adults
#20
Daniel O Clark, Huiping Xu, Christopher M Callahan, Frederick W Unverzagt
OBJECTIVE: To describe 10-year trajectories of cognitive performance by body mass index (BMI) class and to investigate BMI differences in response to memory, reasoning, and speed of processing training in older adults. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the multisite, randomized trial Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly. There were 701 older adults with normal weight, 1,081 with overweight, and 902 with obesity (mean age 73.6) randomized to memory training, reasoning training, speed of processing training, or no-training control group...
November 2016: Obesity
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