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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885632/glutamine-metabolism-in-gliomas
#1
Monika Szeliga, Jan Albrecht
By histological, morphological criteria, and malignancy, brain tumors are classified by WHO into grades I (most benign) to IV (highly malignant), and gliomas are the most frequently occurring class throughout the grades. Similar to peripheral tumors, the growth of glia-derived tumor cells largely depends on glutamine (Gln), which is vividly taken up by the cells, using mostly ASCT2 and SN1 as Gln carriers. Tumor growth-promoting effects of Gln are associated with its phosphate-activated glutaminase (GA) (specifically KGA)-mediated degradation to glutamate (Glu) and/or with its entry to the energy- and intermediate metabolite-generating pathways related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885631/the-glutamine-transporters-and-their-role-in-the-glutamate-gaba-glutamine-cycle
#2
Renata Leke, Arne Schousboe
Glutamine is a key amino acid in the CNS, playing an important role in the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle (GGC). In the GGC, glutamine is transferred from astrocytes to neurons, where it will replenish the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter pools. Different transporters participate in this neural communication, i.e., the transporters responsible for glutamine efflux from astrocytes and influx into the neurons, such as the members of the SNAT, LAT, y(+)LAT, and ASC families of transporters. The SNAT family consists of the transporter isoforms SNAT3 and SNAT5 that are related to efflux from the astrocytic compartment, and SNAT1 and SNAT2 that are associated with glutamine uptake into the neuronal compartment...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865832/establishment-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-cell-surface-domains-of-asct2-slc1a5-and-their-inhibition-of-glutamine-dependent-tumor-cell-growth
#3
Masayo Suzuki, Hiroe Toki, Akiko Furuya, Hiroshi Ando
Human alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 2 (ASCT2; SLC1A5) is a major transporter of the amino acid glutamine that is known to be overexpressed in certain malignant tumors. In this study, we generated specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against ASCT2 by establishing an ASCT2-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cell line that was used to immunize mice and rats. The MAbs KM4008, KM4012, and KM4018 against ASCT2 were isolated through a cell-based screen; these specifically bound to ASCT2-positive cells, as determined by flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801863/nutrient-transporter-expression-in-the-jejunum-in-relation-to-body-mass-index-in-patients-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#4
Brian A Irving, G Craig Wood, Peter N Bennotti, Ellappan Babu, Abhishek Deshpande, Michelle R Lent, Anthony Petrick, Jon Gabrielsen, William Strodel, Glenn S Gerhard, Christopher D Still, Vadivel Ganapathy, David D K Rolston
Nutrient tranters (NT) facilitate nutrient absorption and contribute to the regulation of circulating nutrients. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the associations between the level of obesity; mRNA abundance for NTs; and serum concentrations of amino acids, short-chain fatty acids, and glucose in patients with morbid obesity undergoing a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Proximal jejunal samples were obtained at the time of surgery from 42 patients (90% female, age = 42.6 ± 11.9 years, pre-operative body mass index (BMI) = 55...
October 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770401/non-invasive-glutamine-pet-reflects-pharmacological-inhibition-of-braf-v600e-in-vivo
#5
Michael L Schulte, Matthew R Hight, Gregory D Ayers, Qi Liu, Yu Shyr, M Kay Washington, H Charles Manning
PURPOSE: This study aimed to study whether cancer cells possess distinguishing metabolic features compared with surrounding normal cells, such as increased glutamine uptake. Given this, quantitative measures of glutamine uptake may reflect critical processes in oncology. Approximately, 10 % of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) express BRAF (V600E) , which may be actionable with selective BRAF inhibitors or in combination with inhibitors of complementary signaling axes. Non-invasive and quantitative predictive measures of response to these targeted therapies remain poorly developed in this setting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753190/gastrointestinal-methionine-shuttle-priority-handling-of-precious-goods
#6
Lucia Mastrototaro, Gerhard Sponder, Behnam Saremi, Jörg R Aschenbach
Methionine (Met) is a neutral, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid with biological functions in the initiation and prolongation step of protein synthesis, transmethylation reactions, the synthesis of cysteine and cystine, and as a component of antioxidant systems. Its key importance is reflected by the fact that it is usually absorbed from the diet with highest efficiency among all proteinogenic amino acids but may yet not optimally support metabolism and health. As such, crystalline Met supplements are partly used in man and heavily used in production of animal species (poultry, fish, shrimps, pigs and cattle) to provide improved health and performance...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672436/slc-transporters-structure-function-and-drug-discovery
#7
Claire Colas, Peter Man-Un Ung, Avner Schlessinger
The human Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are important targets for drug development. Structure-based drug discovery for SLC transporters requires the description of their structure, dynamics, and mechanism of interaction with small molecule ligands and ions. The recent determination of atomic structures of human SLC transporters and their homologs, combined with improved computational power and prediction methods have led to an increased applicability of structure-based drug design methods for human SLC members...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450723/asct2-slc1a5-is-an-egfr-associated-protein-that-can-be-co-targeted-by-cetuximab-to-sensitize-cancer-cells-to-ros-induced-apoptosis
#8
Haiquan Lu, Xinqun Li, Yang Lu, Songbo Qiu, Zhen Fan
Therapeutic targeting of ASCT2, a glutamine transporter that plays a major role in glutamine uptake in cancer cells, is challenging because ASCT2 also has a biological role in normal tissues. In this study, we report our novel finding that ASCT2 is physically associated in a molecular complex with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is often overexpressed in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Furthermore, we found that ASCT2 can be co-targeted by cetuximab, an EGFR antibody approved for treating metastatic HNSCC...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447554/expression-of-glutamine-metabolism-related-proteins-in-thyroid-cancer
#9
Hye Min Kim, Yu Kyung Lee, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the expression of glutamine metabolism-related protein in tumor and stromal compartments among the histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer. RESULTS: GLS1 and GDH expression in tumor and stromal compartments were the highest in AC than in other subtypes. Tumoral ASCT2 expression was higher in MC but lower in FC (p < 0.001). In PTC, tumoral GLS1 and tumoral GDH expression was higher in the conventional type than in the follicular variant (p = 0...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384664/genome-wide-screening-of-retroviral-envelope-genes-in-the-nine-banded-armadillo-dasypus-novemcinctus-xenarthra-reveals-an-unfixed-chimeric-endogenous-betaretrovirus-using-the-asct2-receptor
#10
Sébastien Malicorne, Cécile Vernochet, Guillaume Cornelis, Baptiste Mulot, Frédéric Delsuc, Odile Heidmann, Thierry Heidmann, Anne Dupressoir
UNLABELLED: Retroviruses enter host cells through the interaction of their envelope (Env) protein with a cell surface receptor, which triggers the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 is the common receptor of the large RD114 retrovirus interference group, whose members display frequent env recombination events. Germ line retrovirus infections have led to numerous inherited endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in vertebrate genomes, which provide useful insights into the coevolutionary history of retroviruses and their hosts...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347360/exploiting-the-co-reliance-of-tumours-upon-transport-of-amino-acids-and-lactate-gln-and-tyr-conjugates-of-mct1-inhibitors
#11
Reji N Nair, Jitendra K Mishra, Fangzheng Li, Mariola Tortosa, Chunying Yang, Joanne R Doherty, Michael Cameron, John L Cleveland, William R Roush, Thomas D Bannister
Glutamine and tyrosine-based amino acid conjugates of monocarboxylate transporter types 1 and 2 inhibitors (MCT1/2) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potency in blocking the proliferation of a human B lymphoma cell line that expresses the transporters Asct2, LAT1 and MCT1. Appropriate placement of an amino acid transporter recognition element was shown to augment anti-tumour efficacy vs. Raji cells. Amino acid conjugation also improves the pharmacodynamic properties of experimental MCT1/2 inhibitors...
May 1, 2016: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344174/inhibition-of-glucose-metabolism-prevents-glycosylation-of-the-glutamine-transporter-asct2-and-promotes-compensatory-lat1-upregulation-in-leukemia-cells
#12
Florence Polet, Ruben Martherus, Cyril Corbet, Adan Pinto, Olivier Feron
Leukemia cells are highly dependent on glucose and glutamine as bioenergetic and biosynthetic fuels. Inhibition of the metabolism of glucose but also of glutamine is thus proposed as a therapeutic modality to block leukemia cell growth. Since glucose also supports protein glycosylation, we wondered whether part of the growth inhibitory effects resulting from glycolysis inhibition could indirectly result from a defect in glycosylation of glutamine transporters. We found that ASCT2/SLC1A5, a major glutamine transporter, was indeed deglycosylated upon glucose deprivation and 2-deoxyglucose exposure in HL-60 and K-562 leukemia cells...
June 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272177/d-serine-is-a-substrate-for-neutral-amino-acid-transporters-asct1-slc1a4-and-asct2-slc1a5-and-is-transported-by-both-subtypes-in-rat-hippocampal-astrocyte-cultures
#13
Alan C Foster, Jill Farnsworth, Genevieve E Lind, Yong-Xin Li, Jia-Ying Yang, Van Dang, Mahmud Penjwini, Veena Viswanath, Ursula Staubli, Michael P Kavanaugh
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play critical roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Activation of NMDA receptors by synaptically released L-glutamate also requires occupancy of co-agonist binding sites in the tetrameric receptor by either glycine or D-serine. Although D-serine appears to be the predominant co-agonist at synaptic NMDA receptors, the transport mechanisms involved in D-serine homeostasis in brain are poorly understood. In this work we show that the SLC1 amino acid transporter family members SLC1A4 (ASCT1) and SLC1A5 (ASCT2) mediate homo- and hetero-exchange of D-serine with physiologically relevant kinetic parameters...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268090/dependence-on-glutamine-uptake-and-glutamine-addiction-characterize-myeloma-cells-a-new-attractive-target
#14
Marina Bolzoni, Martina Chiu, Fabrizio Accardi, Rosanna Vescovini, Irma Airoldi, Paola Storti, Katia Todoerti, Luca Agnelli, Gabriele Missale, Roberta Andreoli, Massimiliano G Bianchi, Manfredi Allegri, Amelia Barilli, Francesco Nicolini, Albertina Cavalli, Federica Costa, Valentina Marchica, Denise Toscani, Cristina Mancini, Eugenia Martella, Valeria Dall'Asta, Gaetano Donofrio, Franco Aversa, Ovidio Bussolati, Nicola Giuliani
The importance of glutamine (Gln) metabolism in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and its potential role as a therapeutic target are still unknown, although it has been reported that human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) are highly sensitive to Gln depletion. In this study, we found that both HMCLs and primary bone marrow (BM) CD138(+) cells produced large amounts of ammonium in the presence of Gln. MM patients have lower BM plasma Gln with higher ammonium and glutamate than patients with indolent monoclonal gammopathies...
August 4, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191653/altered-glutamine-metabolism-in-platinum-resistant-ovarian-cancer
#15
Chantelle D Hudson, Alyssa Savadelis, Anil Belur Nagaraj, Peronne Joseph, Stefanie Avril, Analisa DiFeo, Norbert Avril
Ovarian cancer is characterized by an increase in cellular energy metabolism, which is predominantly satisfied by glucose and glutamine. Targeting metabolic pathways is an attractive approach to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness and to potentially overcome drug resistance in ovarian cancer. In platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines the metabolism of both, glucose and glutamine was initially up-regulated in response to platinum treatment. In contrast, platinum-resistant cells revealed a significant dependency on the presence of glutamine, with an upregulated expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and glutaminase...
July 5, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143784/physical-and-functional-interactions-between-the-serotonin-transporter-and-the-neutral-amino-acid-transporter-asct2
#16
Pascal Seyer, Franck Vandermoere, Elisabeth Cassier, Joël Bockaert, Philippe Marin
The activity of serotonergic systems depends on the reuptake of extracellular serotonin via its plasma membrane serotonin [5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine)] transporter (SERT), a member of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent solute carrier 6 family. SERT is finely regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms including its physical interaction with intracellular proteins. The majority of previously identified SERT partners that control its functional activity are soluble proteins, which bind to its intracellular domains. SERT also interacts with transmembrane proteins, but its association with other plasma membrane transporters remains to be established...
July 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129276/deletion-of-amino-acid-transporter-asct2-slc1a5-reveals-an-essential-role-for-transporters-snat1-slc38a1-and-snat2-slc38a2-to-sustain-glutaminolysis-in-cancer-cells
#17
Angelika Bröer, Farid Rahimi, Stefan Bröer
Many cancer cells depend on glutamine as they use the glutaminolysis pathway to generate building blocks and energy for anabolic purposes. As a result, glutamine transporters are essential for cancer growth and are potential targets for cancer chemotherapy with ASCT2 (SLC1A5) being investigated most intensively. Here we show that HeLa epithelial cervical cancer cells and 143B osteosarcoma cells express a set of glutamine transporters including SNAT1 (SLC38A1), SNAT2 (SLC38A2), SNAT4 (SLC38A4), LAT1 (SLC7A5), and ASCT2 (SLC1A5)...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014692/at-least-three-transporters-likely-mediate-threonine-uptake-needed-for-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-proliferation
#18
Tara M Formisano, Lon J Van Winkle
Stem cells are at the forefront of current regenerative and biomedical research. Thus, there exists an imperative and urgent need to understand the mechanisms that drive stem cell function in order to exploit their use as a therapeutic tool. Amino acids are potent inducers of signaling cascades that drive stem cell proliferation and differentiation. With a focus on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, Threonine (Thr) is the only amino acid required in culture media for mES cell proliferation. Current research associates this need for Thr with threonine dehydrogenase (TDH), which catabolizes Thr to glycine and acetyl-CoA in mES cells...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936531/clinicopathological-significance-of-lat1-and-asct2-in-patients-with-surgically-resected-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Hiroaki Honjo, Kyoichi Kaira, Tatsuya Miyazaki, Takehiko Yokobori, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Shushi Nagamori, Tetsunari Oyama, Takayuki Asao, Hiroyuki Kuwano
BACKGROUND: Amino acid transporters are highly expressed in various human cancers. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and system alanine-serine-cysteine amino acid transporter-2 (ASCT2) play a crucial role in tumor progression and survival. However, the clinicopathological significance of these transporters in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-seven patients with surgically resected ESCC were evaluated...
March 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907388/relation-of-fto-gene-variants-to-fetal-growth-trajectories-findings-from-the-southampton-women-s-survey
#20
S J Barton, M Mosquera, J K Cleal, A S Fuller, S R Crozier, C Cooper, H M Inskip, J W Holloway, R M Lewis, K M Godfrey
INTRODUCTION: Placental function is an important determinant of fetal growth, and fetal growth influences obesity risk in childhood and adult life. Here we investigated how FTO and MC4R gene variants linked with obesity relate to patterns of fetal growth and to placental FTO expression. METHODS: Southampton Women's Survey children (n = 1990) with measurements of fetal growth from 11 to 34 weeks gestation were genotyped for common gene variants in FTO (rs9939609, rs1421085) and MC4R (rs17782313)...
February 2016: Placenta
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