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Xi Jin, Chun-Yan Feng, Zun Xiang, Yi-Peng Chen, You-Ming Li
The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is still unclear, where involvement of circRNA is considered for its active role as "miRNA sponge". Therefore, we aimed to investigate the circRNA expression pattern in NASH and further construct the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network for in-depth mechanism exploration. Briefly, NASH mice model was established by Methionine and choline deficiency (MCD) diet feeding. Liver circRNA and mRNA profile was initially screened by microarray and ensuing qRT-PCR verification was carried out...
September 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Elina Timosenko, Hemza Ghadbane, Jonathan D Silk, Dawn Shepherd, Uzi Gileadi, Lauren J Howson, Robert Laynes, Qi Zhao, Robert L Strausberg, Lars R Olsen, Stephen Taylor, Francesca M Buffa, Richard Boyd, Vincenzo Cerundolo
Tryptophan degradation is an immune escape strategy shared by many tumors. However, cancer cells' compensatory mechanisms remain unclear. We demonstrate here that a shortage of tryptophan caused by expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) resulted in ATF4-dependent upregulation of several amino acid transporters, including SLC1A5 and its truncated isoforms. which in turn enhanced tryptophan and glutamine uptake. Importantly, SLC1A5 failed to be up-regulated in resting human T cells kept under low tryptophan conditions, but was enhanced upon cognate antigen T cell receptor engagement...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Research
Shicheng Guo, Qi Zhu, Ting Jiang, Rongsheng Wang, Yi Shen, Xiao Zhu, Yan Wang, Fengmin Bai, Qin Ding, Xiaodong Zhou, Guangjie Chen, Dong Yi He
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints. Recent evidence indicated the epigenetic changes may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. METHOD: To understand the extent and nature of dysregulated DNA methylation in RA CD4T cells, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in CD4 + T cells in 12 RA patients compared to 12 matched normal healthy controls. Cytosine methylation status was quantified with Illumina methylation 450K microarray...
September 1, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
YanHong Wang, JunQiang Liu, Hui Wu, XingTang Fang, Hong Chen, ChunLei Zhang
PURPOSE: The mechanism of dietary amino acids in regulating milk protein synthesis at the translational level is not well understood. Numerous studies have shown that the amino acid signal is transferred through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway; however, the extracellular amino acid-sensing mechanism that activates mTOR complex 1 is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that the T1R1/T1R3 heterodimer functions as a direct sensor of the fed state and amino acid availability preceding the mTOR pathway and affects milk protein synthesis in mammary epithelial cells...
August 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Haiquan Lu, Xinqun Li, Yang Lu, Songbo Qiu, Zhen Fan
Therapeutic targeting of ASCT2, a glutamine transporter that plays a major role in glutamine uptake in cancer cells, is challenging because ASCT2 also has a biological role in normal tissues. In this study, we report our novel finding that ASCT2 is physically associated in a molecular complex with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is often overexpressed in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Furthermore, we found that ASCT2 can be co-targeted by cetuximab, an EGFR antibody approved for treating metastatic HNSCC...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Letters
Florence Polet, Ruben Martherus, Cyril Corbet, Adan Pinto, Olivier Feron
Leukemia cells are highly dependent on glucose and glutamine as bioenergetic and biosynthetic fuels. Inhibition of the metabolism of glucose but also of glutamine is thus proposed as a therapeutic modality to block leukemia cell growth. Since glucose also supports protein glycosylation, we wondered whether part of the growth inhibitory effects resulting from glycolysis inhibition could indirectly result from a defect in glycosylation of glutamine transporters. We found that ASCT2/SLC1A5, a major glutamine transporter, was indeed deglycosylated upon glucose deprivation and 2-deoxyglucose exposure in HL-60 and K-562 leukemia cells...
June 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Alan C Foster, Jill Farnsworth, Genevieve E Lind, Yong-Xin Li, Jia-Ying Yang, Van Dang, Mahmud Penjwini, Veena Viswanath, Ursula Staubli, Michael P Kavanaugh
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play critical roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Activation of NMDA receptors by synaptically released L-glutamate also requires occupancy of co-agonist binding sites in the tetrameric receptor by either glycine or D-serine. Although D-serine appears to be the predominant co-agonist at synaptic NMDA receptors, the transport mechanisms involved in D-serine homeostasis in brain are poorly understood. In this work we show that the SLC1 amino acid transporter family members SLC1A4 (ASCT1) and SLC1A5 (ASCT2) mediate homo- and hetero-exchange of D-serine with physiologically relevant kinetic parameters...
2016: PloS One
Verena Labenski, Julia D Suerth, Elke Barczak, Dirk Heckl, Camille Levy, Ornellie Bernadin, Emmanuelle Charpentier, David A Williams, Boris Fehse, Els Verhoeyen, Axel Schambach
Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses...
August 2016: Biomaterials
Xuanzhu Zhou, Wei Zheng, G A Nagana Gowda, Daniel Raftery, Shawn S Donkin, Brian Bequette, Dorothy Teegarden
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the US. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), is proposed to inhibit cellular processes and to prevent breast cancer. The current studies investigated the effect of 1,25(OH)2D on glutamine metabolism during cancer progression employing Harvey-ras oncogene transformed MCF10A human breast epithelial cells (MCF10A-ras). Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D significantly reduced intracellular glutamine and glutamate levels measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by 23±2% each...
October 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Angelika Bröer, Farid Rahimi, Stefan Bröer
Many cancer cells depend on glutamine as they use the glutaminolysis pathway to generate building blocks and energy for anabolic purposes. As a result, glutamine transporters are essential for cancer growth and are potential targets for cancer chemotherapy with ASCT2 (SLC1A5) being investigated most intensively. Here we show that HeLa epithelial cervical cancer cells and 143B osteosarcoma cells express a set of glutamine transporters including SNAT1 (SLC38A1), SNAT2 (SLC38A2), SNAT4 (SLC38A4), LAT1 (SLC7A5), and ASCT2 (SLC1A5)...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pallavi Sontakke, Katarzyna M Koczula, Jennifer Jaques, Albertus T J Wierenga, Annet Z Brouwers-Vos, Maurien Pruis, Ulrich L Günther, Edo Vellenga, Jan Jacob Schuringa
The Warburg effect is probably the most prominent metabolic feature of cancer cells, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms and consequences. Here, we set out to study these features in detail in a number of leukemia backgrounds. The transcriptomes of human CB CD34+ cells transduced with various oncogenes, including BCR-ABL, MLL-AF9, FLT3-ITD, NUP98-HOXA9, STAT5A and KRASG12V were analyzed in detail. Our data indicate that in particular BCR-ABL, KRASG12V and STAT5 could impose hypoxic signaling under normoxic conditions...
2016: PloS One
Bikem Soygur, Leyla Sati, Ramazan Demir
INTRODUCTION: Syncytins belong to the Human Endogenous Retrovirus family. The syncytin-1 receptor, SLC1A5, and syncytin-2 receptor, MFSD2, interact with their respective syncytin proteins to induce syncytiotrophoblast formation. However, there is no information about syncytins in gestational diabetic placenta. Therefore, we studied the expression and localization of syncytins and their receptors during normal placental development and in gestational diabetic placenta. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western-blot methods were performed with antibodies against syncytin-1, syncytin-2, SLC1A5 and MFSD2 in human first trimester placental tissues, normal term and gestational diabetic placentas...
September 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Yidong Liu, Liu Yang, Huimin An, Yuan Chang, Weijuan Zhang, Yu Zhu, Le Xu, Jiejie Xu
Solute Carrier Family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5), also named as ASCT2, a major glutamine transporter, is highly expressed in various malignancies and plays a critical role in the transformation, growth and survival of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of SLC1A5 in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). SLC1A5 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Kaplan-Meier method was conducted to compare survival curves. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied to assess the impact of prognostic factors on overall survival (OS)...
2015: Scientific Reports
Mariafrancesca Scalise, Lorena Pochini, Piero Pingitore, Kristina Hedfalk, Cesare Indiveri
The Alanine Serine Cysteine Transporter 2 (ASCT2) is involved in balancing the intracellular amino acid pool. This function is allowed by the antiport mechanism and the asymmetric specificity towards different neutral amino acids, distinctive of this transporter. In the present work, the interaction of the putative substrate Cys with the human ASCT2 has been studied using the recombinant hASCT2 over-produced in Pichia pastoris and the native ASCT2 extracted from HeLa in both proteoliposomes and intact cells...
November 30, 2015: FEBS Letters
A V Morgun, N V Kuvacheva, E D Khilazheva, T E Taranushenko, A B Salmina
Glutamine transporter protein SLC1A5 and glutamate transporter protein EAAT2 responsible for cell-cell communication and energetic coupling were studied using in vitro model of multicellular neurovascular unit consisting of astrocytes, neurons, and endotheliocytes under standard conditions and during chemical hypoxia in vitro. Hypoxic damage to the neurovascular unit cells increased the number of SLC1A5-expressing cells and reduced the number of EAAT2-expressing astrocytes. Metabolic uncoupling in the neurovascular unit cells under hypoxic conditions resulted from abnormal expression of glutamine and glutamate transporter proteins, which is indicative of impaired glutamine and glutamate transport...
September 2015: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
M van Geldermalsen, Q Wang, R Nagarajah, A D Marshall, A Thoeng, D Gao, W Ritchie, Y Feng, C G Bailey, N Deng, K Harvey, J M Beith, C I Selinger, S A O'Toole, J E J Rasko, J Holst
Alanine, serine, cysteine-preferring transporter 2 (ASCT2; SLC1A5) mediates uptake of glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid in rapidly proliferating tumour cells. Uptake of glutamine and subsequent glutaminolysis is critical for activation of the mTORC1 nutrient-sensing pathway, which regulates cell growth and protein translation in cancer cells. This is of particular interest in breast cancer, as glutamine dependence is increased in high-risk breast cancer subtypes. Pharmacological inhibitors of ASCT2-mediated transport significantly reduced glutamine uptake in human breast cancer cell lines, leading to the suppression of mTORC1 signalling, cell growth and cell cycle progression...
June 16, 2016: Oncogene
Claire Colas, Christof Grewer, Nicholas James Otte, Armanda Gameiro, Thomas Albers, Kurnvir Singh, Helen Shere, Massimiliano Bonomi, Jeff Holst, Avner Schlessinger
The Alanine-Serine-Cysteine transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5) is a membrane protein that transports neutral amino acids into cells in exchange for outward movement of intracellular amino acids. ASCT2 is highly expressed in peripheral tissues such as the lung and intestines where it contributes to the homeostasis of intracellular concentrations of neutral amino acids. ASCT2 also plays an important role in the development of a variety of cancers such as melanoma by transporting amino acid nutrients such as glutamine into the proliferating tumors...
October 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Erica L Sanchez, Patrick A Carroll, Angel B Thalhofer, Michael Lagunoff
Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS). KSHV establishes a predominantly latent infection in the main KS tumor cell type, the spindle cell, which is of endothelial cell origin. KSHV requires the induction of multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis, for the survival of latently infected endothelial cells. Here we demonstrate that latent KSHV infection leads to increased levels of intracellular glutamine and enhanced glutamine uptake...
July 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Sebastian Frese, Matthias Ruebner, Frank Suhr, Thierry M Konou, Kim A Tappe, Marco Toigo, Hans H Jung, Christine Henke, Ruth Steigleder, Pamela L Strissel, Hanna Huebner, Matthias W Beckmann, Piet van der Keylen, Benedikt Schoser, Thorsten Schiffer, Laura Frese, Wilhelm Bloch, Reiner Strick
Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV) envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts...
2015: PloS One
Hemant Kulkarni, Mark Z Kos, Jennifer Neary, Thomas D Dyer, Jack W Kent, Harald H H Göring, Shelley A Cole, Anthony G Comuzzie, Laura Almasy, Michael C Mahaney, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Melanie A Carless
Although DNA methylation is now recognized as an important mediator of complex diseases, the extent to which the genetic basis of such diseases is accounted for by DNA methylation is unknown. In the setting of large, extended families representing a minority, high-risk population of the USA, we aimed to characterize the role of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays, we tested for association of DNA methylation at 446 356 sites with age, sex and phenotypic traits related to T2D in 850 pedigreed Mexican-American individuals...
September 15, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
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