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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890359/meta-analysis-of-depleted-uranium-levels-in-the-middle-east-region
#1
REVIEW
Larisa Bešić, Imer Muhović, Fatima Mrkulić, Lemana Spahić, Ammar Omanović, Amina Kurtovic-Kozaric
Since the first widespread use of depleted uranium in military in the 1991 Gulf War, the so-called "Gulf War Syndrome" has been a topic of ongoing debate. However, a low number of reliable scientific papers demonstrating the extent of possible contamination as well as its connection to the health status of residents and deployed veterans has been published. The authors of this study have therefore aimed to make a selection of data based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. With the goal of clarifying the extent of DU contamination after the Gulf Wars, previously published data regarding the levels of DU in the Middle East region were analyzed and presented in the form of a meta-analysis...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886003/mapping-risk-factors-for-depression-across-the-lifespan-an-umbrella-review-of-evidence-from-meta-analyses-and-mendelian-randomization-studies
#2
REVIEW
Cristiano A Köhler, Evangelos Evangelou, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Lazaros Belbasis, Beatrice Bortolato, Matias C A Melo, Camila A Coelho, Brisa S Fernandes, Mark Olfson, John P A Ioannidis, André F Carvalho
The development of depression may involve a complex interplay of environmental and genetic risk factors. PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched from inception through August 3, 2017, to identify meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies of environmental risk factors associated with depression. For each eligible meta-analysis, we estimated the summary effect size and its 95% confidence interval (CI) by random-effects modeling, the 95% prediction interval, heterogeneity with I2 , and evidence of small-study effects and excess significance bias...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846716/the-neuroinflammatory-phenotype-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-is-unrelated-to-brain-regional-levels-of-acetylcholine-as-measured-by-quantitative-hilic-uplc-ms-ms
#3
Julie V Miller, Ryan F LeBouf, Kimberly A Kelly, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Anand Ranpara, Alicia R Locker, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Many veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War (GW) returned with a chronic multisymptom illness that has been termed Gulf War Illness (GWI). Previous GWI studies have suggested that exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) in theater, such as sarin and/or pesticides, may have contributed to the symptomatology of GWI. Additionally, concomitant high physiological stress experienced during the war may have contributed to the initiation of the GWI phenotype. While inhibition of AChE leading to accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) will activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, the signature symptomatology of GWI has been shown to be associated with neuroinflammation...
May 28, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803855/behavioral-cellular-and-molecular-maladaptations-covary-with-exposure-to-pyridostigmine-bromide-in-a-rat-model-of-gulf-war-illness-pain
#4
B Y Cooper, L D Flunker, R D Johnson, T J Nutter
Many veterans of Operation Desert Storm (ODS) struggle with the chronic pain of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Exposure to insecticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) have been implicated in the etiology of this multisymptom disease. We examined the influence of 3 (DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), permethrin, chlorpyrifos) or 4 GW agents (DEET, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, pyridostigmine bromide (PB)) on the post-exposure ambulatory and resting behaviors of rats. In three independent studies, rats that were exposed to all 4 agents consistently developed both immediate and delayed ambulatory deficits that persisted at least 16 weeks after exposures had ceased...
May 24, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788089/the-relationship-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-rates-of-chronic-symptomatic-illness-in-202-gulf-war-veterans
#5
Linda L Chao
Introduction: Although not a "signature injury" of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (i.e., Gulf War, GW), some GW veterans have a history traumatic brain injury (TBI). For example, a previous study found that 12.2% of the GW veterans from the Fort Devens Cohort Study had self-reported TBIs. The present study sought to build upon this finding by examining the relationship between TBI and chronic symptomatic illness in a different sample of GW veterans. Materials and Methods: Participants were 202 GW veterans recruited from 2014 to 2018 at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center as part of a VA-funded study on the effects of predicted exposure to low levels of sarin and cyclosarin on brain structure and function...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751049/increased-butyrate-priming-in-the-gut-stalls-microbiome-associated-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-hepatic-metabolic-reprogramming-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#6
Ratanesh Kumar Seth, Diana Kimono, Firas Alhasson, Sutapa Sarkar, Muayad Albadrani, Stephen K Lasley, Ronnie Horner, Patricia Janulecewicz, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Kimberly Sullivan, Saurabh Chatterjee
Most of the associated pathologies in Gulf War Illness (GWI) have been ascribed to chemical and pharmaceutical exposures during the war. Since an increased number of veterans complain of gastrointestinal (GI), neuroinflammatory and metabolic complications as they age and there are limited options for a cure, the present study was focused to assess the role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid for attenuating GWI-associated GI and metabolic complications. Results in a GWI-mouse model of permethrin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) exposure showed that oral butyrate restored gut homeostasis and increased GPR109A receptor copies in the small intestine (SI)...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733897/effects-of-low-level-sarin-and-cyclosarin-exposure-on-hippocampal-microstructure-in-gulf-war-veterans
#7
Linda L Chao, Yu Zhang
In early March 1991, shortly after the end of the Gulf War (GW), a munitions dump was destroyed at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. We previously reported evidence of smaller hippocampal volumes in GW veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume compared to unexposed GW veterans. To investigate whether these macroscopic hippocampal volume changes are accompanied by microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, the current study acquired diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), T1-, and T2-weighted images from 170 GW veterans (mean age: 53 ± 7 years), 81 of whom had predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume according to Department of Defense (DOD) plume modeling...
May 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705845/exploring-the-diagnostic-potential-of-immune-biomarker-co-expression-in-gulf-war-illness
#8
Gordon Broderick, Mary Ann Fletcher, Michael Gallagher, Zachary Barnes, Suzanne D Vernon, Nancy G Klimas
Complex disorders like Gulf War illness (GWI) often defy diagnosis on the basis of a single biomarker and may only be distinguishable by considering the co-expression of multiple markers measured in response to a challenge. We demonstrate the practical application of such an approach using an example where blood was collected from 26 GWI, 13 healthy control subjects, and 9 unhealthy controls with chronic fatigue at three points during a graded exercise challenge. A 3-way multivariate projection model based on 12 markers of endocrine and immune function was constructed using a training set of n = 10 GWI and n = 11 healthy controls...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697846/recent-changes-in-health-insurance-coverage-for-urban-and-rural-veterans-evidence-from-the-first-year-of-the-affordable-care-act
#9
Michel Boudreaux, Deanna Barath, Lynn A Blewett
Introduction: Prior to the Affordable Care Act, as many as 1.3 million veterans lacked health insurance. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, veterans now have new pathways to coverage through Medicaid expansion in those states that chose to expand Medicaid and through private coverage options offered through the Health Insurance Marketplace. We examined the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for veterans in expansion and non-expansion states and for urban and rural veterans...
April 25, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674668/author-correction-exercise-induced-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-mirnas-in-gulf-war-illness-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-sedentary-control-subjects
#10
James N Baraniuk, Narayan Shivapurkar
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660926/abnormal-rheological-properties-of-red-blood-cells-as-a-potential-marker-of-gulf-war-illness-a-preliminary-study
#11
Michael J Falvo, Yang Chen, Jacquelyn C Klein, Duncan Ndirangu, Michael R Condon
BACKGROUND: Veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI) experience chronic symptoms that include fatigue, pain, and cognitive impairment. This symptom cluster may be the consequence of impaired tissue oxygen delivery due to red blood cell (RBC) dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine whether the microrheological behavior of RBCs is altered in GWI. METHODS: We recruited 17 cases of GWI (GWI+) and 10 age matched controls (GWI-), and examined RBC deformability and aggregation via ektacytometry along with measurement of complete blood counts...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649711/the-interaction-of-bdnf-val66met-ptsd-and-child-abuse-on-psychophysiological-reactivity-and-hpa-axis-function-in-a-sample-of-gulf-war-veterans
#12
Dmitri A Young, Thomas C Neylan, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas Metzler, Anne Richards, Jessica A Ross, Sabra S Inslicht
INTRODUCTION: While the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to various psychological disorders, limited focus has been on its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early traumas such as child abuse. Therefore, we assessed whether Val66Met was associated with fear potentiated psychophysiological response and HPA axis dysfunction and whether PTSD status or child abuse history moderated these outcomes in a sample of Veterans. METHODS: 226 and 173 participants engaged in a fear potentiated acoustic startle paradigm and a dexamethasone suppression test (DST) respectively...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619588/autoimmune-inflammatory-syndrome-induced-by-mineral-oil-a-health-problem
#13
Olga Vera-Lastra, Gabriela Medina, María Pilar Cruz-Domínguez, Gabriel Medrano Ramírez, Raymundo Benjamin Priego Blancas, Ana Lilia Peralta Amaro, Anabel Villanueva Martínez, Jesús Sepúlveda Delgado, Luis J Jara
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvant (ASIA) includes the following conditions: siliconosis, Gulf War syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, and post-vaccination phenomena. Afterward, other syndromes have been recognized, such as in ASIA by mineral oil (ASIA-MO). These conditions are triggered by adjuvants and they are the result of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. ASIA-MO is defined as the infiltration of oily type modeling substances for cosmetic purposes. It has been reported in many countries and used surreptitiously...
June 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606907/detecting-chromosome-condensation-defects-in-gulf-war-illness-patients
#14
Guo Liu, Christine J Ye, Saroj K Chowdhury, Batoul Y Abdallah, Steven D Horne, Denise Nichols, Henry H Heng
Background: Gulf War Illness (GWI) impacts 25-30% of gulf war veterans. Due to its heterogeneity in both etiology and symptoms, it has been challenging to establish the commonly accepted case definition for GWI. Equally challenging are the understanding of the general mechanism of GWI and the development of biomarkers useful for its clinical diagnosis and treatment. Objective: We have observed that chromosome condensation defects can be detected in GWI patients...
April 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600591/veteran-centred-content-in-medical-education
#15
Paula T Ross, Monica L Lypson
BACKGROUND: Veterans have unique experiences that warrant special consideration in health care. Unfortunately, training in veteran-centred care has not been a clear focus of medical education, and only a very small proportion of medical schools include military cultural competency in their curricula. METHODS: We conducted an 80-minute focus group with six US veterans. Open-ended questions were used to elicit their perceptions of the health care that they receive, and how it can be improved...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590473/disability-rating-age-at-death-and-cause-of-death-in-u-s-veterans-with-service-connected-conditions
#16
Charles Maynard, Ranak Trivedi, Karin Nelson, Stephan D Fihn
Introduction: The association between disability and cause of death in Veterans with service-connected disabilities has not been studied. The objective of this study was to compare age at death, military service and disability characteristics, including disability rating, and cause of death by year of birth. We also examined cause of death for specific service-connected conditions. Materials and methods: This study used information from the VETSNET file, which is a snapshot of selected items from the Veterans Benefits Administration corporate database...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590409/motor-unit-number-estimate-and-isometric-hand-grip-strength-in-military-veterans-with-or-without-muscular-complaints-reference-values-for-longitudinal-follow-up
#17
Mian Li, Wenguo Yao, Cynthia Sundahl
Introduction: It remains unclear if Gulf War (GW) veterans have a higher risk of developing motor neuron disorder. We intended to establish baseline neurophysiological values, including thenar motor unit number estimate (MUNE) and isometric hand grip (IHG) strength, to compare future follow-ups of deployed GW veterans with or without muscular complaints. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 19 GW veterans with self-reported weakness, cramps, or excessive muscle fatigue (Ill-19) and compared them with 18 controls without such muscular complaints (C-18)...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576410/the-effects-of-early-trauma-and-the-fkbp5-gene-on-ptsd-and-the-hpa-axis-in-a-clinical-sample-of-gulf-war-veterans
#18
Dmitri A Young, Sabra S Inslicht, Thomas J Metzler, Thomas C Neylan, Jessica A Ross
Previous research indicates that interactions between FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and child abuse are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. We examined the relationship between the T-allele of the rs1360780 FKBP5 SNP and child abuse on PTSD and the HPA axis in a clinical sample of Gulf War veterans. Genotyping was completed on 266 veterans and 174 veterans additionally participated in a low dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST). The CAPS was used to determine PTSD status and the THQ was used to determine child abuse operationalized as either childhood physical or sexual abuse...
March 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570102/evidence-for-somatic-hypersensitivity-in-veterans-with-gulf-war-illness-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#19
QiQi Zhou, Meghan L Verne, Buyi Zhang, G Nicholas Verne
INTRODUCTION: Over 25% of Persian Gulf War (PGW) veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI) (chronic health complaints of undetermined etiology) developed GI symptoms (diarrhea and abdominal pain) and somatic complaints. OBJECTIVES: Our study objective was to determine if veterans with GWI and GI symptoms exhibit heightened patterns of somatic pain perception (hypersensitivity) across nociceptive stimuli modalities. METHODS: Subjects were previously deployed GW Veterans with GWI and GI symptoms (n=53); veterans with GWI without GI symptom (n=47); and veteran controls (n=38)...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549885/epigenetic-impacts-of-stress-priming-of-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-sarin-surrogate-in-mice-a-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#20
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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