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gulf war

Shang-Ju Li, Abraham Flaxman, Riyadh Lafta, Lindsay Galway, Tim K Takaro, Gilbert Burnham, Amy Hagopian
OBJECTIVES: We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. METHOD: To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings...
2016: PloS One
Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Arthur C Leuthold, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that six alleles from class II genes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) confer protection from Gulf War Illness (GWI) (Georgopoulos et al., 2015). The most significant effect is exerted on Neurological-Cognitive-Mood (NCM), Pain, and Fatigue symptoms, such that higher number of copies of the protective alleles are associated with lower symptom severity. Here we tested the hypothesis that this effect is exerted by modulating the strength of neural synchronicity...
October 14, 2016: EBioMedicine
Monroe P Turner, Nicholas A Hubbard, Lyndahl M Himes, Shawheen Faghihahmadabadi, Joanna L Hutchison, Ilana J Bennett, Michael A Motes, Robert W Haley, Bart Rypma
Cognitive slowing is a prevalent symptom observed in Gulf War Illness (GWI). The present study assessed the extent to which functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other task-relevant brain regions was predictive of GWI-related cognitive slowing. GWI patients (n = 54) and healthy veteran controls (n = 29) were assessed on performance of a processing speed task (the Digit Symbol Substitution Task; DSST) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). GWI patients were slower on the DSST relative to controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Linda L Chao, Linda R Abadjian, Iva L Esparza, Rosemary Reeb
Despite the fact that sleep disturbances are common in veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI), there has been a paucity of published sleep studies in this veteran population to date. Therefore, the present study examined subjective sleep quality (assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia severity (assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (assessed with the STOP questionnaire) in 98 Gulf War veterans. Veterans with GWI, defined either by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, had greater risk for obstructive sleep apnea (i...
September 2016: Military Medicine
Brian E Engdahl, Lisa M James, Ryan D Miller, Arthur C Leuthold, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) has affected many Gulf War veterans. It involves several organs, most notably the brain. Neurological-cognitive-mood-related symptoms frequently dominate and are at the root of chronic ill-health and disability in GWI. Here we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction in GWI in the absence of mental health disorders. METHODS: Eighty-six veterans completed diagnostic interviews to establish the presence of GWI and assess mental health status...
August 22, 2016: EBioMedicine
Jonah B Cohen
The Ethiopian-Jewish community in Israel is an immigrant population numbering 131 400 as of 2012. Many arrived from 1980 to 1992 by airborne operations coordinated by the Israeli government. Immigration was prompted by Israeli recognition of the community's Jewish citizenship eligibility status. This period in Israel's history saw the First Lebanon War, the First Intifada, the Gulf War and the beginning of Soviet Jewish immigration. The Ethiopian community faced difficult integration, cross-cultural misunderstandings and the development of chronic disease, due to lifestyle changes and differences in cultural beliefs...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Linda L Chao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the self-reported frequencies of hearing chemical alarms during deployment and visuospatial function in Gulf War (GW) veterans. METHODS: The relationship between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms, neurobehavioral, and volumetric brain imaging data was examined with correlational, regression, and mediation analyses. RESULTS: The self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms was inversely associated with and significantly predicted performance on a visuospatial task (ie, Block Design) over and above potentially confounding variables, including concurrent, correlated GW-related exposures...
October 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Stella M Gwini, Helen L Kelsall, Jil F Ikin, Malcolm R Sim, Alexander C McFarlane, Andrew B Forbes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare new chronic diseases onset and longitudinal changes in lifestyle risk factors between Gulf War veterans with different symptom reporting. METHODS: Data were collected from Gulf War veterans over two periods, and participants were grouped according to baseline symptom reporting. Logistic, nominal, and ordinal regressions were used for between-group comparisons. RESULTS: The veterans comprised low, moderate, and high symptom reporters...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
S Maya, T Prakash, Krishna Das Madhu, Divakar Goli
Aluminium (Al) is the most common metal and widely distributed in our environment. Al was first isolated as an element in 1827, and its use began only after 1886. Al is widely used for industrial applications and consumer products. Apart from these it is also used in cooking utensils and in pharmacological agents, including antacids and antiperspirants from which the element usually enters into the human body. Evidence for the neurotoxicity of Al is described in various studies, but still the exact mechanism of Al toxicity is not known...
July 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Stephanie Helmus, Jauchia Blythe, Peter Guevara, Michael A Washington
Waterborne infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Personal hydration packs have been used by military personnel since the Gulf War and are now a common issue item. Since military personnel tend to operate under austere conditions and may use a variety of water sources, preventing the acquisition of waterborne infections is extremely important. Further, since hydration pack water reservoir replacements may not be available during combat operations, the development of a reliable cleaning protocol for use in the field is essential...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Stella M Gwini, Andrew B Forbes, Malcolm R Sim, Helen L Kelsall
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multisymptom illness (MSI) in 1990 to 1991 Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from January 1990, June 2014 for studies on MSI prevalence in Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MSI case definition, and which included a military comparison group. RESULTS: Seven studies were identified among US, UK, and Australian Gulf War veterans; no studies were identified in Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans...
July 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jillian F Ikin, Helen L Kelsall, Dean P McKenzie, Stella M Gwini, Andrew B Forbes, Deborah C Glass, Alexander C Mc Farlane, David Clarke, Breanna Wright, Anthony Del Monaco, Malcolm R Sim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jacob B Lindheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Stephanie M Van Riper, Isaac Schwabacher, Aaron J Stegner, Dane B Cook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Gerhard J Johnson, Billie C S Slater, Linda A Leis, Thomas S Rector, Ronald R Bach
BACKGROUND: More than twenty years following the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI...
2016: PloS One
Jack Tsai, Robert A Rosenheck
There has been concern about the capacity of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system to provide care for veterans returning from war zones in the Middle East and Afghanistan. We used two nationally representative surveys of US veterans in 2001 and 2010 to examine changes in the veteran population and veterans' use of health care services after a decade of war. The population was older and more diverse in 2010 than in 2001. In both years, veterans who served in the World War II era or earlier were more likely to have been exposed to combat-related trauma than veterans of more recent service eras...
June 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Lisa M Pierce, Wendy E Kurata, Karen W Matsumoto, Margaret E Clark, Douglas M Farmer
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, multisymptom illness that affects 25% of the 700,000 US veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Central nervous system impairments are among the most common symptoms reported, including memory dysfunction and depression. After 25 years, the diagnosis remains elusive, useful treatments are lacking, and the cause is poorly understood, although exposures to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides are consistently identified to be among the strongest risk factors...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
Steven S Coughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Phillip J Albrecht, Frank L Rice
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a clinical disorder predominant in females with unknown etiology and medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), similar to other afflictions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Gulf War illness (GFI), and others. External environmental stimuli drive behavior and impact physiologic homeostasis (internal environment) via autonomic functioning. These environments directly impact the individual affective state (mind), which feeds back to regulate physiology (body)...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
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